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SONEUK Conference on Infrastructure Development in Nepal, London, 18th Feb 2017
Evaluation and Solution of Energy
Crisis in Nepal
Ramhari Poudyal, B.Eng,M.Sc.; MIET
PhD candidate, Swansea University,UK
 The world is facing an enormous challenge to provide sufficient
quantity of clean energy for its burgeoning population.
 Energy is a fundamental asset for socio–economic development and
poverty eradication of any country.
 Over 1.2 billion people 20 % of the world population have no
access to electricity
 768 million people lack access to clean drinking water and 2.5 billion do
not have adequate sanitation
 2.8 billion people still cook with solid fuel like wood, agricultural residue,
animal dung
 1 billion people live more than 2 km from an all-weather road.
Introduction
 Nepal has been suffering from the chaotic energy crisis for
about a decade.
 A normal life of citizens is being crippled with long hours of
load shedding and never ending queues in front of the gas stations.
 About 6.6 million people of Nepal have no electricity
 However Nepal has huge potential for generating
• 43,000 MW of hydro-electricity
• 2,100 MW of solar power and
• 3,000 MW of wind power
Introduction
 Types of energy crisis :
• Oil Crisis
• Petroleum Crisis
• Energy Shortage
• Electricity Shortage
Energy Crisis - Nepal
Political
Events
Aging
Infrastructure
Attacks by
Terrorists or
Military
Infrastructure
damage from
severe
weather
Over
Consumption
Industrial
Actions
Factors of Energy Crisis
Energy overview & Electricity Consumption
78%
12%
4%
3% 3%
Energy Overview 2015
Biomass Petro -Product Coal
Grid Electric Modern Renewable
The electricity consumption in
different sectors
Electricity Consumption Per Capita (MWh /Capita) in
2014
53.9
23
15.54
12.96
9.14
5.13
3.93
0.8 0.31 0.21 0.14
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Total Energy Consumption
Per Capita KWh/Year 2013
Total Electricity of Nepal
S.No. Organisation Capacity
1 NEA 350MW
2 PPI 180MW
3 Imported from India 355MW
Total 885MW
Total Demand 1325MW
Total Supply 885MW
Total Deficit 440MW
Total loss 25.78% (228MW)
13 Billion
Time overruns Hydropower and Transmission
line projects in Nepal
Project Time Overrun
Kulekhani I 21 Months
Marsyandi 7 Months
Kali Gandaki – A 18 months
Chilime 60 months
Kulekhani III 54 months
Raughat 72 months
Upper Trisuli 38 months
Upper Tamakoshi 12 months
220 KV Khimti – Dhalkebar More than 10 Years not yet completed
400 KV Dhalkebar – Muzzaffarpur 6 months
Trisuli 3 A 26 months
Chameliya 60 months
Middle Marsyangdi 48 Months
 The main reason behind this time and cost overruns is mostly due to
NEA’s centralised and prolonged procurement processes
 ghost contractors leaving work to be executed by inexperienced and
technically and financially weak local contractors.
 low project readiness at project approval, weak project management
capacity of NEA .
 The total losses of NEA at present have reached NPR 27 billion
despite the government written off NPR 27 billion in 2011.
Resource
Value Units Rank Period Source
Hydro Power
45,000 MW WECS
Wind
Potential
7,606
Area(Km2)
Class 3 – 7 Wind
at 50 m
36 1990 NREL
Solar
Potential
466,643,167 MW h/Year 89 2008 NREL
Coal
Reserves
1.10
Million Short
Tons
77 2008 EIA
Natural Gas
Reserves
0
Cubic
Meters(Cum)
152 2010
CIA World
Fact Book
Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (BBL) 151 2010
CIA World
Fact Book
Bio Gas
reserves
About 200,000 Plants of 10 Cu m size
at excising livestock population
Cu m APEC
Fuel wood 7 metric Ton Metric Ton APEC
Potential Energy source of Nepal
National GDP
As usual reference scenario
Sector wise Energy Demand
As usual reference scenario
“To make an energy fix, We need an energy mix.”
- BP Slogan
Energy Matrix
“Sustainable Transport system a must to minimise air
pollution in Kathmandu valley” – Dr. Carlos (WHO)
 Kathmandu becoming mask town
 Air pollution killing double of what tobacco kills in
Kathmandu
 Lung cancer is the No. 1 in Nepal.
 Over 4 million people die prematurely from illness
attributable to the household air pollution from cooking
with solid fuels.”
 According to Environment Performance Index, 2016,
Nepal falls in the 149th place among 180 countries in
terms of air quality.
 The no. of deaths caused by air pollution indoor and
outdoor is 30,000 a year. This is twice as much as the no.
of deaths caused by tobacco
Sustainable Transport System
Kathmandu Valley Pollution Index(PM2.5) on 2nd Feb, 2017
 A world Bank estimate of Nepal’s infrastructure gap pegs investment
needs at between 8 – 12 % of national income
 Nepal’s medium term ambition is to become a middle – income nation by
2030, while graduating out of the least developed country (LDC) status by
2022.
Source: WDI 2012
Energy Investment of selected countries
Distributed Renewable energy in Developing Countries
Technology Typical Characteristics Installed Costs or LCOE
US$ / KW or US Cents /KWh
Biogas digester Digester size: 6 – 8 m3 Unit cost: US$ 612/Unit (Asia);
US$ 886/Unit (Africa)
Biomass gasifier Size: 20 – 5,000 KW LCOE: 8 – 12 (Global)
LCOE: 5 – 6 (China)
Solar home system System size: 20 – 100 W LCOE: 160 – 200 (Global)
LCOE: 4 (Bangladesh)
Household wind turbine Turbine size: 0.1 – 3 KW
(Off – grid, residential)
1. – 2.5 MW
(Industrial, institutional)
Capitol cost: 10,000 / KW (1
KW turbine)
5,000 / KW (5KW)
2,500 – 3,500 / KW (250 KW)
LCOE: 15 – 35+
Hydropower:
Off – grid /rural
Plant size: 0.1 – 1,000 KW
Plant / Storage type:
Run – off – river, diurnal
storage, hydrokinetic
Capital costs: 1,175 – 6,000
LCOE: 5 – 40
Village – scale mini – grid System size: 10 – 1,000 KW LCOE 25 – 100
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
 The electric utility managed to post healthy growth in revenue, thanks to uninterrupted
power supply to many parts of the country mainly due to effective demand side
management and 18 percent rise(18.28 billion NRs) in electricity tariff in July last year.
Load Profile of NEA
Electric power transmission and distribution losses
(% of output)
15.11
28.84
37.5
26.75
30.05
21.34 20.89
21.62 21.8
21.08
19.31
21.11
19.73
22.41 21.85
20.99
19.49
28.34
30.26
34.44
31.55 31.48
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013
Electric power transmission and distribution losses (% of Output) in Nepal 1971 - 2013
Comparison of Transmission line
Comparison of Transmission line
The costs of new electricity transmission infrastructure
Case Study
75 KM Route
Build (Capital) Lifetime
Report per
KM
National
Grid
Per KM
Report per
KM
National Grid
per KM
Overhead £ 1.6 m £ 1.6 m £ 4.0 m £ 4.8 m
Underground £ 16.7 m £ 18.8 m £ 18.9 m 20.8m
Cost
Difference
£ 15.1 m £ 17.2 m £ 14.9 m 16.0 m
Case Study
15 KM Route
£1.7 m £1.6 m £4.1 m £4.8 m
Underground £ 17.4 m £ 18.0 m £ 19.3 m £ 19.2 m
Cost
Difference
£ 15.7 m £ 16.4 m £ 15.2 m £ 14.4 m
(Investment Requirements 2011–2020
(total, in billions of dollars 2010)
Source: Andres et al. (2013), World Bank
Access to infrastructure Services in South
Asian Region Countries
Source: World Development Indicators 2013
Solar and Wind maps of Nepal
“our goal here is to fundamentally change the way the world uses energy.
The goal is a complete transformation of the entire energy infrastructure of the world.”
Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla & Chairman of Solar City, May 2015
Solar radiation 3.6 – 6.2 KWh/m2/day, 300 days sunny, Average sunshine day 6.8Hours/day
 Wind projects are relatively quick to install, and takes much less space than large solar arrays. If
there is road access, equipment and no political obstructions, a 100MW wind farm can be built
within six months. Our primary concern would be road access to wind sites since bigger turbines
mean cheaper cost of electricity generation.
Solar and Wind Price in $
Million/Megawatts 2010 - 2016
5.5
4.2
4.5
2.7 2.8
2
1.65
1.8 1.9 2
2.4
2.2
1.8
1.66
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Q - 3 2016
Solar
Wind
Source: Bloomberg Energy Finance
 “Bangladesh is the world’s largest market for solar home systems, and other
developing countries are seeing rapid expansion of small-scale renewable
systems, including renewables-based mini-grids, to provide electricity for people
living far from the grid.” – REN 21
 IEA estimates that to achieve that Universal electrification objective by 2030, grid
extension will be 30% and 70 % will be mini grids or off grid system.
0
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
3,000,000
3,500,000
4,000,000
Bangladesh India China Nepal Kenya
Number of Solar Home Systems in top
five Countries, End - 2014
Monthly Lifecycle costs of cooking in urban households
Source: NOC 2013, NEA 2012
Economic Cost of cooking kerosene NRS1500
Economic Cost of cooking LPG NRS1375
1 INR = 1.60 NRS
Monthly Lifecycle costs of cooking in urban households
(Based on D’sa, A. and Narsimha Murthy, K.V. 2004)
Year Kerosene LPG Electricity
1997 180 350 605
2000 270 410 680
2003 340 510 790
2012 1640 1030 940
Traditional bulb CFL LED Light
Output
Watt
s
EnergyBillsNRs/M
onth(@5hr/day)
Watts EnergyBillsNRs/
Month(@5hr/da
y)
Watts EnergyBillsN
Rs/Month(@
5hr/day)
Lumens
40 Rs 45 8-12 Rs 11 4-5 Rs 5 450
60 Rs 68 13 -
18
Rs 18 6 – 8 Rs 8 300 -
900
100 Rs 113 23-30 Rs 30 16-20 Rs 20 1600 -
1800
150 Rs 169 30-55 Rs 48 25-28 Rs 30 2600-
2800
Source:
[NEEP]
Equivalent Wattages and Light output of Traditional,
CFL and LED light
Energy Cost on product value in % for different
industrial Sectors in Nepal
 The UN Secretary – General’s initiative Sustainable Energy for all mobilizes global action to achieve
universal access to modern energy services, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency,
and double the share of renewable energy in energy in the global energy mix by 2030.
630
560
630
300
380
1020
470
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Energy efficiency in Kgoe/US$
1,000GDP (IEA,2012)
Series 1
47.6
37.91
31.91
19.83
14.41
7.54
5.344.914.794.593.242.682.261.391.21
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Energy Cost on product value in % for different industrial Sectors in Nepal
Source: Nepal Energy Efficiency Program
Sectors % for
Electrica
l
% for
Thermal
The
Electrica
l Saving
Potential
The
Thermal
Saving
Potential
Beverag
e
9.09% 19.25% 1390.804
MWh
10707.58
7 GJ
Biscuit
Sub
Sector
29.47% 15.38% 1052.435
MWh
8702.705
GJ
Dairy
Sub
Sector
6.31% 13.91% 504.602
MWh
12785.20
2GJ
Instant
Noodle
Sub
Sector
6.15% 11.38% 243.34M
Wh
26786.58
2GJ
Sugar
Sub
Sector
14.55% 20.73% 783.678
MWh
2095.16
GJ
Vegetabl
e Oil &
Ghee
Sub
Sector
5.49% 11.07% 1200.312
MWh
78084.57
3GJ
0.065$/KWh
0.035$/KWh
0.032$/KWh
0.042$/KWh
Residential Commercial Industrial Aggregate Avg.
Average Costs of Energy Efficiency
Programs by Sector(2012)
Energy Saving Potential Sectors (ESPS) conducted by NEEP
Conclusion
 Government of Nepal needs a new strategy to come out of the power
crisis along with adding new power generation.
 The major reason of current power crisis is the inefficient use of available resources.
 Development and deployment of renewable energy resources; solar, wind, micro
hydro, biomass etc.
 Optimum and Efficient use of resources and conservation of energy
 More researches on electrical power and potential renewable energy solutions must be
applied to improve of life of Nepalese people.
 NEA should take this power outage as an opportunity to brainstorm how to create
innovative policies and encourage private sector investment.
 Nepal needs significant investments into modern infrastructure to avoid the transmission
and distribution losses.
 In order to improve the industrial energy efficiency, the government can greatly influence
and develop the relevant policy including collection of appropriate data.
Evaluation and Solution of energy Crisis in Nepal

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Evaluation and Solution of energy Crisis in Nepal

  • 1. SONEUK Conference on Infrastructure Development in Nepal, London, 18th Feb 2017 Evaluation and Solution of Energy Crisis in Nepal Ramhari Poudyal, B.Eng,M.Sc.; MIET PhD candidate, Swansea University,UK
  • 2.  The world is facing an enormous challenge to provide sufficient quantity of clean energy for its burgeoning population.  Energy is a fundamental asset for socio–economic development and poverty eradication of any country.  Over 1.2 billion people 20 % of the world population have no access to electricity  768 million people lack access to clean drinking water and 2.5 billion do not have adequate sanitation  2.8 billion people still cook with solid fuel like wood, agricultural residue, animal dung  1 billion people live more than 2 km from an all-weather road. Introduction
  • 3.  Nepal has been suffering from the chaotic energy crisis for about a decade.  A normal life of citizens is being crippled with long hours of load shedding and never ending queues in front of the gas stations.  About 6.6 million people of Nepal have no electricity  However Nepal has huge potential for generating • 43,000 MW of hydro-electricity • 2,100 MW of solar power and • 3,000 MW of wind power Introduction
  • 4.  Types of energy crisis : • Oil Crisis • Petroleum Crisis • Energy Shortage • Electricity Shortage Energy Crisis - Nepal Political Events Aging Infrastructure Attacks by Terrorists or Military Infrastructure damage from severe weather Over Consumption Industrial Actions Factors of Energy Crisis
  • 5. Energy overview & Electricity Consumption 78% 12% 4% 3% 3% Energy Overview 2015 Biomass Petro -Product Coal Grid Electric Modern Renewable The electricity consumption in different sectors
  • 6. Electricity Consumption Per Capita (MWh /Capita) in 2014 53.9 23 15.54 12.96 9.14 5.13 3.93 0.8 0.31 0.21 0.14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Total Energy Consumption Per Capita KWh/Year 2013
  • 7. Total Electricity of Nepal S.No. Organisation Capacity 1 NEA 350MW 2 PPI 180MW 3 Imported from India 355MW Total 885MW Total Demand 1325MW Total Supply 885MW Total Deficit 440MW Total loss 25.78% (228MW) 13 Billion
  • 8. Time overruns Hydropower and Transmission line projects in Nepal Project Time Overrun Kulekhani I 21 Months Marsyandi 7 Months Kali Gandaki – A 18 months Chilime 60 months Kulekhani III 54 months Raughat 72 months Upper Trisuli 38 months Upper Tamakoshi 12 months 220 KV Khimti – Dhalkebar More than 10 Years not yet completed 400 KV Dhalkebar – Muzzaffarpur 6 months Trisuli 3 A 26 months Chameliya 60 months Middle Marsyangdi 48 Months
  • 9.  The main reason behind this time and cost overruns is mostly due to NEA’s centralised and prolonged procurement processes  ghost contractors leaving work to be executed by inexperienced and technically and financially weak local contractors.  low project readiness at project approval, weak project management capacity of NEA .  The total losses of NEA at present have reached NPR 27 billion despite the government written off NPR 27 billion in 2011.
  • 10. Resource Value Units Rank Period Source Hydro Power 45,000 MW WECS Wind Potential 7,606 Area(Km2) Class 3 – 7 Wind at 50 m 36 1990 NREL Solar Potential 466,643,167 MW h/Year 89 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 1.10 Million Short Tons 77 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 0 Cubic Meters(Cum) 152 2010 CIA World Fact Book Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (BBL) 151 2010 CIA World Fact Book Bio Gas reserves About 200,000 Plants of 10 Cu m size at excising livestock population Cu m APEC Fuel wood 7 metric Ton Metric Ton APEC Potential Energy source of Nepal
  • 11. National GDP As usual reference scenario Sector wise Energy Demand As usual reference scenario
  • 12.
  • 13. “To make an energy fix, We need an energy mix.” - BP Slogan Energy Matrix
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. “Sustainable Transport system a must to minimise air pollution in Kathmandu valley” – Dr. Carlos (WHO)  Kathmandu becoming mask town  Air pollution killing double of what tobacco kills in Kathmandu  Lung cancer is the No. 1 in Nepal.  Over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels.”  According to Environment Performance Index, 2016, Nepal falls in the 149th place among 180 countries in terms of air quality.  The no. of deaths caused by air pollution indoor and outdoor is 30,000 a year. This is twice as much as the no. of deaths caused by tobacco Sustainable Transport System
  • 17. Kathmandu Valley Pollution Index(PM2.5) on 2nd Feb, 2017
  • 18.  A world Bank estimate of Nepal’s infrastructure gap pegs investment needs at between 8 – 12 % of national income  Nepal’s medium term ambition is to become a middle – income nation by 2030, while graduating out of the least developed country (LDC) status by 2022. Source: WDI 2012 Energy Investment of selected countries
  • 19. Distributed Renewable energy in Developing Countries Technology Typical Characteristics Installed Costs or LCOE US$ / KW or US Cents /KWh Biogas digester Digester size: 6 – 8 m3 Unit cost: US$ 612/Unit (Asia); US$ 886/Unit (Africa) Biomass gasifier Size: 20 – 5,000 KW LCOE: 8 – 12 (Global) LCOE: 5 – 6 (China) Solar home system System size: 20 – 100 W LCOE: 160 – 200 (Global) LCOE: 4 (Bangladesh) Household wind turbine Turbine size: 0.1 – 3 KW (Off – grid, residential) 1. – 2.5 MW (Industrial, institutional) Capitol cost: 10,000 / KW (1 KW turbine) 5,000 / KW (5KW) 2,500 – 3,500 / KW (250 KW) LCOE: 15 – 35+ Hydropower: Off – grid /rural Plant size: 0.1 – 1,000 KW Plant / Storage type: Run – off – river, diurnal storage, hydrokinetic Capital costs: 1,175 – 6,000 LCOE: 5 – 40 Village – scale mini – grid System size: 10 – 1,000 KW LCOE 25 – 100
  • 20. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  The electric utility managed to post healthy growth in revenue, thanks to uninterrupted power supply to many parts of the country mainly due to effective demand side management and 18 percent rise(18.28 billion NRs) in electricity tariff in July last year. Load Profile of NEA
  • 21. Electric power transmission and distribution losses (% of output) 15.11 28.84 37.5 26.75 30.05 21.34 20.89 21.62 21.8 21.08 19.31 21.11 19.73 22.41 21.85 20.99 19.49 28.34 30.26 34.44 31.55 31.48 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 Electric power transmission and distribution losses (% of Output) in Nepal 1971 - 2013
  • 22.
  • 25. The costs of new electricity transmission infrastructure Case Study 75 KM Route Build (Capital) Lifetime Report per KM National Grid Per KM Report per KM National Grid per KM Overhead £ 1.6 m £ 1.6 m £ 4.0 m £ 4.8 m Underground £ 16.7 m £ 18.8 m £ 18.9 m 20.8m Cost Difference £ 15.1 m £ 17.2 m £ 14.9 m 16.0 m Case Study 15 KM Route £1.7 m £1.6 m £4.1 m £4.8 m Underground £ 17.4 m £ 18.0 m £ 19.3 m £ 19.2 m Cost Difference £ 15.7 m £ 16.4 m £ 15.2 m £ 14.4 m
  • 26. (Investment Requirements 2011–2020 (total, in billions of dollars 2010) Source: Andres et al. (2013), World Bank
  • 27. Access to infrastructure Services in South Asian Region Countries Source: World Development Indicators 2013
  • 28. Solar and Wind maps of Nepal “our goal here is to fundamentally change the way the world uses energy. The goal is a complete transformation of the entire energy infrastructure of the world.” Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla & Chairman of Solar City, May 2015 Solar radiation 3.6 – 6.2 KWh/m2/day, 300 days sunny, Average sunshine day 6.8Hours/day  Wind projects are relatively quick to install, and takes much less space than large solar arrays. If there is road access, equipment and no political obstructions, a 100MW wind farm can be built within six months. Our primary concern would be road access to wind sites since bigger turbines mean cheaper cost of electricity generation.
  • 29. Solar and Wind Price in $ Million/Megawatts 2010 - 2016 5.5 4.2 4.5 2.7 2.8 2 1.65 1.8 1.9 2 2.4 2.2 1.8 1.66 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Q - 3 2016 Solar Wind Source: Bloomberg Energy Finance
  • 30.  “Bangladesh is the world’s largest market for solar home systems, and other developing countries are seeing rapid expansion of small-scale renewable systems, including renewables-based mini-grids, to provide electricity for people living far from the grid.” – REN 21  IEA estimates that to achieve that Universal electrification objective by 2030, grid extension will be 30% and 70 % will be mini grids or off grid system. 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 Bangladesh India China Nepal Kenya Number of Solar Home Systems in top five Countries, End - 2014
  • 31. Monthly Lifecycle costs of cooking in urban households Source: NOC 2013, NEA 2012 Economic Cost of cooking kerosene NRS1500 Economic Cost of cooking LPG NRS1375 1 INR = 1.60 NRS Monthly Lifecycle costs of cooking in urban households (Based on D’sa, A. and Narsimha Murthy, K.V. 2004) Year Kerosene LPG Electricity 1997 180 350 605 2000 270 410 680 2003 340 510 790 2012 1640 1030 940
  • 32. Traditional bulb CFL LED Light Output Watt s EnergyBillsNRs/M onth(@5hr/day) Watts EnergyBillsNRs/ Month(@5hr/da y) Watts EnergyBillsN Rs/Month(@ 5hr/day) Lumens 40 Rs 45 8-12 Rs 11 4-5 Rs 5 450 60 Rs 68 13 - 18 Rs 18 6 – 8 Rs 8 300 - 900 100 Rs 113 23-30 Rs 30 16-20 Rs 20 1600 - 1800 150 Rs 169 30-55 Rs 48 25-28 Rs 30 2600- 2800 Source: [NEEP] Equivalent Wattages and Light output of Traditional, CFL and LED light
  • 33. Energy Cost on product value in % for different industrial Sectors in Nepal  The UN Secretary – General’s initiative Sustainable Energy for all mobilizes global action to achieve universal access to modern energy services, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and double the share of renewable energy in energy in the global energy mix by 2030. 630 560 630 300 380 1020 470 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Energy efficiency in Kgoe/US$ 1,000GDP (IEA,2012) Series 1 47.6 37.91 31.91 19.83 14.41 7.54 5.344.914.794.593.242.682.261.391.21 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Energy Cost on product value in % for different industrial Sectors in Nepal
  • 34. Source: Nepal Energy Efficiency Program
  • 35. Sectors % for Electrica l % for Thermal The Electrica l Saving Potential The Thermal Saving Potential Beverag e 9.09% 19.25% 1390.804 MWh 10707.58 7 GJ Biscuit Sub Sector 29.47% 15.38% 1052.435 MWh 8702.705 GJ Dairy Sub Sector 6.31% 13.91% 504.602 MWh 12785.20 2GJ Instant Noodle Sub Sector 6.15% 11.38% 243.34M Wh 26786.58 2GJ Sugar Sub Sector 14.55% 20.73% 783.678 MWh 2095.16 GJ Vegetabl e Oil & Ghee Sub Sector 5.49% 11.07% 1200.312 MWh 78084.57 3GJ 0.065$/KWh 0.035$/KWh 0.032$/KWh 0.042$/KWh Residential Commercial Industrial Aggregate Avg. Average Costs of Energy Efficiency Programs by Sector(2012) Energy Saving Potential Sectors (ESPS) conducted by NEEP
  • 36. Conclusion  Government of Nepal needs a new strategy to come out of the power crisis along with adding new power generation.  The major reason of current power crisis is the inefficient use of available resources.  Development and deployment of renewable energy resources; solar, wind, micro hydro, biomass etc.  Optimum and Efficient use of resources and conservation of energy  More researches on electrical power and potential renewable energy solutions must be applied to improve of life of Nepalese people.  NEA should take this power outage as an opportunity to brainstorm how to create innovative policies and encourage private sector investment.  Nepal needs significant investments into modern infrastructure to avoid the transmission and distribution losses.  In order to improve the industrial energy efficiency, the government can greatly influence and develop the relevant policy including collection of appropriate data.

Editor's Notes

  1. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  2. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit ) 18 – 20 % every year LPG gas demand according to Nepal Oil Corporation 30,000 Metric ton / month LPG Gas Demand in Nepal
  3. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  4. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  5. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  6. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4xKThjcKaE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEeH4EniM3E
  7. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  8. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  9. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  10. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  11. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  12. http://e.myrepublica.com/component/flippingbook/book/2449-republica-06-feb-2017/1-republica.html
  13. http://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016
  14. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  15. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  16. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  17. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  18. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  19. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  20. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  21. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  22. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  23. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  24. The Global Wind Energy Council predicts that wind could supply up to 19 per cent of global electricity by 2030. The Indian wind energy sector has an installed capacity of more than 20,000MW of wind energy and China will cross 100,000MW by next year. SWERA – Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment in Nepal
  25. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  26. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  27. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  28. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  29. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  30. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  31. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  32. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )