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‫ميحرلا نمحرلا هللا‬ ‫بسم‬
‫العلمي‬ ‫والبحث‬ ‫العالي‬ ‫التعليم‬ ‫وزارة‬
‫والتكنولوجيا‬ ‫للعلوم‬ ‫السالمة‬ ‫كلية‬
ENGINEERING ECONOMY
‫الهندسي‬ ‫اإلقتصاد‬
‫د‬
.
‫زين‬ ‫دمحم‬ ‫علي‬ INTRODUCTION
‫الهندسة‬
‫هي‬
‫المهنة‬
‫التي‬
‫يتم‬
‫فيها‬
‫تطبيق‬
‫المعرفة‬
‫بالعلوم‬
‫الرياضية‬
‫والطبيعية‬
‫المكتسبة‬
‫من‬
‫خالل‬
‫الدراسة‬
‫والخبرة‬
‫لالستفادة‬
‫من‬
‫المواد‬
‫وقوى‬
‫الطبيعة‬
‫الهندسة‬
‫هي‬
‫نظام‬
‫وفن‬
‫ومهنة‬
‫تطبيق‬
‫النظريات‬
‫العلمية‬
‫لتصميم‬
‫وتطوير‬
‫وتحليل‬
‫الحلول‬
‫التقنية‬
‫مقدمــــــــــــــــة‬
‫ماهو‬
‫االقتصاد‬
‫؟‬
‫هو‬
‫ذلك‬
‫العلم‬
‫الذي‬
‫يدرس‬
‫كيفية‬
‫توظيف‬
‫أفراد‬
‫المجتمع‬
‫لمواردهم‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫ذات‬
‫االستخدامات‬
‫المتعددة‬
‫إلنتاج‬
‫مجموعة‬
‫متباينة‬
‫من‬
‫السلع‬
‫اوالخدمات‬
‫و‬
‫توزيعها‬
‫بين‬
‫المواطنين‬
‫لالستهالك‬
‫الحاضر‬
‫والمستقبل‬
‫ي‬
‫وذالك‬
‫إلشباع‬
‫حاجاتهم‬
‫و‬
‫رغباتهم‬
.
‫مقدمــــــــــــــــة‬

‫ينقسم‬
‫علم‬
‫االقتصاد‬
‫إلى‬
‫فرعين‬
‫رئيسين‬
‫هما‬
:

‫االقتصاد‬
‫الكلي‬
:
‫يدرس‬
‫عمل‬
‫االقتصاد‬
‫ككل‬
‫و‬
‫يسعي‬
‫إلى‬
‫توضيح‬
‫القوى‬
‫أو‬
‫العوامل‬
‫التي‬
‫قد‬
‫تحدد‬
‫المستويات‬
‫الكلية‬
‫للناتج‬
/
‫التوظيف‬
/
‫مستوى‬
‫األسعار‬
‫العامة‬
‫في‬
‫االقتصاد‬
/
‫معدالت‬
‫تغير‬
‫األسعار‬
‫على‬
‫مر‬
‫الزمن‬
.

‫االقتصاد‬
‫الجزئي‬
:
‫فيدرس‬
‫سلوك‬
‫الوحدات‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫الفردية‬
‫المكونة‬
‫لالقتصاد‬
‫مثل‬

‫المستهلكين‬
/
‫المنشآت‬
/
‫الصناعات‬
/
‫األسواق‬
‫المالية‬
.
‫مقدمــــــــــــــــة‬
‫يتضمن‬
‫االقتصاد‬
‫الهندسي‬
‫التقييم‬
‫المنهجي‬
‫للمزايا‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫للحلول‬
‫المقترحة‬
‫للمشاكل‬
‫الهندسية‬
.
‫لكي‬
‫تكون‬
‫مقبولة‬
‫ا‬ً‫ي‬‫اقتصاد‬
(
‫أي‬
‫بأسعار‬
‫معقولة‬
)
،
‫يجب‬
‫أن‬
‫ظهر‬ُ‫ت‬
‫حلول‬
‫المشكالت‬
‫الهندسية‬
‫ا‬ً‫ن‬‫تواز‬
‫ا‬ً‫ي‬‫إيجاب‬
‫للفوائد‬
‫طويلة‬
‫األجل‬
‫على‬
‫التكاليف‬
‫طويلة‬
‫األجل‬
،
‫ويجب‬
‫ا‬ً‫ض‬‫أي‬
:
•
‫تعزيز‬
‫رفاهية‬
‫وبقاء‬
‫المنظمة‬
،
•
‫تجسيد‬
‫التكنولوجيا‬
‫واألفكار‬
‫اإلبداعية‬
‫والمبتكرة‬
،
•
‫السماح‬
‫بتحديد‬
‫وتمحيص‬
‫نتائجها‬
‫المقدرة‬
•
‫ترجمة‬
‫الربحية‬
‫إلى‬
"
‫المحصلة‬
‫النهائية‬
"
‫من‬
‫خالل‬
‫مقياس‬
‫مقبول‬
.
‫مقدمــــــــــــــــة‬

‫أنواع‬
‫الموارد‬
‫االقتصادية‬
:
-

‫الموارد‬
‫البشرية‬
:
-
‫تعتبر‬
‫من‬
‫أهم‬
‫الموارد‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫فالمورد‬
‫البشري‬
‫في‬
‫رأي‬
‫االقتصاديون‬
‫مفضل‬
‫على‬
‫بقية‬
‫الموارد‬
‫األخرى‬
‫المتوفرة‬
،
‫و‬
‫يستدل‬
‫على‬
‫أهمية‬
‫المورد‬
‫البشري‬
‫في‬
‫التنمية‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫إلى‬
‫ما‬
‫وصلت‬
‫إليه‬
‫اليابان‬
‫من‬
‫تقدم‬
‫مع‬
‫أنها‬
‫تفتقر‬
‫إلى‬
‫أغلب‬
‫الموارد‬
‫األولية‬
‫الالزمة‬
‫لنهضة‬
‫صناعتها‬
،
‫فبرغم‬
‫من‬
‫عدم‬
‫توفر‬
‫النفط‬
‫و‬
‫الفحم‬
‫و‬
‫الحديد‬
‫إال‬
‫أنها‬
‫اعتمدت‬
‫على‬
‫الموارد‬
‫البشرية‬
‫المتطورة‬
‫التي‬
‫استطاعت‬
‫إن‬
‫تنافس‬
‫اك‬
‫ث‬
‫ر‬
‫البلدان‬
‫تقدما‬
‫صناعيا‬

‫الموارد‬
‫الطبيعية‬
:
-
‫ويطلق‬
‫على‬
‫هذا‬
‫النوع‬
‫من‬
‫الموارد‬
‫اسم‬
‫الموارد‬
‫األرضية‬
‫و‬
‫يمكن‬
‫حصرها‬
‫في‬
‫كل‬
‫ما‬
‫يوجد‬
‫على‬
‫سطح‬
‫األرض‬
‫من‬
‫زراعة‬
‫و‬
‫أنهار‬
‫و‬
‫غابات‬
‫و‬
‫كذالك‬
‫ما‬
‫يوجد‬
‫في‬
‫باطنها‬
‫من‬
‫مياه‬
‫جوفية‬
‫و‬
‫نفط‬
‫و‬
‫غير‬
‫ذلك‬
.
‫الموارد‬
‫اإل‬
‫قتصادية‬

‫أنواع‬
‫الموارد‬
‫االقتصادية‬
:
-

‫رأس‬
‫المال‬
:
-
‫يشمل‬
‫هذا‬
‫النوع‬
‫من‬
‫الموارد‬
‫كل‬
‫اإلنشاءات‬
‫من‬
‫الطرق‬
‫والكباري‬
‫والمصانع‬
‫و‬
‫اآلالت‬
،
‫فكلما‬
‫زاد‬
‫هذا‬
‫المورد‬
‫في‬
‫بلد‬
‫ما‬
‫كانت‬
‫فرص‬
‫التنمية‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫بها‬
‫اك‬
‫ث‬
‫ر‬
‫يسرا‬
‫من‬
‫تلك‬
‫البالد‬
‫التي‬
‫تفتقر‬
‫إلى‬
‫هذا‬
‫النوع‬
‫من‬
‫الموارد‬
.

‫التنظيم‬
‫و‬
‫اإلدارة‬
:
-
‫ه‬
‫ذ‬
‫ا‬
‫المورد‬
‫له‬
‫صلة‬
‫وثيقة‬
‫بالمورد‬
‫البشري‬
‫حي‬
‫ث‬
‫المنظم‬
‫هو‬
‫المسئول‬
‫عن‬
‫دفع‬
‫عوامل‬
‫اإلنتاج‬
‫في‬
‫الوحدة‬
‫اإلنتاجية‬
‫بنسب‬
‫محددة‬
‫كفيلة‬
‫بإعطاء‬
‫كفاءة‬
‫عالية‬
‫في‬
‫اإلنتاج‬
‫و‬
‫يتوقف‬
‫على‬
‫المنظم‬
‫بالدرجة‬
‫األولى‬
‫مدى‬
‫إمكانية‬
‫إدخال‬
‫التكنولوجيا‬
‫الحديثة‬
‫و‬
‫االختراعات‬
‫و‬
‫تطويعها‬
‫للعملية‬
‫اإلنتاجية‬
‫للحصول‬
‫على‬
‫اكبر‬
‫قدر‬
‫ممكن‬
‫من‬
‫اإلنتاج‬
‫بنفس‬
‫الكمية‬
‫من‬
‫عوامل‬
‫اإلنتاج‬
.
‫الموارد‬
‫اإل‬
‫قتصادية‬

‫كفاءة‬
‫استخدام‬
‫الموارد‬

‫احد‬
‫القضايا‬
‫المهمة‬
‫في‬
‫علم‬
‫االقتصاد‬
‫هي‬
‫كيفية‬
‫تحقيق‬
‫الكفاءة‬
‫االقتصادية‬
‫أي‬
‫الكفاءة‬
‫في‬
‫استخدام‬
‫الموارد‬
‫النادرة‬
.

‫هذه‬
‫الكفاءة‬
‫تقتضي‬
‫تجنب‬
‫التبديد‬
‫في‬
‫موارد‬
‫المجتمع‬
‫الموارد‬
‫اإل‬
‫قتصادية‬
‫الطلب‬ ‫و‬ ‫العرض‬

‫تعريف‬
‫السوق‬
:
-
‫هو‬
‫الوسيلة‬
‫أو‬
‫الطريقة‬
‫التي‬
‫يلتقي‬
‫بواسطتها‬
‫البائعين‬
‫مع‬
‫المشترين‬
‫لتحديد‬
‫كمية‬
‫و‬
‫نوعية‬
‫و‬
‫سعر‬
‫سلعة‬
‫معينة‬
‫يتم‬
‫تبادلها‬
‫بينهم‬
‫ومن‬
‫هذا‬
‫فأن‬
‫هناك‬
‫سوق‬
‫لكل‬
‫سلعة‬
‫من‬
‫السلع‬
‫و‬
‫قد‬
‫يكون‬
‫السوق‬
‫منطقة‬
‫جغرافية‬
‫محددة‬
‫مثل‬
‫سوق‬
‫الخضار‬
‫و‬
‫قد‬
‫يكون‬
‫غير‬
‫محدد‬
‫بمنطقة‬
‫جغرافية‬
‫مثل‬
‫سوق‬
‫األسهم‬
‫و‬
‫السندات‬
‫و‬
‫البترول‬
.

‫تعريف‬
‫السعر‬
:
-
‫هو‬
‫المبلغ‬
‫المدفوع‬
‫ثمنا‬
‫لوحدة‬
‫واحدة‬
‫من‬
‫نوعية‬
‫معينة‬
‫لسلعة‬
‫ما‬
‫و‬
‫هناك‬
‫قوتين‬
‫تأثران‬
‫على‬
‫السوق‬
‫هما‬
‫قوة‬
‫المشترين‬
‫و‬
‫المتمثلة‬
‫في‬
‫الطلب‬
‫على‬
‫السلعة‬
‫و‬
‫قوة‬
‫المنتجين‬
‫و‬
‫المتمثلة‬
‫في‬
‫عرض‬
‫السلعة‬
‫وهاتان‬
‫القوتين‬
‫تسمى‬
‫قوى‬
‫السوق‬
‫فيقوم‬
‫المستهلكين‬
‫بتعظيم‬
‫منفعتهم‬
‫و‬
‫يقوم‬
‫المنتجين‬
‫بإنتاج‬
‫السلعة‬
‫بحيث‬
‫تعظم‬
‫أرباحهم‬
‫و‬
‫هو‬
‫ما‬
‫يعرف‬
‫بـــ‬
(
‫مبدأ‬
‫سيادة‬
‫المستهلك‬
)

‫تعرف‬
‫دراسة‬
‫الجدوى‬
‫بأنها‬
‫مجموعة‬
‫من‬
‫األسس‬
‫العلمية‬
‫المستمدة‬
‫من‬
‫علم‬
‫االقتصاد‬
‫و‬
‫اإلدارة‬
‫و‬
‫بحو‬
‫ث‬
‫العمليات‬
‫و‬
‫التي‬
‫تستخدم‬
‫في‬
‫تجميع‬
‫البيانات‬
‫و‬
‫دراستها‬
‫و‬
‫تحليلها‬
‫بهدف‬
‫تقييم‬
‫المشروعات‬
‫االستثمارية‬
‫أو‬
‫تحديد‬
‫صالحيتها‬
‫من‬
‫عدة‬
‫جوانب‬
ً‫ا‬‫قانوني‬
‫و‬
ً‫ا‬‫تسويقي‬
ً‫ا‬‫وفني‬
‫و‬
ً‫ا‬‫مالي‬
‫و‬
ً‫ا‬‫اجتماعي‬
‫عليه‬
‫فأن‬
‫دراسة‬
‫الجدوى‬
‫هي‬
‫أسلوب‬
‫علمي‬
‫لتقدير‬
‫إ‬
‫حتماالت‬
‫نجاح‬
‫أو‬
‫فشل‬
‫مشروع‬
‫معين‬
‫أو‬
‫فكرة‬
‫إ‬
‫ستثمارية‬
‫أو‬
‫قرار‬
‫إ‬
‫ستثماري‬
‫قبل‬
‫التنفيذ‬
‫الفعلي‬
‫و‬
‫ذلك‬
‫في‬
‫ضوء‬
‫قدرة‬
‫المشروع‬
‫أو‬
‫القرار‬
‫االستثماري‬
‫على‬
‫تحقيق‬
‫أهداف‬
‫معينة‬
‫للمستثمر‬
‫و‬
‫للمجتمع‬
‫ككل‬
.
‫االقتصادية‬ ‫الجدوى‬ ‫دراسة‬
‫الخالصـــــــــــــــة‬
‫تستمر‬
‫البيئات‬
‫التكنولوجية‬
‫واالجتماعية‬
‫التي‬
‫نعيش‬
‫فيها‬
‫في‬
‫التغير‬
‫بمعدل‬
‫سريع‬
.
‫في‬
‫العقود‬
‫األخيرة‬
،
‫غيرت‬
‫التطورات‬
‫في‬
‫العلوم‬
‫والهندسة‬
‫أنظمة‬
،‫النقل‬
‫وأحدثت‬
‫ثورة‬
‫في‬
‫ممارسة‬
‫الطب‬
،
‫وصغرت‬
‫الدوائر‬
‫اإللكترونية‬
‫بحيث‬
‫يمكن‬
‫وضع‬
‫الكمبيوتر‬
‫على‬
‫شريحة‬
‫أشباه‬
‫الموصالت‬
.
‫يبدو‬
‫أن‬
‫قائمة‬
‫هذه‬
‫اإلنجازات‬
‫ال‬
‫تنتهي‬
‫ا‬ً‫ب‬‫تقري‬
.
‫في‬
‫دورات‬
‫العلوم‬
‫والهندسة‬
‫الخاصة‬
‫بك‬
،
‫ستتعرف‬
‫على‬
‫بعض‬
‫القوانين‬
‫الفيزيائية‬
‫التي‬
‫تكمن‬
‫وراء‬
‫هذه‬
‫اإلنجازات‬
.
‫يتم‬
‫تحقيق‬
‫االستفادة‬
‫من‬
‫المعرفة‬
‫العلمية‬
‫والهندسية‬
‫لصالحنا‬
‫من‬
‫خالل‬
‫تصميم‬
‫األشياء‬
‫التي‬
‫نستخدمها‬
،
‫مثل‬
‫أفران‬
‫تبخير‬
‫القمامة‬
‫وهياكل‬
‫لدعم‬
‫السكك‬
‫الحديدية‬
‫المغناطيسية‬
.
‫ومع‬
‫ذلك‬
،
‫فإن‬
‫هذه‬
‫اإلنجازات‬
‫ال‬
‫تحدث‬
‫بدون‬
‫ثمن‬
.
‫لذلك‬
،
‫فإن‬
‫الغرض‬
‫من‬
‫دراسة‬
‫اإلقتصاد‬
‫الهندسي‬
‫هو‬
‫تطوير‬
‫وتوضيح‬
‫المبادئ‬
‫والمنهجية‬
‫المطلوبة‬
‫لإلجابة‬
‫على‬
‫السؤال‬
‫االقتصادي‬
‫األساسي‬
‫ألي‬
‫تصميم‬
:
‫هل‬
‫تتجاوز‬
‫فوائده‬
‫تكاليفه؟‬

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