SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 13
Download to read offline
CAUSES OF HEMIPLEGIA

 STROKE
 CNS INFECTION- MENINGITIS, ENCEPHALITIS
 DEMYELINATION- MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS , POST
  INFECTIOUS
 TRAUMA
 HEMIPLEGIC MIGRAINE
 TODD’S PARALYSIS   VASCULITIS
STROKE
 ACUTE STROKE _RAPID APPEARANCE OF A FOCAL
DEFICIT OF BRAIN FUNCTION , WITH OR
WITHOUT SIGNS OF FOCAL HIGHER CEREBRAL
DYSFUNCTION , HEMISENSORY LOSS, VISUAL FIELD
DEFECT OR BRAIN STEM DEFECT

 MEDICAL EMERGENCY
TERMS RELATED
 TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK – RESOLVE
  WITHIN 24 HRS
 STROKE- LAST MORE THAN 24 HRS
 STROKE IN EVOLUTION- FND PROGRESSING
 COMPLETED STROKE-FND PERSISTS –NOT
  PROGRESSING
CAUSES OF STROKE

 CEREBRAL INFARCTION


 PRIMARY INTRACEREBRAL HAEMORRHAGE


 SUB ARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
 CEREBRAL INFARCTION
 CARDIAC EMBOLISM      - MCA PCA
   ATHEROSCLEROSIS – CAROTID ARTERY
   ARTERIAL DISSECTION NEUROSYPHILIS
   THROMBOPHILIA     VASCULITIS
   HOMOCYSTINURIA      SLE APLA SYNDROME
   SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA - CHILDREN
RISK FACTORS
FIXED        MODIFIABLE

AGE          HYPERTENSION

GENDER       HEART DISEASE

HEREDITY ,   DM HYPERLIPIDEMIA
RACE
MI STROKE    SMOKING ALCOHOL     OCP

HIGH         POLYCYTHEMIA
FIBRINOGEN
CEREBRAL INFARCTION
 Occlusion of cerebral artery
  opening of anastomotic channels
  perfusion restored
 Homeostatic mech fail
   ischemia & infarction
    neuronal functions fail
     neurological deficit
Infarction (Continued)
 Ischemia persists _ hypoxia _ inadequate ATP supply
_ failure of membrane pumps_ influx of Na & water
_cytotoxic edema_glutamate release _ influx of Na &
Ca_ enzyme activation _ irreversible cell death

 Lactic acid accumln & fall in pH
PRIMARY INTRACEREBRAL
HAEMORRHAGE
 ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION
 DRUG MISUSE- AMPHETAMINE , COCAINE
 COAGULOPATHY


 Rupture of blood vessel within brain parenchyma _
 explosive entry of blood _ structural disruption of
 neurons_ progression of neurological deficit
CAUSES          &       RISK FACTORS
COMPLEX SMALL VESSEL     AGE   HT
DISEASE N VESSEL WALL
DISRUPTION
AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY       FAMILIAL   AGE

IMPAIRED BLOOD           ANTICOAGULANT
CLOTTING                 THERAPY , BLOOD
                         DYSCRASIA
VASCULAR ANOMALY         AV MALFORMATION
                         CAVERNOUS
                         HEMANGIOMA
SUBSTANCE MISUSE         ALCOHOL
                         AMPHETAMINE COCAINE
SUB ARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE
 LESS COMMON – WOMEN MORE AFFECTED
       Saccular aneurysm AVM Vertebral dissection
     Berry aneurysm- region of circle of Willis
   First degree relatives
   Polycystic kidney disease Ehlers Danlos Syn
   Non aneurysmal haemorrhage (peri-mesencephalic
    haemorrhage)
*

More Related Content

What's hot

Paraparesis biplave nams
Paraparesis biplave namsParaparesis biplave nams
Paraparesis biplave namsbiplave karki
 
Herpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzet
Herpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzetHerpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzet
Herpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzetAminuArzet
 
CAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROME
CAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROMECAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROME
CAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROMEshuchij10
 
Cerebellar syndromes
Cerebellar syndromesCerebellar syndromes
Cerebellar syndromesPS Deb
 
Epidural haematoma extradural haemorrhage
Epidural haematoma extradural haemorrhageEpidural haematoma extradural haemorrhage
Epidural haematoma extradural haemorrhageKaran Rawat
 
Nerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs Demyelination
Nerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs DemyelinationNerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs Demyelination
Nerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs DemyelinationAhmad Shahir
 
Approach to Peripheral Neuropathy
Approach to Peripheral NeuropathyApproach to Peripheral Neuropathy
Approach to Peripheral NeuropathyAnand Nambirajan
 
Brainstem stroke syndromes ppt
Brainstem stroke syndromes pptBrainstem stroke syndromes ppt
Brainstem stroke syndromes pptKunal Mahajan
 
localization spinal cord
localization spinal cord localization spinal cord
localization spinal cord ikramdr01
 
Paraplegia: approach to
Paraplegia: approach toParaplegia: approach to
Paraplegia: approach toDanishkhan486
 
Space occupying lesions
Space occupying lesionsSpace occupying lesions
Space occupying lesionsShweta Sharma
 
Approach to a patient with stroke
Approach to a patient with stroke Approach to a patient with stroke
Approach to a patient with stroke Ashwin Haridas
 

What's hot (20)

Paraparesis biplave nams
Paraparesis biplave namsParaparesis biplave nams
Paraparesis biplave nams
 
Herpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzet
Herpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzetHerpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzet
Herpes Simples viral encephalitis by aminu arzet
 
CAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROME
CAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROMECAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROME
CAUDA EQUINA VS CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROME
 
Cerebellar syndromes
Cerebellar syndromesCerebellar syndromes
Cerebellar syndromes
 
Epidural haematoma extradural haemorrhage
Epidural haematoma extradural haemorrhageEpidural haematoma extradural haemorrhage
Epidural haematoma extradural haemorrhage
 
Nerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs Demyelination
Nerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs DemyelinationNerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs Demyelination
Nerves conduction study, Axonal loss vs Demyelination
 
Plantar reflex
Plantar reflexPlantar reflex
Plantar reflex
 
Stroke localization
Stroke localizationStroke localization
Stroke localization
 
Ischemic stroke
Ischemic strokeIschemic stroke
Ischemic stroke
 
case presentation on bulbar palsy
case presentation on bulbar palsycase presentation on bulbar palsy
case presentation on bulbar palsy
 
Approach to Peripheral Neuropathy
Approach to Peripheral NeuropathyApproach to Peripheral Neuropathy
Approach to Peripheral Neuropathy
 
Generalized lymphadenopathy
Generalized lymphadenopathyGeneralized lymphadenopathy
Generalized lymphadenopathy
 
Brainstem stroke syndromes ppt
Brainstem stroke syndromes pptBrainstem stroke syndromes ppt
Brainstem stroke syndromes ppt
 
localization spinal cord
localization spinal cord localization spinal cord
localization spinal cord
 
Paraplegia: approach to
Paraplegia: approach toParaplegia: approach to
Paraplegia: approach to
 
Space occupying lesions
Space occupying lesionsSpace occupying lesions
Space occupying lesions
 
Approach to a patient with stroke
Approach to a patient with stroke Approach to a patient with stroke
Approach to a patient with stroke
 
MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY
MYOTONIC DYSTROPHYMYOTONIC DYSTROPHY
MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY
 
Peripheral Neuropathy an overview
Peripheral Neuropathy an overviewPeripheral Neuropathy an overview
Peripheral Neuropathy an overview
 
Stroke in Young
Stroke in YoungStroke in Young
Stroke in Young
 

Viewers also liked

Stroke: causes and the essential things to be taken care of
Stroke: causes and the essential  things to be taken care of Stroke: causes and the essential  things to be taken care of
Stroke: causes and the essential things to be taken care of Sarath Thomas
 
Management of hemiplegia
Management of hemiplegiaManagement of hemiplegia
Management of hemiplegiaAbino David
 
Motor division of nervous system
Motor division of nervous systemMotor division of nervous system
Motor division of nervous systemAbino David
 
Clinical features of hemiplegia
Clinical features of hemiplegiaClinical features of hemiplegia
Clinical features of hemiplegiaAbino David
 
Localization of lesion in hemiplegia
Localization of lesion in hemiplegiaLocalization of lesion in hemiplegia
Localization of lesion in hemiplegiaAbino David
 
STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...
STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...
STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...Arlyn Valencia, M.D.
 

Viewers also liked (7)

Stroke: causes and the essential things to be taken care of
Stroke: causes and the essential  things to be taken care of Stroke: causes and the essential  things to be taken care of
Stroke: causes and the essential things to be taken care of
 
Management of hemiplegia
Management of hemiplegiaManagement of hemiplegia
Management of hemiplegia
 
Motor division of nervous system
Motor division of nervous systemMotor division of nervous system
Motor division of nervous system
 
Clinical Approach to Paraplegia
Clinical Approach to ParaplegiaClinical Approach to Paraplegia
Clinical Approach to Paraplegia
 
Clinical features of hemiplegia
Clinical features of hemiplegiaClinical features of hemiplegia
Clinical features of hemiplegia
 
Localization of lesion in hemiplegia
Localization of lesion in hemiplegiaLocalization of lesion in hemiplegia
Localization of lesion in hemiplegia
 
STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...
STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...
STROKE LECTURE By Arlyn M. Valencia, M.D. Associate Professo University Of Ne...
 

Similar to Etiology of hemiplegia

Similar to Etiology of hemiplegia (20)

STROKE ENFERMEDAD CEREBROVASCULAR
STROKE ENFERMEDAD CEREBROVASCULARSTROKE ENFERMEDAD CEREBROVASCULAR
STROKE ENFERMEDAD CEREBROVASCULAR
 
strokeppt-170720174010.pdf
strokeppt-170720174010.pdfstrokeppt-170720174010.pdf
strokeppt-170720174010.pdf
 
Stroke ppt
Stroke pptStroke ppt
Stroke ppt
 
Pediatric stroke syndromes
Pediatric stroke syndromesPediatric stroke syndromes
Pediatric stroke syndromes
 
hypoglycemic brain injury
hypoglycemic brain injuryhypoglycemic brain injury
hypoglycemic brain injury
 
Intracranial vascular disease
Intracranial vascular diseaseIntracranial vascular disease
Intracranial vascular disease
 
Cns
CnsCns
Cns
 
Acute Stroke Syndrome.pptx
Acute Stroke Syndrome.pptxAcute Stroke Syndrome.pptx
Acute Stroke Syndrome.pptx
 
Vascular malformation
Vascular malformationVascular malformation
Vascular malformation
 
Hemorrhagic stroke
Hemorrhagic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke
Hemorrhagic stroke
 
Congenital heart disease
Congenital heart diseaseCongenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease
 
Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage
Sub-Arachnoid HemorrhageSub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage
Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage
 
Chest pain history
Chest pain historyChest pain history
Chest pain history
 
CVA.ppt
CVA.pptCVA.ppt
CVA.ppt
 
Cardiomyopathy
CardiomyopathyCardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy
 
Cva
CvaCva
Cva
 
Approach to Pain ophthalmoplegia.
Approach to Pain ophthalmoplegia.Approach to Pain ophthalmoplegia.
Approach to Pain ophthalmoplegia.
 
CVA.ppt
CVA.pptCVA.ppt
CVA.ppt
 
Classification of haemostatic disorders and shock
Classification of haemostatic disorders and shockClassification of haemostatic disorders and shock
Classification of haemostatic disorders and shock
 
approach to a patient with stroke.pdf
approach to a patient with stroke.pdfapproach to a patient with stroke.pdf
approach to a patient with stroke.pdf
 

More from Abino David

Clinical features of intestinal obstruction
Clinical features of intestinal obstructionClinical features of intestinal obstruction
Clinical features of intestinal obstructionAbino David
 
Aetiology of intestinal obstruction
Aetiology of intestinal obstructionAetiology of intestinal obstruction
Aetiology of intestinal obstructionAbino David
 
Management of abortion
Management of abortionManagement of abortion
Management of abortionAbino David
 
Induction of labour
Induction of labourInduction of labour
Induction of labourAbino David
 
Valvular heart disease
Valvular heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Valvular heart diseaseAbino David
 
Growth anomalies of the female genital tract
Growth anomalies of the female genital tractGrowth anomalies of the female genital tract
Growth anomalies of the female genital tractAbino David
 
CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUS
CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUSCONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUS
CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUSAbino David
 
Relation between fetus & pelvis
Relation between fetus & pelvisRelation between fetus & pelvis
Relation between fetus & pelvisAbino David
 
Caesarean section
Caesarean sectionCaesarean section
Caesarean sectionAbino David
 
Paracetamol and sedative overdosage
Paracetamol and sedative overdosageParacetamol and sedative overdosage
Paracetamol and sedative overdosageAbino David
 
Compartment syndrome
Compartment syndromeCompartment syndrome
Compartment syndromeAbino David
 
ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION
 ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION
ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTIONAbino David
 
Acute limb ischemia
Acute limb ischemiaAcute limb ischemia
Acute limb ischemiaAbino David
 

More from Abino David (20)

Clinical features of intestinal obstruction
Clinical features of intestinal obstructionClinical features of intestinal obstruction
Clinical features of intestinal obstruction
 
Aetiology of intestinal obstruction
Aetiology of intestinal obstructionAetiology of intestinal obstruction
Aetiology of intestinal obstruction
 
Management of abortion
Management of abortionManagement of abortion
Management of abortion
 
Induction of labour
Induction of labourInduction of labour
Induction of labour
 
Valvular heart disease
Valvular heart diseaseValvular heart disease
Valvular heart disease
 
Growth anomalies of the female genital tract
Growth anomalies of the female genital tractGrowth anomalies of the female genital tract
Growth anomalies of the female genital tract
 
CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUS
CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUSCONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUS
CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINO VARUS
 
Relation between fetus & pelvis
Relation between fetus & pelvisRelation between fetus & pelvis
Relation between fetus & pelvis
 
Caesarean section
Caesarean sectionCaesarean section
Caesarean section
 
Paracetamol and sedative overdosage
Paracetamol and sedative overdosageParacetamol and sedative overdosage
Paracetamol and sedative overdosage
 
Compartment syndrome
Compartment syndromeCompartment syndrome
Compartment syndrome
 
Varicocele
VaricoceleVaricocele
Varicocele
 
Spermatocoele
SpermatocoeleSpermatocoele
Spermatocoele
 
Neuro fibroma
Neuro fibromaNeuro fibroma
Neuro fibroma
 
Hydrocele
HydroceleHydrocele
Hydrocele
 
Fibroadenoma
FibroadenomaFibroadenoma
Fibroadenoma
 
Dermoid cyst
Dermoid cystDermoid cyst
Dermoid cyst
 
Lipoma
LipomaLipoma
Lipoma
 
ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION
 ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION
ABERRATION IN NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION
 
Acute limb ischemia
Acute limb ischemiaAcute limb ischemia
Acute limb ischemia
 

Recently uploaded

Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptxRadiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..AneriPatwari
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPrerana Jadhav
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityCEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityHarshChauhan475104
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!ibtesaam huma
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxSasikiranMarri
 
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurMETHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurNavdeep Kaur
 
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-KnowledgeGiftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledgeassessoriafabianodea
 
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptxTans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptxKezaiah S
 
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfPULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptxThe next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptxTina Purnat
 
Clinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies Disease
Clinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies DiseaseClinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies Disease
Clinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies DiseaseSreenivasa Reddy Thalla
 
MedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdf
MedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdfMedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdf
MedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdfSasikiranMarri
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxpdamico1
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Badalona Serveis Assistencials
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxBibekananda shah
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptxRadiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
Radiation Dosimetry Parameters and Isodose Curves.pptx
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
 
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
 
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityCEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
 
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurMETHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
 
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-KnowledgeGiftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
 
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptxTans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
 
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfPULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PULMONARY EMBOLISM AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
 
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptxThe next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
 
Clinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies Disease
Clinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies DiseaseClinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies Disease
Clinical Pharmacotherapy of Scabies Disease
 
MedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdf
MedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdfMedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdf
MedDRA-A-Comprehensive-Guide-to-Standardized-Medical-Terminology.pdf
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
 

Etiology of hemiplegia

  • 1.
  • 2. CAUSES OF HEMIPLEGIA  STROKE  CNS INFECTION- MENINGITIS, ENCEPHALITIS  DEMYELINATION- MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS , POST INFECTIOUS  TRAUMA  HEMIPLEGIC MIGRAINE  TODD’S PARALYSIS VASCULITIS
  • 3. STROKE  ACUTE STROKE _RAPID APPEARANCE OF A FOCAL DEFICIT OF BRAIN FUNCTION , WITH OR WITHOUT SIGNS OF FOCAL HIGHER CEREBRAL DYSFUNCTION , HEMISENSORY LOSS, VISUAL FIELD DEFECT OR BRAIN STEM DEFECT  MEDICAL EMERGENCY
  • 4. TERMS RELATED  TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK – RESOLVE WITHIN 24 HRS  STROKE- LAST MORE THAN 24 HRS  STROKE IN EVOLUTION- FND PROGRESSING  COMPLETED STROKE-FND PERSISTS –NOT PROGRESSING
  • 5. CAUSES OF STROKE  CEREBRAL INFARCTION  PRIMARY INTRACEREBRAL HAEMORRHAGE  SUB ARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE
  • 6. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  CEREBRAL INFARCTION  CARDIAC EMBOLISM - MCA PCA  ATHEROSCLEROSIS – CAROTID ARTERY  ARTERIAL DISSECTION NEUROSYPHILIS  THROMBOPHILIA VASCULITIS  HOMOCYSTINURIA SLE APLA SYNDROME  SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA - CHILDREN
  • 7. RISK FACTORS FIXED MODIFIABLE AGE HYPERTENSION GENDER HEART DISEASE HEREDITY , DM HYPERLIPIDEMIA RACE MI STROKE SMOKING ALCOHOL OCP HIGH POLYCYTHEMIA FIBRINOGEN
  • 8. CEREBRAL INFARCTION  Occlusion of cerebral artery opening of anastomotic channels perfusion restored  Homeostatic mech fail ischemia & infarction neuronal functions fail neurological deficit
  • 9. Infarction (Continued)  Ischemia persists _ hypoxia _ inadequate ATP supply _ failure of membrane pumps_ influx of Na & water _cytotoxic edema_glutamate release _ influx of Na & Ca_ enzyme activation _ irreversible cell death  Lactic acid accumln & fall in pH
  • 10. PRIMARY INTRACEREBRAL HAEMORRHAGE  ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION  DRUG MISUSE- AMPHETAMINE , COCAINE  COAGULOPATHY  Rupture of blood vessel within brain parenchyma _ explosive entry of blood _ structural disruption of neurons_ progression of neurological deficit
  • 11. CAUSES & RISK FACTORS COMPLEX SMALL VESSEL AGE HT DISEASE N VESSEL WALL DISRUPTION AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY FAMILIAL AGE IMPAIRED BLOOD ANTICOAGULANT CLOTTING THERAPY , BLOOD DYSCRASIA VASCULAR ANOMALY AV MALFORMATION CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA SUBSTANCE MISUSE ALCOHOL AMPHETAMINE COCAINE
  • 12. SUB ARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE  LESS COMMON – WOMEN MORE AFFECTED Saccular aneurysm AVM Vertebral dissection  Berry aneurysm- region of circle of Willis  First degree relatives  Polycystic kidney disease Ehlers Danlos Syn  Non aneurysmal haemorrhage (peri-mesencephalic haemorrhage)
  • 13. *