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Europeana and RDF data validation
Antoine Isaac
RDF Validation Workshop
10-11 September 2013
Data validation on the Europeana Data Model
EDM is RDF, but Europeana needs to enforce constraints on the
datasets sent by its providers
 Matching basic Europeana functional requirements, e.g.:
• at most one edm:isShownBy
• at most one edm:isShownAt
• either edm:isShownBy or edm:isShownAt is mandatory
 General data quality, e.g.:
• at least a dc:title or a dc:description
http://pro.europeana.eu/edm-documentation
Note: these constraints are often on re-used classes and properties
EDM “Mapping Guidelines”
 Template-based instructions for Europeana providers
property value type cardinality
ore:Aggregation
Machine-readable specs by OWL ontology?
 We have an OWL version of EDM
 But as we know: OWL is good for writing down constraints, not for validation
 And in OWL some EDM constraints amount to adding semantics to classes
and properties that already exist
an ore:Aggregation should have at least 1 edm:isShownAt or 1 edm:isShownBy
https://github.com/europeana/corelib/blob/master/c
orelib-solr-definitions/src/main/resources/eu/rdf/
(let’s be honest: we were not ready for full RDF/OWL compatibility anyway…)
EDM is implemented as XML Schema (for RDF data!)
<sequence>
[…]
<element ref="edm:dataProvider" maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="1"/>
<element ref="edm:isShownAt" maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="0"/>
<element ref="edm:isShownBy" maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="0"/>
[…]
</sequence>
With Schematron rules:
<sch:pattern>
<sch:rule context="ore:Aggregation">
<sch:assert test="edm:isShownAt or edm:isShownBy">
[Error message]
</sch:assert>
</sch:rule>
</sch:pattern>
Not ideal of course
 Document-centric approach to validation
 Extra constraints, especially order of elements
 2 constraint systems co-existing
Falling back to XML Schema
EDM as a Dublin Core application profile?
[Cf. Karen and Tom tomorrow]
An example in the “Description Set Profiles” constraint language:
DescriptionSet [EDM-Providers]
Description [Aggregation-Providers]
Resource Class
ore:Aggregation
Statement
Property
edm:isShownBy
edm:isShownAt
Min Occurs
1
http://dublincore.org/documents/dc-dsp/
Could be converted to other formalisms
SPIN:
ore:Aggregation
spin:constraint
[ a sp:Ask ;
sp:text """
# either isShownBy or isShownAt must be present
ASK WHERE {
{?this isShownBy ?image } UNION {?this isShownBy ?page }
}"""
] .
Stardog ICV:
Class: ore:Aggregation
SubClassOf: min 1 edm:isShownBy or min 1 edm:isShownAt
Issue: still looks like adding general semantics to ore:Aggregation…
Making our requirements clearer
Level 1: Enabling basic validation
 Expressivity for individual constraints
Needs further testing, but DC AP, “OWL-inspired” and SPARQL seem good
OWL would probably force us to introduce many “technical” classes & properties
 Scalability
?
Level 2: “Packaging data” expressing scope of constraints – datasets!
 Side requirement: constraints should read less like messing up with the
original semantics of classes and properties
DC AP approach provides better hooks for tying constraints to groups of datasets
Making our requirements clearer
Level 3: sharing and re-use of constraints
 For humans: relative ease of understanding. Europeana has a wide
network of partners, not always tech-savvy.
OWL terms are hard, SPARQL seems low-level (even though it’s not)
 For machines: higher-level expressions of all constraint will help
implementation in different frameworks
XML/Schematron bad at making different levels of expression/implementation clear
Level 2: “Packaging data” expressing scope of constraints – datasets!
 Other organizations (esp. cultural aggregators) could make their own
profiles of EDM, with some constraints in common but not all
Importance of “packaging data”
Thank you!
aisaac@few.vu.nl

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Europeana and RDF data validation

  • 1. Europeana and RDF data validation Antoine Isaac RDF Validation Workshop 10-11 September 2013
  • 2. Data validation on the Europeana Data Model EDM is RDF, but Europeana needs to enforce constraints on the datasets sent by its providers  Matching basic Europeana functional requirements, e.g.: • at most one edm:isShownBy • at most one edm:isShownAt • either edm:isShownBy or edm:isShownAt is mandatory  General data quality, e.g.: • at least a dc:title or a dc:description http://pro.europeana.eu/edm-documentation Note: these constraints are often on re-used classes and properties
  • 3. EDM “Mapping Guidelines”  Template-based instructions for Europeana providers property value type cardinality ore:Aggregation
  • 4. Machine-readable specs by OWL ontology?  We have an OWL version of EDM  But as we know: OWL is good for writing down constraints, not for validation  And in OWL some EDM constraints amount to adding semantics to classes and properties that already exist an ore:Aggregation should have at least 1 edm:isShownAt or 1 edm:isShownBy https://github.com/europeana/corelib/blob/master/c orelib-solr-definitions/src/main/resources/eu/rdf/ (let’s be honest: we were not ready for full RDF/OWL compatibility anyway…)
  • 5. EDM is implemented as XML Schema (for RDF data!) <sequence> […] <element ref="edm:dataProvider" maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="1"/> <element ref="edm:isShownAt" maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="0"/> <element ref="edm:isShownBy" maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="0"/> […] </sequence> With Schematron rules: <sch:pattern> <sch:rule context="ore:Aggregation"> <sch:assert test="edm:isShownAt or edm:isShownBy"> [Error message] </sch:assert> </sch:rule> </sch:pattern> Not ideal of course  Document-centric approach to validation  Extra constraints, especially order of elements  2 constraint systems co-existing Falling back to XML Schema
  • 6. EDM as a Dublin Core application profile? [Cf. Karen and Tom tomorrow] An example in the “Description Set Profiles” constraint language: DescriptionSet [EDM-Providers] Description [Aggregation-Providers] Resource Class ore:Aggregation Statement Property edm:isShownBy edm:isShownAt Min Occurs 1 http://dublincore.org/documents/dc-dsp/
  • 7. Could be converted to other formalisms SPIN: ore:Aggregation spin:constraint [ a sp:Ask ; sp:text """ # either isShownBy or isShownAt must be present ASK WHERE { {?this isShownBy ?image } UNION {?this isShownBy ?page } }""" ] . Stardog ICV: Class: ore:Aggregation SubClassOf: min 1 edm:isShownBy or min 1 edm:isShownAt Issue: still looks like adding general semantics to ore:Aggregation…
  • 8. Making our requirements clearer Level 1: Enabling basic validation  Expressivity for individual constraints Needs further testing, but DC AP, “OWL-inspired” and SPARQL seem good OWL would probably force us to introduce many “technical” classes & properties  Scalability ? Level 2: “Packaging data” expressing scope of constraints – datasets!  Side requirement: constraints should read less like messing up with the original semantics of classes and properties DC AP approach provides better hooks for tying constraints to groups of datasets
  • 9. Making our requirements clearer Level 3: sharing and re-use of constraints  For humans: relative ease of understanding. Europeana has a wide network of partners, not always tech-savvy. OWL terms are hard, SPARQL seems low-level (even though it’s not)  For machines: higher-level expressions of all constraint will help implementation in different frameworks XML/Schematron bad at making different levels of expression/implementation clear Level 2: “Packaging data” expressing scope of constraints – datasets!  Other organizations (esp. cultural aggregators) could make their own profiles of EDM, with some constraints in common but not all Importance of “packaging data”

Editor's Notes

  1. Workshop page: http://www.w3.org/2012/12/rdf-val/
  2. Technical classes, with URIs or blank nodes
  3. Technical classes, with URIs or blank nodes