SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Download to read offline
Equity in MENA and Latin America
from a comparison perspective – the
role of social protection
Fabio Veras Soares
International Policy Centre for Inclusive
Growth – IPC-IG
(www.ipc-undp.org)
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 Latin American countries are well known for their high level of inequalities.
 Recent reforms of the social protection system have tried to curb poverty as well
as to address inequities of the social protection system and to facilitate access to
social services.
 MENA countries have much lower inequality but they are facing challenges with
the current design of their social protection programmes.
 Recent reforms (or talk of) suggest that (some) countries in the MENA region
want to learn more from LAC experience and adapt certain reforms to their
context.
Source (Cedlas)
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCcQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcedlas.econo.unlp.edu.ar%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile
%3Darchivos_upload%2Fdoc_cedlas151.pdf&ei=lWqOVM7KIMz4UvDOgsgO&usg=AFQjCNEOrz59qWZjzooZZL6YLTDlQR0Cww&sig2=JhOdV9XHEQuId6E40WHMnw&bvm=bv.81828268,
d.d24
Source (Cedlas)
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCcQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcedlas.econo.unlp.edu.ar%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile
%3Darchivos_upload%2Fdoc_cedlas151.pdf&ei=lWqOVM7KIMz4UvDOgsgO&usg=AFQjCNEOrz59qWZjzooZZL6YLTDlQR0Cww&sig2=JhOdV9XHEQuId6E40WHMnw&bvm=bv.81828268,
d.d24
Source: ECLAC 2013 Social Panorama
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 ECLAC classifies countries in Latin America into three groups as per their
investments social policies (health and education) and in social protection:
Group I: higher level of per capita investment in social protection and social
policies, high investment in social security and assistance, higher investment in
health (similar as education) – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Costa Rica and
Panama.
Group II: medium level of per capita investment in social protection and social
policies, medium level of investment in social security and assistance, low
investment in healh (half of level in education): Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela
Group III: low level of per capita investment in social protection and social policy,
low investement in social security and assistance, low investment in healt (half of
the level of education): Bolivia, Equador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and
Dominican Republic
Source: ECLAC
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 MENA countries spend relatively more with social protection (or SSN) than LAC
countries…
 However these expenditures tend to be less progressive due to their focus on
fuel and food subsidies.
 Excluding fuel and food subsidies there are somewhat similar level of
investment, but with very different results….
 Social security: sustainability issue, pay as you go system for formal sector
workers and public servants, high reposition rates, almost no coverage of
informal sector, and scattered schemes.
 Social assistance: focus on food subsidies, categorical and geographical targeting
and undercoverage of the poor and high levels of leakage.
World Bank (2012)
World Bank (2014): http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/05/19487568/state-social-safety-nets-2014
Spending on SSN and Fuel Subsidies
Source: IMF 2011, Elaboration: Markus Loewe (2014)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Egypt
Algeria
Yemen
Jordan
Tunisia
Bahrain
Moroco
Syria
Oman
Mauritania
Pension schemes
Health system
Cash for work
Social assistance
Child allowances
Food subsidies
Energy subsidies
World Bank (2012) – MENA DEVELOPMENT REPORT - Inclusion and resilience :
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 Two key issues with SSN programmes: progressiveness of
the transfers and low coverage.
 Exceptions: The Sadat Pension in Egypt, the Social
Welfare Fund (SWF), PNAFN in Tunisia, Tayssir
programme in Morocco… but some still suffer of
problems of coverage: quotas, unclear targeting and
categorical focus on the unable to work undermine
coverage of poor and vulnerable children.
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 In comparison to other world regions, there is clear
underperformance in the Arab region social assistance
and SSN programmes in terms of beneficiary incidence.
 Exceptions: The Sadat Pension in Egypt, the Social
Welfare Fund (SWF), PNAFN in Tunisia, Tayssir
programme in Morocco… but some suffer still of
problems of coverage: quotas, unclear targeting and
categorical focus on the unable to work undermine
coverage of poor and vulnerable children.
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 Example from the Yemen targeting assessment of the Social Welfare based on
the NSPMS data (based on Figures on the next slides).
 Figure NSPMS (1) shows that programme age-pyramid resembles that of the target
population.
 However, Figure NSPMS (2) shows that the age-pyramid of the extreme poor and of the
poor does differ from those of categories of the SWF shown in NSPMS (1) – children are
more likely to be among the poor and extreme poor.
 The adoption of the a Proxy Means Test (PMT) improved the SWF targeting of the
inclusion of more households with children among beneficiaries. In Figure NSPMS (3),
new SWF beneficiaries – who were subjected to the PMT – had more families with
children. But NSPMS (3) age pyramid still differs a lot form age pyramid of the poor and
extreme poor NSPMS (2).
 It is necessary to expand social protection programmes for children in Yemen to improve
their targeting.
16
Yemen NSMPS (1): Age pyramid for SWF beneficiaries and SWF categories
(10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Female Male
SWF beneficiaires
(10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Female Male
SWF categories
Source: NSPMS Final report (http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/html/TP08_Yemen_National_Social_Protection_Monitoring_Survey_2012_2013/#6)
17
Yemen NSMPS (2): Age pyramid for the extreme poor and the poor
Extreme Poor Poor
(10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Female Male
(10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Female Male
Source: NSPMS Final report (http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/html/TP08_Yemen_National_Social_Protection_Monitoring_Survey_2012_2013/#6)
18
Yemen NSPMS (3): Age pyramids – Old and New SWF beneficiary
Old SWF beneficiary New SWF beneficiary
(10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Female Male
(10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Female Male
Source: NSPMS Final report (http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/html/TP08_Yemen_National_Social_Protection_Monitoring_Survey_2012_2013/#6)
Inequities in LAC and MENA
 The key point of the experience of Latin American has
been the extension of different social protection
mechanisms in a coordinated way.
 Expansion of the Social Protection programmes to cover
families with children.
 Single registries or integrated databases have had a great
impact on the improvement of the effectiviness of these
policies
 MIS systems and regular monitoring and evaluation have
provided the evidence to support these policies
Thanks

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA)
Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA) Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA)
Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA) UNICEF Algérie
 
Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...
Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...
Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...UNICEF Algérie
 
The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...
The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...
The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...UNICEF Algérie
 
The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...
The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...
The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...UNICEF Algérie
 
Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...
Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...
Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...UNICEF Algérie
 
Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)
Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)
Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)UNICEF Algérie
 
The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...
The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...
The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...UNICEF Algérie
 
Characteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and Policies
Characteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and PoliciesCharacteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and Policies
Characteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and PoliciesUNICEF Algérie
 
CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).
CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).
CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).UNICEF Algérie
 

Viewers also liked (9)

Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA)
Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA) Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA)
Enfants et inégalités : Une Approche de Privations Multiples (MODA)
 
Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...
Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...
Réflexion nationale pour la mise en place d’un mécanisme institutionnel pour ...
 
The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...
The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...
The role of civil society in influencing more equitable public policies for c...
 
The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...
The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...
The Law on social development and the introduction of multidimensional povert...
 
Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...
Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...
Le rôle de l’Observatoire National du Développement Humain dans le suivi et l...
 
Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)
Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)
Vers l’équité et les objectifs post-2015 relatifs à l’enfance. (ENG)
 
The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...
The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...
The role of the Mozambique and Southern Africa observatories in alleviating p...
 
Characteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and Policies
Characteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and PoliciesCharacteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and Policies
Characteristics of Inequalities in Europe: Context and Policies
 
CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).
CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).
CBMS as a tool for promoting equity, PEP-Asia CBMS Network (Philippines).
 

Similar to Equity in MENA and Latin America from a comparison perspective

Antipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agenda
Antipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agendaAntipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agenda
Antipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agendaGlobal Development Institute
 
Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challenges
Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challengesConditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challenges
Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challengesUNDP Policy Centre
 
Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?
Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?
Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?HFG Project
 
Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...
Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...
Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...HFG Project
 
Anti-poverty transfers in the South
Anti-poverty transfers in the SouthAnti-poverty transfers in the South
Anti-poverty transfers in the SouthChris Jordan
 
Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability
Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability
Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability UNDP Seoul Policy Centre
 
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection – setting t...
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection  – setting t...Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection  – setting t...
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection – setting t...UNDP Policy Centre
 
Egypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio veras
Egypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio verasEgypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio veras
Egypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio verasUNDP Policy Centre
 
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?UNDP Policy Centre
 
Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective
Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective
Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective Dcode EFC
 
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social ProtectionGraduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social ProtectionThe Transfer Project
 
What challenges exist for early childhood care and education
What challenges exist for early childhood care and educationWhat challenges exist for early childhood care and education
What challenges exist for early childhood care and educationKenyaSchoolReport.com
 
Qgd100007 chronic poverty in asean
Qgd100007 chronic poverty in aseanQgd100007 chronic poverty in asean
Qgd100007 chronic poverty in aseanJamilah Tron
 
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An Overview
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An OverviewCash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An Overview
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An OverviewUNDP Policy Centre
 
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wbFinancial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wbDr Lendy Spires
 
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wbFinancial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wbDr Lendy Spires
 

Similar to Equity in MENA and Latin America from a comparison perspective (20)

Antipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agenda
Antipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agendaAntipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agenda
Antipoverty transfers and the post-2015 development agenda
 
Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challenges
Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challengesConditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challenges
Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America– achievement and challenges
 
Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?
Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?
Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the Bank doing?
 
Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...
Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...
Presentation: Human Development Challenges in Southern Africa – What is the B...
 
Anti-poverty transfers in the South
Anti-poverty transfers in the SouthAnti-poverty transfers in the South
Anti-poverty transfers in the South
 
Pensions Core Course 2013: Pension Pattern and Reform Challenges from Sub-sah...
Pensions Core Course 2013: Pension Pattern and Reform Challenges from Sub-sah...Pensions Core Course 2013: Pension Pattern and Reform Challenges from Sub-sah...
Pensions Core Course 2013: Pension Pattern and Reform Challenges from Sub-sah...
 
Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability
Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability
Productivity,Sequencing and Fiscal Sustainability
 
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection – setting t...
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection  – setting t...Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection  – setting t...
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection – setting t...
 
Egypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio veras
Egypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio verasEgypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio veras
Egypt future of cc ts_expansion of cts_dr fabio veras
 
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa – what’s next?
 
Leo2017_CRB
Leo2017_CRBLeo2017_CRB
Leo2017_CRB
 
Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective
Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective
Social Justice in Egypt from a Poverty Perspective
 
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social ProtectionGraduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection
Graduation from Poverty versus Graduating from Social Protection
 
Sample 6
Sample 6Sample 6
Sample 6
 
What challenges exist for early childhood care and education
What challenges exist for early childhood care and educationWhat challenges exist for early childhood care and education
What challenges exist for early childhood care and education
 
Rethinking Inequality in Arab States
Rethinking Inequality in Arab StatesRethinking Inequality in Arab States
Rethinking Inequality in Arab States
 
Qgd100007 chronic poverty in asean
Qgd100007 chronic poverty in aseanQgd100007 chronic poverty in asean
Qgd100007 chronic poverty in asean
 
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An Overview
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An OverviewCash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An Overview
Cash Transfers in Latin America and Africa: An Overview
 
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wbFinancial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
 
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wbFinancial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
Financial inclusion-and-poverty-by-jp-azevedo-wb
 

Recently uploaded

RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.
RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.
RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.Christina Parmionova
 
PPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdf
PPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdfPPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdf
PPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdfahcitycouncil
 
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1KelleyWasmund
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 222024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22JSchaus & Associates
 
PPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
PPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure ProcessesPPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
PPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processesahcitycouncil
 
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...Christina Parmionova
 
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.Christina Parmionova
 
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.Christina Parmionova
 
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!Christina Parmionova
 
Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1KelleyWasmund
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 192024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19JSchaus & Associates
 
UPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDF
UPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDFUPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDF
UPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDFssuser4a14dc
 
World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.
World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.
World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.Christina Parmionova
 
Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services
Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design ServicesItem # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services
Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Servicesahcitycouncil
 
Item # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM Minutes
Item # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM MinutesItem # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM Minutes
Item # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM Minutesahcitycouncil
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 232024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23JSchaus & Associates
 
Mahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptx
Mahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptxMahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptx
Mahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptxGLADYSNUEVO1
 
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.Cristal Montañéz
 

Recently uploaded (20)

TransitionZero: Data for modelling early retirement of coal plants
TransitionZero: Data for modelling early retirement of coal plantsTransitionZero: Data for modelling early retirement of coal plants
TransitionZero: Data for modelling early retirement of coal plants
 
RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.
RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.
RIGHT TO HEALTH - OHCHR & World Health Organization report.
 
PPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdf
PPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdfPPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdf
PPT Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat.pdf
 
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 222024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
 
PPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
PPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure ProcessesPPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
PPT Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
 
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
 
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
 
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
 
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!
 
Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project - Foster Training: Lesson 1
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 192024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
 
UPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDF
UPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDFUPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDF
UPDATED_SARO_march_3_2024 to april 6, 2024 for the goverbment.PDF
 
PPCA: Coal Transition Commission - Next Steps and Deliverables
PPCA: Coal Transition Commission - Next Steps and DeliverablesPPCA: Coal Transition Commission - Next Steps and Deliverables
PPCA: Coal Transition Commission - Next Steps and Deliverables
 
World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.
World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.
World Health Day theme 2024 is 'My health, my right’.
 
Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services
Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design ServicesItem # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services
Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services
 
Item # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM Minutes
Item # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM MinutesItem # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM Minutes
Item # 1a --- March 25, 2024 CCM Minutes
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 232024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
 
Mahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptx
Mahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptxMahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptx
Mahahalagang Pangyayaring naganap sa Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.pptx
 
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
 

Equity in MENA and Latin America from a comparison perspective

  • 1. Equity in MENA and Latin America from a comparison perspective – the role of social protection Fabio Veras Soares International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth – IPC-IG (www.ipc-undp.org)
  • 2. Inequities in LAC and MENA  Latin American countries are well known for their high level of inequalities.  Recent reforms of the social protection system have tried to curb poverty as well as to address inequities of the social protection system and to facilitate access to social services.  MENA countries have much lower inequality but they are facing challenges with the current design of their social protection programmes.  Recent reforms (or talk of) suggest that (some) countries in the MENA region want to learn more from LAC experience and adapt certain reforms to their context.
  • 5. Source: ECLAC 2013 Social Panorama
  • 6. Inequities in LAC and MENA  ECLAC classifies countries in Latin America into three groups as per their investments social policies (health and education) and in social protection: Group I: higher level of per capita investment in social protection and social policies, high investment in social security and assistance, higher investment in health (similar as education) – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Costa Rica and Panama. Group II: medium level of per capita investment in social protection and social policies, medium level of investment in social security and assistance, low investment in healh (half of level in education): Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela Group III: low level of per capita investment in social protection and social policy, low investement in social security and assistance, low investment in healt (half of the level of education): Bolivia, Equador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and Dominican Republic
  • 8. Inequities in LAC and MENA  MENA countries spend relatively more with social protection (or SSN) than LAC countries…  However these expenditures tend to be less progressive due to their focus on fuel and food subsidies.  Excluding fuel and food subsidies there are somewhat similar level of investment, but with very different results….  Social security: sustainability issue, pay as you go system for formal sector workers and public servants, high reposition rates, almost no coverage of informal sector, and scattered schemes.  Social assistance: focus on food subsidies, categorical and geographical targeting and undercoverage of the poor and high levels of leakage.
  • 10. World Bank (2014): http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/05/19487568/state-social-safety-nets-2014 Spending on SSN and Fuel Subsidies
  • 11. Source: IMF 2011, Elaboration: Markus Loewe (2014) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Egypt Algeria Yemen Jordan Tunisia Bahrain Moroco Syria Oman Mauritania Pension schemes Health system Cash for work Social assistance Child allowances Food subsidies Energy subsidies
  • 12. World Bank (2012) – MENA DEVELOPMENT REPORT - Inclusion and resilience :
  • 13. Inequities in LAC and MENA  Two key issues with SSN programmes: progressiveness of the transfers and low coverage.  Exceptions: The Sadat Pension in Egypt, the Social Welfare Fund (SWF), PNAFN in Tunisia, Tayssir programme in Morocco… but some still suffer of problems of coverage: quotas, unclear targeting and categorical focus on the unable to work undermine coverage of poor and vulnerable children.
  • 14. Inequities in LAC and MENA  In comparison to other world regions, there is clear underperformance in the Arab region social assistance and SSN programmes in terms of beneficiary incidence.  Exceptions: The Sadat Pension in Egypt, the Social Welfare Fund (SWF), PNAFN in Tunisia, Tayssir programme in Morocco… but some suffer still of problems of coverage: quotas, unclear targeting and categorical focus on the unable to work undermine coverage of poor and vulnerable children.
  • 15. Inequities in LAC and MENA  Example from the Yemen targeting assessment of the Social Welfare based on the NSPMS data (based on Figures on the next slides).  Figure NSPMS (1) shows that programme age-pyramid resembles that of the target population.  However, Figure NSPMS (2) shows that the age-pyramid of the extreme poor and of the poor does differ from those of categories of the SWF shown in NSPMS (1) – children are more likely to be among the poor and extreme poor.  The adoption of the a Proxy Means Test (PMT) improved the SWF targeting of the inclusion of more households with children among beneficiaries. In Figure NSPMS (3), new SWF beneficiaries – who were subjected to the PMT – had more families with children. But NSPMS (3) age pyramid still differs a lot form age pyramid of the poor and extreme poor NSPMS (2).  It is necessary to expand social protection programmes for children in Yemen to improve their targeting.
  • 16. 16 Yemen NSMPS (1): Age pyramid for SWF beneficiaries and SWF categories (10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Female Male SWF beneficiaires (10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Female Male SWF categories Source: NSPMS Final report (http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/html/TP08_Yemen_National_Social_Protection_Monitoring_Survey_2012_2013/#6)
  • 17. 17 Yemen NSMPS (2): Age pyramid for the extreme poor and the poor Extreme Poor Poor (10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Female Male (10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Female Male Source: NSPMS Final report (http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/html/TP08_Yemen_National_Social_Protection_Monitoring_Survey_2012_2013/#6)
  • 18. 18 Yemen NSPMS (3): Age pyramids – Old and New SWF beneficiary Old SWF beneficiary New SWF beneficiary (10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Female Male (10) (8) (6) (4) (2) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Female Male Source: NSPMS Final report (http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/html/TP08_Yemen_National_Social_Protection_Monitoring_Survey_2012_2013/#6)
  • 19. Inequities in LAC and MENA  The key point of the experience of Latin American has been the extension of different social protection mechanisms in a coordinated way.  Expansion of the Social Protection programmes to cover families with children.  Single registries or integrated databases have had a great impact on the improvement of the effectiviness of these policies  MIS systems and regular monitoring and evaluation have provided the evidence to support these policies