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ETHNOGRAPHIC
RESEARCH
By: Mithilesh Bairagya
Student of LLM;
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Univrtsity of Technology
formerly known as West Bengal University of Technology
“I want to understand the world from your point
of view. I want to know what you know in the
way you know it. I want to understand the
meaning of your experience, to walk in your
shoes, to feel things as you feel them, to explain
things as you explain them. Will you become my
teacher and help me understand?”
― James P. Spradley,
(1933-1982) a renown social scientist,
ethnographer, former Professor of Anthropology
at Macalester.
INTRODUCTION
Ethnography was originally developed by anthropologists
as a method of cross-cultural analysis. Though
anthropologists initially conducted ethnographic fieldwork
in spatially delimited “small-scale” societies, contemporary
ethnographic field sites reflect the fluidity and complexity of
the globalized world. Researchers from a variety of
disciplines now draw on ethnographic research practices
to study the cultural practices of urban communities,
institutions, as well as de-territorialized and virtual fields
such as social movements, professional associations, and
digital networks, legal framework.
The term ethno derived from the Greek
word ethnos, which means nation, tribe or race.
Primarily, however, this ancient term translated
into all languages of the world denotes “people”,
which is its broadest meaning.
The Greek word graphy mean writing or
representation in a (specified) manner or by a
(specified) means or of a (specified) object.
For example photography, telegraphy.
Etymology Derived from Latin -graphia "writing,"
from Greek graphein "to write"
Meaning of the word “ETHNOGRAPHY “
According the Oxford Dictionary the word
ETHNORGAPHY literally means the scientific
description of peoples and cultures with their
customs, habits, and mutual differences.
Objective of Ethnographic research
The main aim of ethnographic research is to
gain an in-depth insight into the user’s views
and actions along with the sights and sounds
they encounter during their day. It provides
the researcher with an understanding of how
those users see the world and how they
interact with everything around them.
Ethnographic Research in Law
As with any other aspect of social life, ethnographers
examine law holistically in its social context—as a cultural
product that is co-constituted with other normative
orders.
In analyzing the relationship between law and culture,
ethnographers examine how law operates as a language, a
social and professional practice, a set of institutions, a
form of knowledge, and an ideology through which power
relations are resisted and reproduced.
Ethnographers often focus on disputes, legal reforms, and
even the material products of law (such as documents) as
central objects of ethnographic inquiry.
Analyzing the relationship between law and culture
What is the significance of ethnography in
legal research?
Law, as a topic for research, raises exciting
questions in this context. It is situated at the
intersection of life and theory. The problem is
that most lawyers do not realise it. For them life
is constructed out of the narratives told by
judges, some of whom occasionally have a
literary approach.
These narratives are proxies for the real world. It
may take some time before one realise that the
worlds constructed by judges were often not
realistic as a whole.
For example : as students we religiously learn
about the snail in the ginger beer bottle and
learn to control our reflexes, but in fact we do
not know if that snail existed or not. As a hands
on shortcut devices, law reports have utility; as
devices for engineering social action, they are
disturbing.
The key for system theorists is that law appears
to be a system as a result of the ways it is
constructed by its practitioners. Judges and
lawyers endow law with an authority that it
cannot sustain under examination, especially
from the ethnographer.
BECOMING AN ETHNOGRAPHER
Although the anthropology of law was a well-
stocked field with studies of groups around the
world, the sociology of law was relatively
empty . It seemed once the state claimed the
major role in law production, regulation and
administration, law reverted to its formal
characteristics in the socioeconomic sense
rather than containing any impression of being
socially constructed . It was difficult to
encounter texts that would explain how the
‘law jobs’ were being done in modern legal
framework . One could see occasional glimpses
but not much else.
For example : I became interested in examining
the role of the barristers’ clerk, an agent who
supplies work to barristers and collects their fees .
To my naïve view of the world, it seemed
ridiculous that the legal profession could base
itself on Dickensian class divisions and that
barristers’ clerks were truly a relic of the 19th
century. Yet, as the study evolved, I came to see
that clerks were an important part of the English
legal system, providing a network through which
different parts could coordinate. The entire court
listing system was balanced around the clerks’
diary manipulation: this way they could keep the
courts’ case docket moving and maintain a steady
schedule of work for their barristers.
ORIGIN OF ETHNOGRAPHY
It had its origin in social and cultural
anthropology in the early twentieth century.
Ethnography was first used in cultural
anthropology, but now it is also used in
informatics, psychology, sociology and
education,law.
Bronislaw Malinowski is credited with first ,who
formally defined “fieldwork”, which is the basis for
ethnography, when he studied and lived with the
inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands , Papua New
Guinea in 1915.
Ethnography is a branch of Social and cultural
anthropology and it is the indepth, systematic
study of individual cultures. Ethnography explores
cultural phenomena from the point of view of the
subject of the study.
Meaning of the word “ ANTHROPOLOGY”
According to the Oxford Dictionary the word
“ANTHROPOLOGY” means the study of
human societies and cultures and their
development.
Researchers examine lesser-known findings in archaeology
and anthropology to highlight all that we don't know about
human history"
Ethnographic Research is a qualitative research
method involving the systematic study of people
for collecting data often used in the social and
behavioural sciences. Data are collected through
observations and interviews, looking at the social
interaction of participants in a given
environment. which are then used to draw
conclusions about how societies and individuals
function.
What is
“ ETHNOGRAPHIC RESERCH”
Cont…
Researchers conducting an ethnographic
study spend time with the participants, have
an up-close experience with them to gain
insights into their social interactions, and
collect data through participant observation,
face-to-face interviews, etc.
Ethnography in qualitative research is also
called thick description as it involves an up-
close observation of the participants and a
detailed description of their cultures, behavior
, mutual differences, and practices.
This research provides an in-depth insight into
the user’s perspectives and actions along with
the sights and sounds they encounter during
their day. It provides the researcher with an
understanding of how those users see the
world and how they interact with everything
around them.
What is Qualitative research method ?
Qualitative research can be defined as a type of scientific
research that tries to bridge the gap of incomplete
information, systematically collects evidence, produces
findings and thereby seeks answer to a problem or question.
It is widely used in collecting and understanding specific
information about the behaviour, opinion, values and other
social aspects of a particular community, culture or
population.
Qualitative research helps in providing an in depth knowledge
regarding human behaviour and tries to find out reasons behind
decision making tendencies of humans.
Ethnographic examples include studying the way a particular
culture celebrates a holiday, understanding how a social group
communicates. Ethnography can also be used to understand how
a social change, such as the introduction of a new technology,
affects a group.
What is Quantitative research?
Quantitative research is the process of collecting and
analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and
averages, make predictions, test causal relationships,
and generalize results to wider populations. Quantitative
research is the opposite of qualitative research, which
involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g.,
text, video, or audio) Quantitative research is widely used in
the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry,
psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc.
What is quantitative research in ethnography?
Quantitative Ethnography is a methodology that blends qualitative
and quantitative approaches into a solution for overcoming the
weaknesses of traditional methods when applied to big data.
Quantitative Ethnography views big data—and data more
generally—as evidence about the discourse of particular cultures.
Ethnographers mainly use qualitative methods, though
they may also employ quantitative data. The typical
ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief
history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the
habitat. A wide range of groups and organisations have
been studied by this method, including traditional
communities, youth gangs, religious cults, and
organisations of various kinds.
While , traditionally, ethnography has relied on the physical
presence of the researcher in a setting, there is research
using the label that has relied on interviews or documents,
sometimes to investigate events in the past. There is also
a considerable amount of 'virtual' or online ethnography,
sometimes labelled net-nography or cyber-Ethnography.
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH METHODS
As We’ve Discovered, Ethnographic Research Is A Method
Often Used To Study Another Culture Or Group Of People. It’s
A Powerful Tool To Understand The World Better. It Can Be
Done Through Observation, Interviews and Archival
research method.
In The Field, ethnographers Often Take Notes While
Observing Their Subjects. They Also Record Conversations
And Keep A Journal Of What They See. Later, These
Findings Get Transcribed And Analyzed For Accuracy. In
Addition, Multiple Researchers Can Work To Get A Clear
Picture Of A Culture Or Community. All Of This Data Can Go
Into A Book, Article, Or Scientific Report That Describes
The Findings Of The Group’s Research.
Ethnographic observation
There are two types of ethnographic
observation: active participant observation
and passive participant observation. The
first one involves becoming a member of the
study group, partaking in their daily activities,
and working directly with them to get hands-
on experience and understand their
perspective.
The latter involves observing and taking notes
only. You do not get involved in the group’s
activities.
Ethnographic Interviews
Interviews in ethnographic fieldwork involve
observing the participants in their natural
environment and asking them questions to gain
more insights. Researchers utilizing this
ethnographic method interact with the study
group to understand the participants' actions and
thought processes. An advantage of collecting
data through interviews when conducting
ethnographic fieldwork is that the researcher gets
to ask questions directly linked to participants’
experiences and unearths insights that you may
not uncover if the interview happened outside the
subject’s natural environment.
Archival ethnographic
research
Archival ethnographic research is a method in
which you collect and analyze existing research
data, websites, annual reports, and other
relevant written documents to learn more about
the people and place you are investigating.
When archival research is used alongside other
methods, it helps the researcher become more
prepared as they know about the participants’
demographics, economic status, education levels,
cultures, interests, etc., before conducting the
ethnographic fieldwork.
How to conduct ethnographic research
Below are the main steps involved in conducting
ethnography qualitative research.
1)Identify the questions you hope to answer with your
ethnography study. This first step will help you determine
the goals of your ethnographic research and shape your
entire work.
2)Choose the best ethnographic method to collect the data
you need. You can either utilize one or use a mix of the
methods listed above. For example, you could use only
ethnographic observation or interviews, ethnographic
observation, and archival research for your study.
3)Contact your potential study subjects to explain your
research and obtain informed consent.
Cont….
4)Start your study with ethnographic fieldwork. Go to the
place under investigation to observe, ask questions, gain more
insights, and take thorough notes.
5)After ethnographic fieldwork, the next step is analyzing your
data.
How to analyze ethnographic observations?
Analysing ethnographic data involves identifying patterns and
themes in the data you collected the process is called
ethnographic data coding. one can facilitate this time-
consuming process and save some stress by using software
for data analysis.
Cont….
6)Once you analyze your data, the next thing is to list all the
insights you uncovered from your research, including the
answers to your research questions.
7)The last step in ethnographic research is writing and
presenting your findings. The output from an ethnographic
study is called ethnography, a detailed and all-encompassing
description of the research subjects, insights you uncovered,
and how you conducted the study.
Ethnographic research examples
Let me provide a brief account of the barristers’ clerk’s
world so that this chapter remains intelligible.
Essentially the clerk is the middleman, or mediator,
between the diverse interests of the legal system,
namely those of barristers, solicitors, judges, list
officers, and occasionally the client upon whom the
system depends. Although these groups are discrete,
they are interdependent. But their interdependence
does not prevent them from pressing divergent
demands that must somehow be resolved into a
common aim if the legal process is to function
reasonably smoothly.
Observing the role of the barristers’ clerk
How is this resolution effected by the clerk?
For the purpose of achieving the common aim he
assumes different roles to satisfy the demands, but
keeping in mind his own interests. Broadly, there are
three such roles: counsellor, negotiator, and ‘fixer’.
Perhaps the most important is that of fixer, since the
others are variants of it. While performing these roles the
clerk carries out a number of tasks. The main ones are
negotiating his barristers’ fees and collecting them,
obtaining work for his barristers, supervising their and
the chambers’ accounts, helping to schedule cases and
checking the daily court lists for his barristers and the
solicitor . The barrister’s clerk has a wide range of duties
delegated to him.
Cont…
The ostensible rationale of his existence is to relieve the
barrister of the day-to-day routines of office
administration so that the latter can concentrate entirely
on legal work. But the clerk does much of the ‘dirty
work’ of the Bar. He fulfils a role that would be difficult,
both theoretically and practically, for the Bar to do
without.
For example, he generates work for barristers,
permitting them the claim that they conform to their rule
against advertising: he can refuse to accept work on a
barrister’s behalf by, say, charging an exorbitant fee,
allowing barristers to say that they conform to the
supposedly inviolate cab-rank rule. Clerks have a lively
history appearing in novels by Surtees and Trollope.
Advantages of ethnographic
research
1) Deeper, more nuanced understandings.
2) Helps in collecting valuable dada to form legislative
intension.
3) Represent what’s really going on in some everyday
setting.
4) Helps to understand What regulation is desired by
the people in a ever changing society.
5) Respect for complexity of human activity.
6) Design for human needs; reflect users’ own issues and
everyday problems.
7) Safe to do it right the first time.
8) considering the ramifications of enacting a new law.
9) Can see things people wouldn’t think to report.
10) Can ask questions at moment of interesting activity.
Disadvantages of ethnographic
research
Some of the disadvantages of ethnographic research are:
1) ethnographic research is time-consuming and requires
some level of expertise.
2) Conducting an ethnographic study is expensive as it
requires the researcher to travel to the participants' natural
environment and live with them for weeks or months to
learn about their ways.
3) The researcher's presence may affect the participants'
behavior, thereby affecting the validity and authenticity of
the research results.
4) The researcher’s bias may affect the design and
implementation of an ethnographic study.
When to use ethnographic research?
One can use Ethnography in sociology, health sciences,
education , Legal studies and other cultural studies when
you are trying to:
1) Understand reasons why people in a social setting
behave in a certain way.
2) Examine social interactions and gain insights into a
social phenomenon.
3) Understand the cultural norms and views of a group of
people.
4) Study the behavior of workers in a workplace.
References
1. J. P. Spradley The ethonographic interview. New York,
NY, USA: Holt, Rinehart and Winston; 1979.
2.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287833554_Et
hnographic_methods_second_edition
3.https://www.leidenlawmethodsportal.nl/topics/ethnography
4.https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=949
887
5.https://research.virginia.edu/irb-sbs/ethnographic-
research
6.https://www.experienceux.co.uk/faqs/what-is-
ethnography-research/
7.https://www.experienceux.co.uk/faqs/what-is-ethnography-
research/
8.https://study.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/Eriksson%20a
nd%20Kovalainen.pdf
9.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnography
10.https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/ethnography/
11.https://delvetool.com/blog/ethnography
12.https://www.questionpro.com/blog/ethnographic-research/
13.https://www.spotless.co.uk/journal/ethnography-when-and-
how
14.https://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/20936/1/U
nit-1.pdf

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ethnographic research. A step by step guide for students who want to know about the pros and cons of Ethnographic research .

  • 1. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH By: Mithilesh Bairagya Student of LLM; Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Univrtsity of Technology formerly known as West Bengal University of Technology
  • 2. “I want to understand the world from your point of view. I want to know what you know in the way you know it. I want to understand the meaning of your experience, to walk in your shoes, to feel things as you feel them, to explain things as you explain them. Will you become my teacher and help me understand?” ― James P. Spradley, (1933-1982) a renown social scientist, ethnographer, former Professor of Anthropology at Macalester.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Ethnography was originally developed by anthropologists as a method of cross-cultural analysis. Though anthropologists initially conducted ethnographic fieldwork in spatially delimited “small-scale” societies, contemporary ethnographic field sites reflect the fluidity and complexity of the globalized world. Researchers from a variety of disciplines now draw on ethnographic research practices to study the cultural practices of urban communities, institutions, as well as de-territorialized and virtual fields such as social movements, professional associations, and digital networks, legal framework.
  • 4. The term ethno derived from the Greek word ethnos, which means nation, tribe or race. Primarily, however, this ancient term translated into all languages of the world denotes “people”, which is its broadest meaning. The Greek word graphy mean writing or representation in a (specified) manner or by a (specified) means or of a (specified) object. For example photography, telegraphy. Etymology Derived from Latin -graphia "writing," from Greek graphein "to write"
  • 5. Meaning of the word “ETHNOGRAPHY “ According the Oxford Dictionary the word ETHNORGAPHY literally means the scientific description of peoples and cultures with their customs, habits, and mutual differences. Objective of Ethnographic research The main aim of ethnographic research is to gain an in-depth insight into the user’s views and actions along with the sights and sounds they encounter during their day. It provides the researcher with an understanding of how those users see the world and how they interact with everything around them.
  • 6. Ethnographic Research in Law As with any other aspect of social life, ethnographers examine law holistically in its social context—as a cultural product that is co-constituted with other normative orders. In analyzing the relationship between law and culture, ethnographers examine how law operates as a language, a social and professional practice, a set of institutions, a form of knowledge, and an ideology through which power relations are resisted and reproduced. Ethnographers often focus on disputes, legal reforms, and even the material products of law (such as documents) as central objects of ethnographic inquiry. Analyzing the relationship between law and culture
  • 7. What is the significance of ethnography in legal research? Law, as a topic for research, raises exciting questions in this context. It is situated at the intersection of life and theory. The problem is that most lawyers do not realise it. For them life is constructed out of the narratives told by judges, some of whom occasionally have a literary approach. These narratives are proxies for the real world. It may take some time before one realise that the worlds constructed by judges were often not realistic as a whole.
  • 8. For example : as students we religiously learn about the snail in the ginger beer bottle and learn to control our reflexes, but in fact we do not know if that snail existed or not. As a hands on shortcut devices, law reports have utility; as devices for engineering social action, they are disturbing. The key for system theorists is that law appears to be a system as a result of the ways it is constructed by its practitioners. Judges and lawyers endow law with an authority that it cannot sustain under examination, especially from the ethnographer.
  • 9. BECOMING AN ETHNOGRAPHER Although the anthropology of law was a well- stocked field with studies of groups around the world, the sociology of law was relatively empty . It seemed once the state claimed the major role in law production, regulation and administration, law reverted to its formal characteristics in the socioeconomic sense rather than containing any impression of being socially constructed . It was difficult to encounter texts that would explain how the ‘law jobs’ were being done in modern legal framework . One could see occasional glimpses but not much else.
  • 10. For example : I became interested in examining the role of the barristers’ clerk, an agent who supplies work to barristers and collects their fees . To my naïve view of the world, it seemed ridiculous that the legal profession could base itself on Dickensian class divisions and that barristers’ clerks were truly a relic of the 19th century. Yet, as the study evolved, I came to see that clerks were an important part of the English legal system, providing a network through which different parts could coordinate. The entire court listing system was balanced around the clerks’ diary manipulation: this way they could keep the courts’ case docket moving and maintain a steady schedule of work for their barristers.
  • 11. ORIGIN OF ETHNOGRAPHY It had its origin in social and cultural anthropology in the early twentieth century. Ethnography was first used in cultural anthropology, but now it is also used in informatics, psychology, sociology and education,law. Bronislaw Malinowski is credited with first ,who formally defined “fieldwork”, which is the basis for ethnography, when he studied and lived with the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands , Papua New Guinea in 1915.
  • 12. Ethnography is a branch of Social and cultural anthropology and it is the indepth, systematic study of individual cultures. Ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view of the subject of the study. Meaning of the word “ ANTHROPOLOGY” According to the Oxford Dictionary the word “ANTHROPOLOGY” means the study of human societies and cultures and their development. Researchers examine lesser-known findings in archaeology and anthropology to highlight all that we don't know about human history"
  • 13. Ethnographic Research is a qualitative research method involving the systematic study of people for collecting data often used in the social and behavioural sciences. Data are collected through observations and interviews, looking at the social interaction of participants in a given environment. which are then used to draw conclusions about how societies and individuals function. What is “ ETHNOGRAPHIC RESERCH” Cont…
  • 14. Researchers conducting an ethnographic study spend time with the participants, have an up-close experience with them to gain insights into their social interactions, and collect data through participant observation, face-to-face interviews, etc. Ethnography in qualitative research is also called thick description as it involves an up- close observation of the participants and a detailed description of their cultures, behavior , mutual differences, and practices.
  • 15. This research provides an in-depth insight into the user’s perspectives and actions along with the sights and sounds they encounter during their day. It provides the researcher with an understanding of how those users see the world and how they interact with everything around them.
  • 16. What is Qualitative research method ? Qualitative research can be defined as a type of scientific research that tries to bridge the gap of incomplete information, systematically collects evidence, produces findings and thereby seeks answer to a problem or question. It is widely used in collecting and understanding specific information about the behaviour, opinion, values and other social aspects of a particular community, culture or population. Qualitative research helps in providing an in depth knowledge regarding human behaviour and tries to find out reasons behind decision making tendencies of humans. Ethnographic examples include studying the way a particular culture celebrates a holiday, understanding how a social group communicates. Ethnography can also be used to understand how a social change, such as the introduction of a new technology, affects a group.
  • 17. What is Quantitative research? Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc. What is quantitative research in ethnography? Quantitative Ethnography is a methodology that blends qualitative and quantitative approaches into a solution for overcoming the weaknesses of traditional methods when applied to big data. Quantitative Ethnography views big data—and data more generally—as evidence about the discourse of particular cultures.
  • 18. Ethnographers mainly use qualitative methods, though they may also employ quantitative data. The typical ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the habitat. A wide range of groups and organisations have been studied by this method, including traditional communities, youth gangs, religious cults, and organisations of various kinds. While , traditionally, ethnography has relied on the physical presence of the researcher in a setting, there is research using the label that has relied on interviews or documents, sometimes to investigate events in the past. There is also a considerable amount of 'virtual' or online ethnography, sometimes labelled net-nography or cyber-Ethnography.
  • 19. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH METHODS As We’ve Discovered, Ethnographic Research Is A Method Often Used To Study Another Culture Or Group Of People. It’s A Powerful Tool To Understand The World Better. It Can Be Done Through Observation, Interviews and Archival research method. In The Field, ethnographers Often Take Notes While Observing Their Subjects. They Also Record Conversations And Keep A Journal Of What They See. Later, These Findings Get Transcribed And Analyzed For Accuracy. In Addition, Multiple Researchers Can Work To Get A Clear Picture Of A Culture Or Community. All Of This Data Can Go Into A Book, Article, Or Scientific Report That Describes The Findings Of The Group’s Research.
  • 20. Ethnographic observation There are two types of ethnographic observation: active participant observation and passive participant observation. The first one involves becoming a member of the study group, partaking in their daily activities, and working directly with them to get hands- on experience and understand their perspective. The latter involves observing and taking notes only. You do not get involved in the group’s activities.
  • 21. Ethnographic Interviews Interviews in ethnographic fieldwork involve observing the participants in their natural environment and asking them questions to gain more insights. Researchers utilizing this ethnographic method interact with the study group to understand the participants' actions and thought processes. An advantage of collecting data through interviews when conducting ethnographic fieldwork is that the researcher gets to ask questions directly linked to participants’ experiences and unearths insights that you may not uncover if the interview happened outside the subject’s natural environment.
  • 22. Archival ethnographic research Archival ethnographic research is a method in which you collect and analyze existing research data, websites, annual reports, and other relevant written documents to learn more about the people and place you are investigating. When archival research is used alongside other methods, it helps the researcher become more prepared as they know about the participants’ demographics, economic status, education levels, cultures, interests, etc., before conducting the ethnographic fieldwork.
  • 23. How to conduct ethnographic research Below are the main steps involved in conducting ethnography qualitative research. 1)Identify the questions you hope to answer with your ethnography study. This first step will help you determine the goals of your ethnographic research and shape your entire work. 2)Choose the best ethnographic method to collect the data you need. You can either utilize one or use a mix of the methods listed above. For example, you could use only ethnographic observation or interviews, ethnographic observation, and archival research for your study. 3)Contact your potential study subjects to explain your research and obtain informed consent. Cont….
  • 24. 4)Start your study with ethnographic fieldwork. Go to the place under investigation to observe, ask questions, gain more insights, and take thorough notes. 5)After ethnographic fieldwork, the next step is analyzing your data. How to analyze ethnographic observations? Analysing ethnographic data involves identifying patterns and themes in the data you collected the process is called ethnographic data coding. one can facilitate this time- consuming process and save some stress by using software for data analysis. Cont….
  • 25. 6)Once you analyze your data, the next thing is to list all the insights you uncovered from your research, including the answers to your research questions. 7)The last step in ethnographic research is writing and presenting your findings. The output from an ethnographic study is called ethnography, a detailed and all-encompassing description of the research subjects, insights you uncovered, and how you conducted the study.
  • 26. Ethnographic research examples Let me provide a brief account of the barristers’ clerk’s world so that this chapter remains intelligible. Essentially the clerk is the middleman, or mediator, between the diverse interests of the legal system, namely those of barristers, solicitors, judges, list officers, and occasionally the client upon whom the system depends. Although these groups are discrete, they are interdependent. But their interdependence does not prevent them from pressing divergent demands that must somehow be resolved into a common aim if the legal process is to function reasonably smoothly. Observing the role of the barristers’ clerk
  • 27. How is this resolution effected by the clerk? For the purpose of achieving the common aim he assumes different roles to satisfy the demands, but keeping in mind his own interests. Broadly, there are three such roles: counsellor, negotiator, and ‘fixer’. Perhaps the most important is that of fixer, since the others are variants of it. While performing these roles the clerk carries out a number of tasks. The main ones are negotiating his barristers’ fees and collecting them, obtaining work for his barristers, supervising their and the chambers’ accounts, helping to schedule cases and checking the daily court lists for his barristers and the solicitor . The barrister’s clerk has a wide range of duties delegated to him. Cont…
  • 28. The ostensible rationale of his existence is to relieve the barrister of the day-to-day routines of office administration so that the latter can concentrate entirely on legal work. But the clerk does much of the ‘dirty work’ of the Bar. He fulfils a role that would be difficult, both theoretically and practically, for the Bar to do without. For example, he generates work for barristers, permitting them the claim that they conform to their rule against advertising: he can refuse to accept work on a barrister’s behalf by, say, charging an exorbitant fee, allowing barristers to say that they conform to the supposedly inviolate cab-rank rule. Clerks have a lively history appearing in novels by Surtees and Trollope.
  • 29. Advantages of ethnographic research 1) Deeper, more nuanced understandings. 2) Helps in collecting valuable dada to form legislative intension. 3) Represent what’s really going on in some everyday setting. 4) Helps to understand What regulation is desired by the people in a ever changing society. 5) Respect for complexity of human activity. 6) Design for human needs; reflect users’ own issues and everyday problems. 7) Safe to do it right the first time. 8) considering the ramifications of enacting a new law. 9) Can see things people wouldn’t think to report. 10) Can ask questions at moment of interesting activity.
  • 30. Disadvantages of ethnographic research Some of the disadvantages of ethnographic research are: 1) ethnographic research is time-consuming and requires some level of expertise. 2) Conducting an ethnographic study is expensive as it requires the researcher to travel to the participants' natural environment and live with them for weeks or months to learn about their ways. 3) The researcher's presence may affect the participants' behavior, thereby affecting the validity and authenticity of the research results. 4) The researcher’s bias may affect the design and implementation of an ethnographic study.
  • 31. When to use ethnographic research? One can use Ethnography in sociology, health sciences, education , Legal studies and other cultural studies when you are trying to: 1) Understand reasons why people in a social setting behave in a certain way. 2) Examine social interactions and gain insights into a social phenomenon. 3) Understand the cultural norms and views of a group of people. 4) Study the behavior of workers in a workplace.
  • 32. References 1. J. P. Spradley The ethonographic interview. New York, NY, USA: Holt, Rinehart and Winston; 1979. 2.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287833554_Et hnographic_methods_second_edition 3.https://www.leidenlawmethodsportal.nl/topics/ethnography 4.https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=949 887 5.https://research.virginia.edu/irb-sbs/ethnographic- research 6.https://www.experienceux.co.uk/faqs/what-is- ethnography-research/