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© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy Efficiency Market Report
5 December 2018
IEA
© OECD/IEA 2018
Agenda
• Introduction
• Welcome / Opening Remarks
• Presentation
• Questions & Answers
© OECD/IEA 2018
IEA team on the webinar today
Joe Ritchie Hugo Salamanca
© OECD/IEA 2018
GotoWebinar Housekeeping
Telephone Details for Mexico: 01 800 112 2091 +
Access Code: 651-174-028
Toll-free: 0 800 555 452 (South Africa)
Access Code: 362-354-458
Questions in English
Question box
Attendee Interface
© OECD/IEA 2018
Welcoming remarks
Melanie Slade
Energy Efficiency in Emerging Economies
Programme Manager - IEA
© OECD/IEA 2018
Opening remarks
Brian Motherway
Head of the Energy Efficiency Division - IEA
© OECD/IEA 2018
The IEA is focusing on energy efficiency
© OECD/IEA 2018
Analysis, policy advice, training and exchange
Insights papers
Market reports
Workshops
Online exchange platform Global trainingGlobal conference
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy Efficiency 2018
• Global trends and outlooks
- Energy intensity and efficiency trends
- Introduction to efficient world scenario
- Policy progress and trends
- IEA Efficient World Strategy
• Sector chapters
- Transport, Buildings and Industry
• Investment finance and business models
• Energy Efficiency in Emerging Economies
- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico and South Africa
• Available for free from www.iea.org/efficiency2018
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy efficiency trends and
outlook
© OECD/IEA 2018
Global energy demand rose by nearly 2% in 2017, the fastest rise this decade, driven by economic
growth and changes in consumer behaviour.
Change in global primary energy demand, 2011-17
2017 saw a resurgence in global demand growth
0.0%
0.5%
1.0%
1.5%
2.0%
2.5%
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Source: Adapted from IEA (forthcoming), World Energy Outlook 2018; IEA (2018c) World Energy Statistics and Balances 2018 (database)
© OECD/IEA 2018
Global primary energy intensity improved in 2017, but at the slowest rate this decade.
The rate of global improvement would have been worse if not for continuing gains in China.
Annual change in global primary energy intensity, 2011-17
Global energy intensity is improving at a slower rate
-3.5%
-3.0%
-2.5%
-2.0%
-1.5%
-1.0%
-0.5%
0.0%
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Global Global without China
Source: Adapted from IEA (forthcoming), World Energy Outlook 2018; IEA (2018c) World Energy Statistics and Balances 2018 (database)
© OECD/IEA 2018
Why is energy use on the rise?
Global energy efficiency is improving, but its impact is being overwhelmed by factors that create more
demand for energy.
Decomposition of final energy use in the world’s major economies
Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa and Argentina.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
2000 energy use More buildings
and appliances
Less efficient
transport patterns
Increased activity Shifts in economic
activity
Improvements in
energy efficiency
2017 energy use
EJ
© OECD/IEA 2018
The impacts of energy efficiency are already significant
Energy efficiency improvements since 2000 prevented 12% more energy use and emissions in 2017.
Global final energy use and emissions with and without energy efficiency improvements, 2000-17
100
120
140
160
180
200
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017
Index(2000=100)
Energy use
100
120
140
160
180
200
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017
Emissions
100
120
140
160
180
200
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017
Energy use
GDP
Without
energy
efficiency
Actual
© OECD/IEA 2018
Efficiency gains have been largest in industry, underpinned by savings in China and North America.
Transport has made the smallest contribution, due to variable policy and activity growth.
Sectoral contributions to energy savings from improvements in energy efficiency in IEA and other major economies
What sectors are contributing to efficiency gains?
Notes: IEA includes Mexico, other major economies are China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa and Argentina.
51%
38%
11%
Industry
Buildings
Transport
© OECD/IEA 2018
Progress on energy efficiency is variable. Gains in transport and residential buildings have been offset
by worsening efficiency in industry and services. However, this appears to be reversing.
Decomposition of South African final energy use, 2000-17 (left) and sectoral contribution to efficiency gains (right)
South African energy efficiency trends
0
1
2
3
2000 energy use Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 energy use
EJ
- 150
- 100
- 50
0
50
100
150
PJ
Passenger
transport
Freight
transport
Industry and
services
Residential
Buildings
© OECD/IEA 2018
Efficiency gains avoided 12% more energy use in 2017, although structural change is larger.
The industry and service sectors were responsible for nearly half of the total savings.
Decomposition of Australian final energy use, 2000-17 (left) and sectoral contribution to efficiency gains (right)
Australian energy efficiency trends
0
1
2
3
4
5
2000 energy use Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 energy use
EJ
0
100
200
300
400
PJ Passenger
transport
Freight
transport
Industry and
services
Residential
Buildings
© OECD/IEA 2018
What does a more efficient world look like?
• The world is missing opportunities to improve energy efficiency, policy is not
delivering the full potential gains that are available with current technology.
• What is possible with greater efforts on energy efficiency? The IEA’s new Efficient
World Scenario answers the question:
What would happen by 2040 if countries realised all the economically viable
energy efficiency potential that is available today?
The Economy The Energy System The Environment
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy productivity can more than double, from USD 9000 to USD 18 000 of GDP for every tonne of oil
equivalent of energy demand.
Doubling global GDP for a marginal increase in energy demand
Now 2040
GDP
Energy
demand
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy intensity has been falling in all countries to varying degrees.
But the EWS shows that average intensity across all six economies could decline by over 50%.
Primary energy intensity in the six major emerging economies
Emerging economies could become even less energy-intensive
0
3
5
8
10
13
World Brazil China India Indonesia Mexico South Africa
2000 2016 EWS 2040
Primaryenergyintensity
(GJ/thousandUSDPPP)
© OECD/IEA 2018
There is significant cost-effective savings potential in every sector
Only one third of the potential cumulative energy savings from efficiency gains by 2040 are realised in the NPS.
The majority of potential across all sectors is realised in the EWS.
Cumulative energy savings in NPS and additional potential in the EWS to 2040
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Industry Transport Buildings
EJ
Efficient World Scenario
New Policies Scenario
© OECD/IEA 2018
Efficiency can deliver immediate environmental benefits
The EWS results in an early emissions peak and around 40% of the abatement required by 2040 to be in
line with Paris targets. Energy efficiency is indispensable to achieving global climate targets.
Greenhouse emissions in the NPS and EWS, 2000-40 (left) and air pollutant emissions in the EWS, 2015-40 (right)
20
25
30
35
40
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Gt CO2-eq
Greenhouse gas emissions
Historic Baseline Efficient World Scenario
0
40
80
120
160
200
240
2015 2040
Mt
Air pollutant emissions
PM2.5
NOx
SO2
© OECD/IEA 2018
In the Efficient World Scenario, South Africa could avoid over 500 PJ of additional final energy use in 2040.
Emissions could also fall to be nearly 25% less than current levels.
Total final energy use and emissions in the NPS and EWS for South Africa, 2012-40
There is much more to be gained from energy efficiency
2.95
3.20
3.45
3.70
3.95
2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040
EJ
2.95
3.20
3.45
3.70
3.95
2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040
EJ
Transport Buildings Industry Historical NPS EWS
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040
Gt CO2-eq
Thousands
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040
Gt CO2-eq
Thousands
© OECD/IEA 2018
Efficiency bring benefits to all levels of the economy
The Efficient World Scenario also fully delivers the energy efficiency target (Target 7.3) of the UN
Sustainable Development Goals
USD 700 billion
Avoided energy
imports in the EU,
China and India
USD 600 billion
Avoided energy
expenditure in
industry
USD 550 billion
Avoided household
energy spending
USD 2
billion
In South
Africa
USD 13
billion
In South
Africa
USD 6
billion
In South
Africa
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy efficiency policy and
investment
© OECD/IEA 2018
The majority of global energy use is not covered by mandatory energy efficiency policy.
Outside of buildings, mandatory policy does not have a large presence in South Africa.
Share of final energy use covered by mandatory policies, by sector
Policy coverage varies across sectors
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Industry Transport Residential buildings Non-residential buildings Total
% energy use
World South Africa Australia
© OECD/IEA 2018
Nearly 18% of global energy use is captured by a utility obligation. However, the implementation of
new policies has slowed, with few new or strengthened policies in the last few years.
Coverage of energy utility obligations, by country/region
Obligation schemes have become a common policy tool
0%
4%
8%
12%
16%
20%
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Shareofglobaltotalfinal
consumption
Other
Brazil
United States
China
Europe
© OECD/IEA 2018
National government incentives for energy efficiency amounted to USD 27 billion in 2017.
USD 8 billion in incentives for EVs, makes transport the largest sector.
National government incentives for energy efficiency in 2017, by sector, including and excluding incentives for electric vehicles
Incentives are being used to influence efficiency actions
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Buildings Industry Cross-sectoral Transport
USD (2017) billions
Including EVs
Excluding
EVs
Note: Countries included in this analysis are Australia, Austria, Brazil, China, Estonia, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.
In the case of China, 2016 efficiency incentives data are used as a proxy for 2017.
© OECD/IEA 2018
Global energy efficiency investment grew marginally in 2017, up by 3% to USD 236 billion.
The buildings sector continues to dominate, reaching USD 140 billion (59%) of the global total in 2017.
Energy efficiency investment by sector and region
Energy efficiency investment growth slowed in 2017
0
50
100
150
200
250
2014 2015 2016 2017
USDbillions
By region
Other
North
America
Europe
China
29%
11%
6%
14%
7%
8%
14%
11%
59%
15%
26%
By sector Envelope
HVAC and controls
Appliances
Lighting
Energy intensive industry
Other industry
Premium paid for
energy efficient vehicle
Freight vehicles
USD 236 billion
Buildings
Transport
Industry
© OECD/IEA 2018
But investment levels need to rise
Annual energy efficiency investment must double to 2025 and then double again to 2040.
Policy will need to facilitate finance and business model innovation to stimulate this investment.
Annual energy efficiency investment in 2017 and in the Efficient World Scenario
0
300
600
900
1 200
1 500
Current Average annual 2017-25 Average annual 2026-40
USD (2017) billions
2017 Efficient World Scenario (EWS)
© OECD/IEA 2018
Transport energy efficiency
© OECD/IEA 2018
Historic rates of efficiency improvement within transport are highly variable.
Car and truck energy efficiency could improve at a much faster rate.
Historical efficiency improvements and future projections for transport (left), Energy savings potential for road transport (right)
Transport can accelerate towards a more efficient world
0%
1%
2%
3%
4%
2000-16 2017-40 2000-16 2017-40 2000-16 2017-40 2000-16 2017-40
Passenger light-
duty vehicles
Road freight Aviation International
Shipping
Averageannualefficiencyimprovement
Efficient World Scenario Historical
Cars and vans
52%
Trucks
42%
Buses
4%
2 and 3 wheelers
2%
© OECD/IEA 2018
Transport policy coverage is highest in countries where fuel economy standards have been in place for
an extended period (US, China, Japan). There is room for growth in emerging markets.
Mandatory policy coverage of transport energy use for select countries, 2017
Transport policy reflects the varying presence of standards
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
% of transport energy use
2000
2005
2010
2015
2017
© OECD/IEA 2018
Implementing the best in class fuel economy standards would have avoided 2.2 mb/day of oil use.
Without any change in policy settings, passenger car energy use could increase by over 4 mb/day.
Historical and future change in global passenger car energy use without standards and if best-in-class fuel economy standards
had been implemented, 2000-17 and 2017-40
What is the benefit of fuel economy standards
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Without standards Implementing best-in-class
standards
Mboe/d
Implementing no new
policies (CPS)
EWS
2000-17 2017-40
© OECD/IEA 2018
New ambition levels required for transport
What is possible by 2040 Key policy actions
• Improve coverage and strength of
transport policies for cars and trucks
and non-road modes.
• Provide incentives to support uptake
and sustainable use of efficient
vehicles.
• Information to support efficient
vehicle uptake and mode shift.
• Energy demand could stay flat,
despite doubling activity levels.
• Passenger cars and trucks offer
two-thirds of potential savings.
© OECD/IEA 2018
Buildings energy efficiency
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy efficiency improvement has been variable, due mainly to increased appliance ownership.
Gains could be made across all end-uses, with space and water heating and cooling covering 60%
Change in energy intensity, 2000-40 (left) and contribution to total energy savings in the EWS to 2040 (right)
Efficiency can improve across all building end-uses
-40%
-20%
0%
20%
40%
60% 2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
Space
heating
Space
cooling
Water
heating
Lighting Cooking Appliances
Energy intensity improvement (%)
Historic Efficient World Scenario
26%
22%
26%
5%
9%
12%
24 EJ
Space heating Water heating
Cooking Lighting
Appliances Space cooling
© OECD/IEA 2018
Less than 40% of building energy use is covered by mandatory energy efficiency policy. Although
coverage is high for lighting and space cooling
Energy efficiency policy coverage of buildings end-uses, 2000-17
Policy coverage is spread across building end-uses
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017
Policy coverage
Lighting
Space cooling
Appliances
Space heating
Water heating
ALL BUILDINGS
Cooking
© OECD/IEA 2018
Space cooling energy use has grown rapidly, as a result of warming climates and growing populations.
Forces pushing space cooling energy demand will continue to grow, but efficiency can limit the impact.
Buildings cooling energy use decomposition, global, 2000-40
Space cooling energy use will grow rapidly
0
4
8
12
16
20
2000 Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 Activity Structure Efficiency 2040
Historical Efficient World Scenario
Cooling final energy (EJ)
© OECD/IEA 2018
Buildings could be 40% more efficient than today
What is possible by 2040 Key policy actions
• Comprehensive efficiency policies,
targeting both new and existing
building stock and appliances.
• Incentives to encourage consumers to
adopt high efficiency appliances and
undertake deep energy retrofits.
• Improved quality and availability of
energy performance information and
tools.
• Building space could increase by
60% for no additional energy use.
• Space heating, cooling and water
heating offer 60% of savings.
© OECD/IEA 2018
Industrial energy efficiency
© OECD/IEA 2018
Energy efficiency improvements are possible across all sub-sectors.
Light industry (e.g. food, beverage and textile manufacturing) represent the bulk (70%) of savings.
Percentage improvement in energy intensity by industry sub-sector (left) contribution to total energy savings in 2040 (right)
Efficiency can improve across all industry sub-sectors
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
2000-17
2018-40
Iron and steel Chemical and
petrochemical
Cement Paper, pulp
and print
Aluminium Other
industries
%improvementinenergyintensity
Historic Efficient World Scenario
14%
9%
2%5%
1%
70%
Iron and steel Chemicals
Cement Pulp and paper
Aluminium Other industries
© OECD/IEA 2018
Industrial energy efficiency policy coverage grew rapidly following policies in China.
China, Japan and India, lead on policy coverage due to strong mandatory policies
Industrial energy use covered by mandatory energy efficiency policies, globally, 2000-17 (left) and by country in 2017 (right)
Industrial energy efficiency policy coverage is slowing
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
%ofindustrialenergyusecovered
Global
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
%ofindustrialenergyusecovered
Country in 2017
China's top 1 000
Program introduced
China's top 10 000
Program introduced
© OECD/IEA 2018
Metals recycling is 60 to 90% less energy-intensive than producing metals from mineral ore in primary
production processes.
Energy intensity of primary and recycled metal production of steel, aluminium and copper
Metals recycling will be key to realising efficiency gains
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Blast furnace -
basic oxygen
furnace
Direct reduced
iron - electric
arc furnace
Scrap based
electric arc
furnace
Primary Recycled Primary Recycled from
scrap
Secondary
direct melt
Iron and steel Aluminium Copper
GJ/tonne produced
© OECD/IEA 2018
Targeting efficiency beyond the largest industry sectors
What is possible by 2040 Key policy actions
• Expanded and strengthened standards
for key industrial equipment, including
electric heat pumps and motors.
• Incentives to encourage the adoption
of energy management systems.
• Mechanisms such as industry networks,
training and case studies to enhance
awareness and capacity.
• Value-added per unit of energy
could double.
• Less energy-intensive industry
offers 70% of potential savings.
© OECD/IEA 2018
Concluding remarks
• The IEA EWS shows a 2040 world with double GDP, 20% more people and 60% more
building space, with lower emissions than today
• Efficiency can reduce air pollution, imports and consumer bills, and EWS maps out the
path to delivering the UN SDG on energy efficiency
• The efficiency opportunities are cost-effective and use only technology available
today, but require a significant step up in policy action
• Investments need to double now and double again after 2025, but these investments
will payback threefold on energy savings alone
• There are good examples today of all the policies required for tomorrow. These form
the basis for increased ambition and impact
• IEA will work with governments providing analysis, policy guidance, exchange and
capacity building, working towards an efficient world
© OECD/IEA 2018
Download for free at:
www.iea.org/efficiency2018
© OECD/IEA 2018
Additional information
© OECD/IEA 2018
Grants/subsidies and taxation based measures represented nearly 80% of national government
incentives for energy efficiency in 2017. Other measures make smaller contribution.
Government expenditure on incentives for energy efficiency by type of incentive
National governments use a variety of incentives
Grant/subsidy
48%
Tax relief (incl.
rebates, exemptions
and credits)
31%
Debt
finance/loan
11%
Other public schemes
8%
Guarantee
1%
Direct investment
1%
Equity finance or risk
sharing facilities
0.4%
© OECD/IEA 2018
Transport activity is rising and behaviours are shifting to less efficient practices.
Energy efficiency improvements have prevented energy use equivalent to 120 million cars.
Decomposition of passenger transport final energy use, 2000-17
Passenger transport efficiency is being overwhelmed
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2000 energy use Activity Inter-mode shift Vehicle type Occupancy Efficiency 2017 energy use
EJ
Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa.
© OECD/IEA 2018
The absence of fuel economy standards for trucks until recently has meant that efficiency has made
little impact on energy use in freight transport.
Decomposition of freight transport final energy use, 2000-17
Freight transport energy efficiency has shown little progress
0
5
10
15
20
25
2000 energy use Activity Inter-mode shift Efficiency Vehicle Type 2017 energy use
EJ
Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa. US freight transport excluded due to changes in historical data
© OECD/IEA 2018
Growth in building sector energy use is linked to increasing floor space and appliance ownership.
Space heating is driving savings across both all building types.
Decomposition of buildings global final energy use, 2000-17 (left) and end-use contribution to efficiency savings (right)
Buildings sector energy use is continuing to rise
0
40
80
120
160
2000 Activity Structure Efficiency 2017
EJ
0
2
4
6
8
Residential Non-Residential
EJ
Appliances
Cooking
Lighting
Water heating
Space cooling
Space heating
Sources: Adapted from IEA (2018a), Energy Efficiency Indicators 2018 (database) and IEA Energy Technology Perspectives Buildings model (www.iea.org/etp/etpmodel/buildings/).
© OECD/IEA 2018
Shifting activity and efficiency are reducing offset over 50% of the impact from rising activity.
Contributions to efficiency gains were greatest in China, North America and energy-intensive industry.
Decomposition of energy use in the industry and service sectors (left) and contribution to efficiency savings (right) in IEA
countries and other major economies, 2000-17
Efficiency and structural change are both apparent in industry
0
50
100
150
200
2000 energy
use
Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 energy
use
EJ
0
7
14
21
28
EJ
South America
Russia
Asia Pacific
Europe
North America
China
Notes: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa.
© OECD/IEA 2018
MEPS are a common policy tool, but slow stock turnover has not seen policy reach its potential.
Coverage is highest in North America due to early implementation of policy (i.e. before 2000).
Policy coverage and potential for electric motors (left) and coverage and increase in policy strength since 2000 (right)
MEPS for electric motors is a common policy tool
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Electricmotorsenergyusecovered
Global
Actual coverage Coverage potential
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
Electricimotorsenergyusecovered
Country/region
Increase in policy strength since 2000 (right axis)
© OECD/IEA 2018
The majority of electric motors are estimated to be at the lower (IE0 or IE1) efficiency levels.
China dominates global electric motors energy use and will continue to do so.
Energy consumption of electric motor systems by efficiency level (left) and regional breakdown of electric motor energy use (right)
The majority of electric motors are still at lower efficiency levels
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
PWh
IE3
IE2
IE1
IE0
North
America
12%
South
America
4%
Asia
and
Pacific
17%
Europe
11%
China
43%
Other
12%
© OECD/IEA 2018
There were over 23 000 ISO 50001 certifications in 2017, a slow down in the rate of growth.
Matching certifications for other management standards will depend on take-up by China.
ISO 50001 certifications 2011-17 (left) and certification progress compared with other management standards (right)
ISO 50001 certifications are slowing
0
5 000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Number of certifications
Germany Other Europe Asia and Pacific
North America Other
0
30 000
60 000
90 000
120 000
150 000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Numberofcertifications
Years after introduction of standard
ISO 14001 ISO 9001 ISO 50001
© OECD/IEA 2018
Implementation of an energy management system, led to projects with savings of over 26 GWh.
However, there were also 8 GWh of “energy management system unique” savings.
Comparison of project and energy management enabled savings in 9 UNIDO Projects
Energy management systems unlock unique savings
0%
4%
8%
12%
16%
20%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Company 1 Company 2 Company 3 Company 4 Company 5 Company 6 Company 7 Company 8 Company 9 Total
% of total electricity use% of total savings
Additional "energy management system unique" savings Project savings
Energy management savings % total electricity use (right axis)
© OECD/IEA 2018
What policies can improve rates of metals recycling
Policy/support
category
Type of support Example of policy/support
Financial
assistance for
recycling
facilities
Grants
New South Wales, Australia: The Major Resource Recovery Infrastructure programme provides grants
to fund major resource recovery facilities.
Debt finance from public banks
EU: Over 5% of transactions in the European Fund for Strategic Investments managed by the
European Investment Bank have a resource efficiency element.
Favourable tax
treatment for
recycling
facilities
Corporate tax provisions for small
businesses
North Carolina, United States: If a business purchases or constructs facilities or equipment for
recycling or resource recovery, it may be entitled to special corporate state income tax treatment.
Recycling specific tax credits Mexico City: Tax credits are available to corporations that recycle or reprocess solid waste.
Accelerated depreciation for
recycling facilities
United States: RISE Program in the United States entitles domestic recycling companies to write-off
50% of an asset’s value in the first year of operation.
Value added tax credits
South Korea: Tax credit for scrap metal collectors that acquire scrap from individuals or public
organisations.
Measures to
encourage
individuals and
organisations to
recycle
Bans of landfilling of certain
wastes
EU: Proposal in the EU Action Plan for a Circular Economy to ban landfilling of separately collected
waste.
Taxes on landfill waste
Many countries and regions have implemented landfill taxes, which are assessed by weight or type of
waste.
Provision of recycling services by
local government
EU: The EU waste framework directive requires the member states to provide for the collection of
recyclable wastes including paper, plastic, glass and metal.
Extended product responsibility
(EPR)
Requirements for manufacturers to collect old products once usable life is over. By 2013 there were
nearly 400 EPR systems in operation globally, with nearly 50% covering electronics and
vehicles/automotive products (including batteries).

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Energy Efficiency 2018 - South African Webinar

  • 1. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy Efficiency Market Report 5 December 2018 IEA
  • 2. © OECD/IEA 2018 Agenda • Introduction • Welcome / Opening Remarks • Presentation • Questions & Answers
  • 3. © OECD/IEA 2018 IEA team on the webinar today Joe Ritchie Hugo Salamanca
  • 4. © OECD/IEA 2018 GotoWebinar Housekeeping Telephone Details for Mexico: 01 800 112 2091 + Access Code: 651-174-028 Toll-free: 0 800 555 452 (South Africa) Access Code: 362-354-458 Questions in English Question box Attendee Interface
  • 5. © OECD/IEA 2018 Welcoming remarks Melanie Slade Energy Efficiency in Emerging Economies Programme Manager - IEA
  • 6. © OECD/IEA 2018 Opening remarks Brian Motherway Head of the Energy Efficiency Division - IEA
  • 7. © OECD/IEA 2018 The IEA is focusing on energy efficiency
  • 8. © OECD/IEA 2018 Analysis, policy advice, training and exchange Insights papers Market reports Workshops Online exchange platform Global trainingGlobal conference
  • 9. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy Efficiency 2018 • Global trends and outlooks - Energy intensity and efficiency trends - Introduction to efficient world scenario - Policy progress and trends - IEA Efficient World Strategy • Sector chapters - Transport, Buildings and Industry • Investment finance and business models • Energy Efficiency in Emerging Economies - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico and South Africa • Available for free from www.iea.org/efficiency2018
  • 10. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy efficiency trends and outlook
  • 11. © OECD/IEA 2018 Global energy demand rose by nearly 2% in 2017, the fastest rise this decade, driven by economic growth and changes in consumer behaviour. Change in global primary energy demand, 2011-17 2017 saw a resurgence in global demand growth 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 2.5% 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Source: Adapted from IEA (forthcoming), World Energy Outlook 2018; IEA (2018c) World Energy Statistics and Balances 2018 (database)
  • 12. © OECD/IEA 2018 Global primary energy intensity improved in 2017, but at the slowest rate this decade. The rate of global improvement would have been worse if not for continuing gains in China. Annual change in global primary energy intensity, 2011-17 Global energy intensity is improving at a slower rate -3.5% -3.0% -2.5% -2.0% -1.5% -1.0% -0.5% 0.0% 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Global Global without China Source: Adapted from IEA (forthcoming), World Energy Outlook 2018; IEA (2018c) World Energy Statistics and Balances 2018 (database)
  • 13. © OECD/IEA 2018 Why is energy use on the rise? Global energy efficiency is improving, but its impact is being overwhelmed by factors that create more demand for energy. Decomposition of final energy use in the world’s major economies Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa and Argentina. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2000 energy use More buildings and appliances Less efficient transport patterns Increased activity Shifts in economic activity Improvements in energy efficiency 2017 energy use EJ
  • 14. © OECD/IEA 2018 The impacts of energy efficiency are already significant Energy efficiency improvements since 2000 prevented 12% more energy use and emissions in 2017. Global final energy use and emissions with and without energy efficiency improvements, 2000-17 100 120 140 160 180 200 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017 Index(2000=100) Energy use 100 120 140 160 180 200 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017 Emissions 100 120 140 160 180 200 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017 Energy use GDP Without energy efficiency Actual
  • 15. © OECD/IEA 2018 Efficiency gains have been largest in industry, underpinned by savings in China and North America. Transport has made the smallest contribution, due to variable policy and activity growth. Sectoral contributions to energy savings from improvements in energy efficiency in IEA and other major economies What sectors are contributing to efficiency gains? Notes: IEA includes Mexico, other major economies are China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa and Argentina. 51% 38% 11% Industry Buildings Transport
  • 16. © OECD/IEA 2018 Progress on energy efficiency is variable. Gains in transport and residential buildings have been offset by worsening efficiency in industry and services. However, this appears to be reversing. Decomposition of South African final energy use, 2000-17 (left) and sectoral contribution to efficiency gains (right) South African energy efficiency trends 0 1 2 3 2000 energy use Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 energy use EJ - 150 - 100 - 50 0 50 100 150 PJ Passenger transport Freight transport Industry and services Residential Buildings
  • 17. © OECD/IEA 2018 Efficiency gains avoided 12% more energy use in 2017, although structural change is larger. The industry and service sectors were responsible for nearly half of the total savings. Decomposition of Australian final energy use, 2000-17 (left) and sectoral contribution to efficiency gains (right) Australian energy efficiency trends 0 1 2 3 4 5 2000 energy use Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 energy use EJ 0 100 200 300 400 PJ Passenger transport Freight transport Industry and services Residential Buildings
  • 18. © OECD/IEA 2018 What does a more efficient world look like? • The world is missing opportunities to improve energy efficiency, policy is not delivering the full potential gains that are available with current technology. • What is possible with greater efforts on energy efficiency? The IEA’s new Efficient World Scenario answers the question: What would happen by 2040 if countries realised all the economically viable energy efficiency potential that is available today? The Economy The Energy System The Environment
  • 19. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy productivity can more than double, from USD 9000 to USD 18 000 of GDP for every tonne of oil equivalent of energy demand. Doubling global GDP for a marginal increase in energy demand Now 2040 GDP Energy demand
  • 20. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy intensity has been falling in all countries to varying degrees. But the EWS shows that average intensity across all six economies could decline by over 50%. Primary energy intensity in the six major emerging economies Emerging economies could become even less energy-intensive 0 3 5 8 10 13 World Brazil China India Indonesia Mexico South Africa 2000 2016 EWS 2040 Primaryenergyintensity (GJ/thousandUSDPPP)
  • 21. © OECD/IEA 2018 There is significant cost-effective savings potential in every sector Only one third of the potential cumulative energy savings from efficiency gains by 2040 are realised in the NPS. The majority of potential across all sectors is realised in the EWS. Cumulative energy savings in NPS and additional potential in the EWS to 2040 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Industry Transport Buildings EJ Efficient World Scenario New Policies Scenario
  • 22. © OECD/IEA 2018 Efficiency can deliver immediate environmental benefits The EWS results in an early emissions peak and around 40% of the abatement required by 2040 to be in line with Paris targets. Energy efficiency is indispensable to achieving global climate targets. Greenhouse emissions in the NPS and EWS, 2000-40 (left) and air pollutant emissions in the EWS, 2015-40 (right) 20 25 30 35 40 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Gt CO2-eq Greenhouse gas emissions Historic Baseline Efficient World Scenario 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 2015 2040 Mt Air pollutant emissions PM2.5 NOx SO2
  • 23. © OECD/IEA 2018 In the Efficient World Scenario, South Africa could avoid over 500 PJ of additional final energy use in 2040. Emissions could also fall to be nearly 25% less than current levels. Total final energy use and emissions in the NPS and EWS for South Africa, 2012-40 There is much more to be gained from energy efficiency 2.95 3.20 3.45 3.70 3.95 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040 EJ 2.95 3.20 3.45 3.70 3.95 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040 EJ Transport Buildings Industry Historical NPS EWS 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040 Gt CO2-eq Thousands 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040 Gt CO2-eq Thousands
  • 24. © OECD/IEA 2018 Efficiency bring benefits to all levels of the economy The Efficient World Scenario also fully delivers the energy efficiency target (Target 7.3) of the UN Sustainable Development Goals USD 700 billion Avoided energy imports in the EU, China and India USD 600 billion Avoided energy expenditure in industry USD 550 billion Avoided household energy spending USD 2 billion In South Africa USD 13 billion In South Africa USD 6 billion In South Africa
  • 25. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy efficiency policy and investment
  • 26. © OECD/IEA 2018 The majority of global energy use is not covered by mandatory energy efficiency policy. Outside of buildings, mandatory policy does not have a large presence in South Africa. Share of final energy use covered by mandatory policies, by sector Policy coverage varies across sectors 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Industry Transport Residential buildings Non-residential buildings Total % energy use World South Africa Australia
  • 27. © OECD/IEA 2018 Nearly 18% of global energy use is captured by a utility obligation. However, the implementation of new policies has slowed, with few new or strengthened policies in the last few years. Coverage of energy utility obligations, by country/region Obligation schemes have become a common policy tool 0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Shareofglobaltotalfinal consumption Other Brazil United States China Europe
  • 28. © OECD/IEA 2018 National government incentives for energy efficiency amounted to USD 27 billion in 2017. USD 8 billion in incentives for EVs, makes transport the largest sector. National government incentives for energy efficiency in 2017, by sector, including and excluding incentives for electric vehicles Incentives are being used to influence efficiency actions 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Buildings Industry Cross-sectoral Transport USD (2017) billions Including EVs Excluding EVs Note: Countries included in this analysis are Australia, Austria, Brazil, China, Estonia, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. In the case of China, 2016 efficiency incentives data are used as a proxy for 2017.
  • 29. © OECD/IEA 2018 Global energy efficiency investment grew marginally in 2017, up by 3% to USD 236 billion. The buildings sector continues to dominate, reaching USD 140 billion (59%) of the global total in 2017. Energy efficiency investment by sector and region Energy efficiency investment growth slowed in 2017 0 50 100 150 200 250 2014 2015 2016 2017 USDbillions By region Other North America Europe China 29% 11% 6% 14% 7% 8% 14% 11% 59% 15% 26% By sector Envelope HVAC and controls Appliances Lighting Energy intensive industry Other industry Premium paid for energy efficient vehicle Freight vehicles USD 236 billion Buildings Transport Industry
  • 30. © OECD/IEA 2018 But investment levels need to rise Annual energy efficiency investment must double to 2025 and then double again to 2040. Policy will need to facilitate finance and business model innovation to stimulate this investment. Annual energy efficiency investment in 2017 and in the Efficient World Scenario 0 300 600 900 1 200 1 500 Current Average annual 2017-25 Average annual 2026-40 USD (2017) billions 2017 Efficient World Scenario (EWS)
  • 31. © OECD/IEA 2018 Transport energy efficiency
  • 32. © OECD/IEA 2018 Historic rates of efficiency improvement within transport are highly variable. Car and truck energy efficiency could improve at a much faster rate. Historical efficiency improvements and future projections for transport (left), Energy savings potential for road transport (right) Transport can accelerate towards a more efficient world 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 2000-16 2017-40 2000-16 2017-40 2000-16 2017-40 2000-16 2017-40 Passenger light- duty vehicles Road freight Aviation International Shipping Averageannualefficiencyimprovement Efficient World Scenario Historical Cars and vans 52% Trucks 42% Buses 4% 2 and 3 wheelers 2%
  • 33. © OECD/IEA 2018 Transport policy coverage is highest in countries where fuel economy standards have been in place for an extended period (US, China, Japan). There is room for growth in emerging markets. Mandatory policy coverage of transport energy use for select countries, 2017 Transport policy reflects the varying presence of standards 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% % of transport energy use 2000 2005 2010 2015 2017
  • 34. © OECD/IEA 2018 Implementing the best in class fuel economy standards would have avoided 2.2 mb/day of oil use. Without any change in policy settings, passenger car energy use could increase by over 4 mb/day. Historical and future change in global passenger car energy use without standards and if best-in-class fuel economy standards had been implemented, 2000-17 and 2017-40 What is the benefit of fuel economy standards -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Without standards Implementing best-in-class standards Mboe/d Implementing no new policies (CPS) EWS 2000-17 2017-40
  • 35. © OECD/IEA 2018 New ambition levels required for transport What is possible by 2040 Key policy actions • Improve coverage and strength of transport policies for cars and trucks and non-road modes. • Provide incentives to support uptake and sustainable use of efficient vehicles. • Information to support efficient vehicle uptake and mode shift. • Energy demand could stay flat, despite doubling activity levels. • Passenger cars and trucks offer two-thirds of potential savings.
  • 36. © OECD/IEA 2018 Buildings energy efficiency
  • 37. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy efficiency improvement has been variable, due mainly to increased appliance ownership. Gains could be made across all end-uses, with space and water heating and cooling covering 60% Change in energy intensity, 2000-40 (left) and contribution to total energy savings in the EWS to 2040 (right) Efficiency can improve across all building end-uses -40% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 Space heating Space cooling Water heating Lighting Cooking Appliances Energy intensity improvement (%) Historic Efficient World Scenario 26% 22% 26% 5% 9% 12% 24 EJ Space heating Water heating Cooking Lighting Appliances Space cooling
  • 38. © OECD/IEA 2018 Less than 40% of building energy use is covered by mandatory energy efficiency policy. Although coverage is high for lighting and space cooling Energy efficiency policy coverage of buildings end-uses, 2000-17 Policy coverage is spread across building end-uses 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2017 Policy coverage Lighting Space cooling Appliances Space heating Water heating ALL BUILDINGS Cooking
  • 39. © OECD/IEA 2018 Space cooling energy use has grown rapidly, as a result of warming climates and growing populations. Forces pushing space cooling energy demand will continue to grow, but efficiency can limit the impact. Buildings cooling energy use decomposition, global, 2000-40 Space cooling energy use will grow rapidly 0 4 8 12 16 20 2000 Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 Activity Structure Efficiency 2040 Historical Efficient World Scenario Cooling final energy (EJ)
  • 40. © OECD/IEA 2018 Buildings could be 40% more efficient than today What is possible by 2040 Key policy actions • Comprehensive efficiency policies, targeting both new and existing building stock and appliances. • Incentives to encourage consumers to adopt high efficiency appliances and undertake deep energy retrofits. • Improved quality and availability of energy performance information and tools. • Building space could increase by 60% for no additional energy use. • Space heating, cooling and water heating offer 60% of savings.
  • 41. © OECD/IEA 2018 Industrial energy efficiency
  • 42. © OECD/IEA 2018 Energy efficiency improvements are possible across all sub-sectors. Light industry (e.g. food, beverage and textile manufacturing) represent the bulk (70%) of savings. Percentage improvement in energy intensity by industry sub-sector (left) contribution to total energy savings in 2040 (right) Efficiency can improve across all industry sub-sectors 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 2000-17 2018-40 Iron and steel Chemical and petrochemical Cement Paper, pulp and print Aluminium Other industries %improvementinenergyintensity Historic Efficient World Scenario 14% 9% 2%5% 1% 70% Iron and steel Chemicals Cement Pulp and paper Aluminium Other industries
  • 43. © OECD/IEA 2018 Industrial energy efficiency policy coverage grew rapidly following policies in China. China, Japan and India, lead on policy coverage due to strong mandatory policies Industrial energy use covered by mandatory energy efficiency policies, globally, 2000-17 (left) and by country in 2017 (right) Industrial energy efficiency policy coverage is slowing 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 %ofindustrialenergyusecovered Global 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% %ofindustrialenergyusecovered Country in 2017 China's top 1 000 Program introduced China's top 10 000 Program introduced
  • 44. © OECD/IEA 2018 Metals recycling is 60 to 90% less energy-intensive than producing metals from mineral ore in primary production processes. Energy intensity of primary and recycled metal production of steel, aluminium and copper Metals recycling will be key to realising efficiency gains 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Blast furnace - basic oxygen furnace Direct reduced iron - electric arc furnace Scrap based electric arc furnace Primary Recycled Primary Recycled from scrap Secondary direct melt Iron and steel Aluminium Copper GJ/tonne produced
  • 45. © OECD/IEA 2018 Targeting efficiency beyond the largest industry sectors What is possible by 2040 Key policy actions • Expanded and strengthened standards for key industrial equipment, including electric heat pumps and motors. • Incentives to encourage the adoption of energy management systems. • Mechanisms such as industry networks, training and case studies to enhance awareness and capacity. • Value-added per unit of energy could double. • Less energy-intensive industry offers 70% of potential savings.
  • 46. © OECD/IEA 2018 Concluding remarks • The IEA EWS shows a 2040 world with double GDP, 20% more people and 60% more building space, with lower emissions than today • Efficiency can reduce air pollution, imports and consumer bills, and EWS maps out the path to delivering the UN SDG on energy efficiency • The efficiency opportunities are cost-effective and use only technology available today, but require a significant step up in policy action • Investments need to double now and double again after 2025, but these investments will payback threefold on energy savings alone • There are good examples today of all the policies required for tomorrow. These form the basis for increased ambition and impact • IEA will work with governments providing analysis, policy guidance, exchange and capacity building, working towards an efficient world
  • 47. © OECD/IEA 2018 Download for free at: www.iea.org/efficiency2018
  • 49. © OECD/IEA 2018 Grants/subsidies and taxation based measures represented nearly 80% of national government incentives for energy efficiency in 2017. Other measures make smaller contribution. Government expenditure on incentives for energy efficiency by type of incentive National governments use a variety of incentives Grant/subsidy 48% Tax relief (incl. rebates, exemptions and credits) 31% Debt finance/loan 11% Other public schemes 8% Guarantee 1% Direct investment 1% Equity finance or risk sharing facilities 0.4%
  • 50. © OECD/IEA 2018 Transport activity is rising and behaviours are shifting to less efficient practices. Energy efficiency improvements have prevented energy use equivalent to 120 million cars. Decomposition of passenger transport final energy use, 2000-17 Passenger transport efficiency is being overwhelmed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2000 energy use Activity Inter-mode shift Vehicle type Occupancy Efficiency 2017 energy use EJ Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa.
  • 51. © OECD/IEA 2018 The absence of fuel economy standards for trucks until recently has meant that efficiency has made little impact on energy use in freight transport. Decomposition of freight transport final energy use, 2000-17 Freight transport energy efficiency has shown little progress 0 5 10 15 20 25 2000 energy use Activity Inter-mode shift Efficiency Vehicle Type 2017 energy use EJ Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa. US freight transport excluded due to changes in historical data
  • 52. © OECD/IEA 2018 Growth in building sector energy use is linked to increasing floor space and appliance ownership. Space heating is driving savings across both all building types. Decomposition of buildings global final energy use, 2000-17 (left) and end-use contribution to efficiency savings (right) Buildings sector energy use is continuing to rise 0 40 80 120 160 2000 Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 EJ 0 2 4 6 8 Residential Non-Residential EJ Appliances Cooking Lighting Water heating Space cooling Space heating Sources: Adapted from IEA (2018a), Energy Efficiency Indicators 2018 (database) and IEA Energy Technology Perspectives Buildings model (www.iea.org/etp/etpmodel/buildings/).
  • 53. © OECD/IEA 2018 Shifting activity and efficiency are reducing offset over 50% of the impact from rising activity. Contributions to efficiency gains were greatest in China, North America and energy-intensive industry. Decomposition of energy use in the industry and service sectors (left) and contribution to efficiency savings (right) in IEA countries and other major economies, 2000-17 Efficiency and structural change are both apparent in industry 0 50 100 150 200 2000 energy use Activity Structure Efficiency 2017 energy use EJ 0 7 14 21 28 EJ South America Russia Asia Pacific Europe North America China Notes: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa.
  • 54. © OECD/IEA 2018 MEPS are a common policy tool, but slow stock turnover has not seen policy reach its potential. Coverage is highest in North America due to early implementation of policy (i.e. before 2000). Policy coverage and potential for electric motors (left) and coverage and increase in policy strength since 2000 (right) MEPS for electric motors is a common policy tool 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Electricmotorsenergyusecovered Global Actual coverage Coverage potential 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Electricimotorsenergyusecovered Country/region Increase in policy strength since 2000 (right axis)
  • 55. © OECD/IEA 2018 The majority of electric motors are estimated to be at the lower (IE0 or IE1) efficiency levels. China dominates global electric motors energy use and will continue to do so. Energy consumption of electric motor systems by efficiency level (left) and regional breakdown of electric motor energy use (right) The majority of electric motors are still at lower efficiency levels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 PWh IE3 IE2 IE1 IE0 North America 12% South America 4% Asia and Pacific 17% Europe 11% China 43% Other 12%
  • 56. © OECD/IEA 2018 There were over 23 000 ISO 50001 certifications in 2017, a slow down in the rate of growth. Matching certifications for other management standards will depend on take-up by China. ISO 50001 certifications 2011-17 (left) and certification progress compared with other management standards (right) ISO 50001 certifications are slowing 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Number of certifications Germany Other Europe Asia and Pacific North America Other 0 30 000 60 000 90 000 120 000 150 000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Numberofcertifications Years after introduction of standard ISO 14001 ISO 9001 ISO 50001
  • 57. © OECD/IEA 2018 Implementation of an energy management system, led to projects with savings of over 26 GWh. However, there were also 8 GWh of “energy management system unique” savings. Comparison of project and energy management enabled savings in 9 UNIDO Projects Energy management systems unlock unique savings 0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Company 1 Company 2 Company 3 Company 4 Company 5 Company 6 Company 7 Company 8 Company 9 Total % of total electricity use% of total savings Additional "energy management system unique" savings Project savings Energy management savings % total electricity use (right axis)
  • 58. © OECD/IEA 2018 What policies can improve rates of metals recycling Policy/support category Type of support Example of policy/support Financial assistance for recycling facilities Grants New South Wales, Australia: The Major Resource Recovery Infrastructure programme provides grants to fund major resource recovery facilities. Debt finance from public banks EU: Over 5% of transactions in the European Fund for Strategic Investments managed by the European Investment Bank have a resource efficiency element. Favourable tax treatment for recycling facilities Corporate tax provisions for small businesses North Carolina, United States: If a business purchases or constructs facilities or equipment for recycling or resource recovery, it may be entitled to special corporate state income tax treatment. Recycling specific tax credits Mexico City: Tax credits are available to corporations that recycle or reprocess solid waste. Accelerated depreciation for recycling facilities United States: RISE Program in the United States entitles domestic recycling companies to write-off 50% of an asset’s value in the first year of operation. Value added tax credits South Korea: Tax credit for scrap metal collectors that acquire scrap from individuals or public organisations. Measures to encourage individuals and organisations to recycle Bans of landfilling of certain wastes EU: Proposal in the EU Action Plan for a Circular Economy to ban landfilling of separately collected waste. Taxes on landfill waste Many countries and regions have implemented landfill taxes, which are assessed by weight or type of waste. Provision of recycling services by local government EU: The EU waste framework directive requires the member states to provide for the collection of recyclable wastes including paper, plastic, glass and metal. Extended product responsibility (EPR) Requirements for manufacturers to collect old products once usable life is over. By 2013 there were nearly 400 EPR systems in operation globally, with nearly 50% covering electronics and vehicles/automotive products (including batteries).