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The Endocrine System
The endocrine system is a messenger system
comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by
internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory
system, regulating distant target organs.
These hormones control several important functions
in your body, such as your growth and development,
metabolism, mood,
reproduction.
Your endocrine glands includes adrenal glands,
pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid, pineal
gland
There are also organs that contain endocrine tissue
and act as glands. These include the: pancreas,
kidneys, ovaries and testes.
How does your endocrine system function?
Endocrine glands secrete chemicals known as
hormones into the bloodstream, which carries them
throughout the body.
When a hormone in the blood reaches the target
organ, it produces a notable effect.
The endocrine system sends signals all over the body,
much like the nervous system, but unlike the instant
responses activated by the nervous system, the effects
can take a few hours or even
weeks.
Hormones
Is a regulatory substance produced in an organism
and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to
stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
Hormones are the chemicals that are responsible
for controlling and regulating the activities of certain
cells and organs.
These chemicals are secreted by special glands
known as the endocrine glands.
Adrenal Gland
Adrenal Gland
Your adrenal glands are endocrine glands located on
top of your kidneys.
They produce many important hormones including
adrenaline.
This hormone prepares the body for action, controls
the heart rate and breathing in times of emergency.
Pituitary gland
The pituitary gland
The pituitary gland is located below the
hypothalamus. The hormones it produces affect growth
and reproduction. They can also control the function of
other endocrine glands.
• Hormones:
• Oxytocin,
• Vasopressin,
• Growth Hormone
• Adrenocorticotropic
This hormones stimulates growth, and controls the
functions of other glands
• Hormone (ACTH),
• Prolactin, Luteinizing
• Hormone, Follicle
• Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid
The thyroid gland is in the front part of your neck.
It’s very important for metabolism.
Hormones: Thyroxin, Calcitonin
Function: regulates body metabolism, and causes storage
of calcium in bones
Diseases caused by thyroid problems include:
• Hashimoto’s thyroiditis- it causes hypothyroidism, a
decline in thyroid hormone production that can result
in fatigue, weight gain, depression and other
symptoms.
• Graves’ disease- is an immune system disorder that
results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones
(hyperthyroidism) and common among women and in
people younger than age 40.
• Common signs and symptoms of Graves' disease
include:
• Anxiety and irritability
• A fine tremor of the hands or fingers
• Weight loss, despite normal eating habits
• Enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter)
• Change in menstrual cycles
• Frequent bowel movements
• Bulging eyes (Graves' ophthalmopathy)
• Thick, red skin usually on the shins or tops of the
feet (Graves' dermopathy)
• Rapid or irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
• Sleep disturbance
• Goiter- is a condition where your thyroid gland grows larger.
Goiter may be associated with an irregular amount of thyroid
hormone in your body (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism) or
with normal levels of thyroid hormone (euthyroid).
Classifications of goiter based on thyroid hormone levels include:
• Toxic goiter: This goiter happens when your thyroid is enlarged
and produces too much thyroid hormone.
• Nontoxic goiter: If you have an enlarged thyroid but normal
thyroid levels (euthyroid), it’s a nontoxic goiter. In other words,
you don’t have hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or
hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
Parathyroid Gland
Parathyroid
Also located in the front of your neck.
Hormone: Parathyromone
Function: controls the calcium levels in your body, and
normalizes bone growth
• Hyperparathyroidism: When the parathyroid produces
too much PTH, causing blood calcium to rise to
unhealthy levels.
• Hypoparathyroidism: When the parathyroid is under-
active, producing too little PTH and causing blood
calcium levels to fall.
 Calcium plays a key role in other fundamental biological
functions, including muscle contractions and
communication between nerve cells. Thus, too much or
too little calcium not only affects your bones but also
your heart, digestive tract, kidneys, muscles and brain.
Thymus Gland
Thymus Gland
Located in the upper torso, the thymus is active until
puberty and produces hormones.
Hormone: Thymosin
Function: Enables the body to produce certain antibodies
• DiGeorge syndrome: a rare genetic disorder in which the
thymus is underdeveloped or absent at birth.
• Thymic hyperplasia: a condition in which the thymus
becomes swollen and inflamed.
• Thymic cysts: abnormal growths filled with liquid in the
thymus.
• Tumors of the thymus gland: thymomas or carcinomas
that occur within the thymus.
• Autoimmune diseases: conditions in which the immune
system attacks the body's own tissues, such as
myasthenia gravis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and
others.
Pancreas
Pancreas
The pancreas is in your abdomen behind your
stomach.
Hormone: Insulin, Glucagon
Function: regulates blood sugar levels
Insulin controls whether sugar is used as energy or stored
as glycogen.
Glucagon signals cells to convert glycogen back into sugar.
Testes
Testes
located at the lower abdomen
Hormone: Androgen, Testosterone
Function: control maturation and male characteristics
Ovary
Ovary/Ovaries
Located at the lower abdomen
Hormone: Estrogen, Progesterone
Function: influence female traits, and support reproductive
function

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Endocrine.pptx Organs/Glands in Endocrine System

  • 1. The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs. These hormones control several important functions in your body, such as your growth and development, metabolism, mood, reproduction.
  • 2. Your endocrine glands includes adrenal glands, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid, pineal gland There are also organs that contain endocrine tissue and act as glands. These include the: pancreas, kidneys, ovaries and testes.
  • 3. How does your endocrine system function? Endocrine glands secrete chemicals known as hormones into the bloodstream, which carries them throughout the body. When a hormone in the blood reaches the target organ, it produces a notable effect. The endocrine system sends signals all over the body, much like the nervous system, but unlike the instant responses activated by the nervous system, the effects can take a few hours or even weeks.
  • 4. Hormones Is a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action. Hormones are the chemicals that are responsible for controlling and regulating the activities of certain cells and organs. These chemicals are secreted by special glands known as the endocrine glands.
  • 6. Adrenal Gland Your adrenal glands are endocrine glands located on top of your kidneys. They produce many important hormones including adrenaline. This hormone prepares the body for action, controls the heart rate and breathing in times of emergency.
  • 8. The pituitary gland The pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. The hormones it produces affect growth and reproduction. They can also control the function of other endocrine glands. • Hormones: • Oxytocin, • Vasopressin, • Growth Hormone • Adrenocorticotropic This hormones stimulates growth, and controls the functions of other glands • Hormone (ACTH), • Prolactin, Luteinizing • Hormone, Follicle • Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • 10. Thyroid The thyroid gland is in the front part of your neck. It’s very important for metabolism. Hormones: Thyroxin, Calcitonin Function: regulates body metabolism, and causes storage of calcium in bones
  • 11. Diseases caused by thyroid problems include: • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis- it causes hypothyroidism, a decline in thyroid hormone production that can result in fatigue, weight gain, depression and other symptoms.
  • 12. • Graves’ disease- is an immune system disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and common among women and in people younger than age 40. • Common signs and symptoms of Graves' disease include: • Anxiety and irritability • A fine tremor of the hands or fingers • Weight loss, despite normal eating habits • Enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter) • Change in menstrual cycles • Frequent bowel movements • Bulging eyes (Graves' ophthalmopathy) • Thick, red skin usually on the shins or tops of the feet (Graves' dermopathy) • Rapid or irregular heartbeat (palpitations) • Sleep disturbance
  • 13. • Goiter- is a condition where your thyroid gland grows larger. Goiter may be associated with an irregular amount of thyroid hormone in your body (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism) or with normal levels of thyroid hormone (euthyroid). Classifications of goiter based on thyroid hormone levels include: • Toxic goiter: This goiter happens when your thyroid is enlarged and produces too much thyroid hormone. • Nontoxic goiter: If you have an enlarged thyroid but normal thyroid levels (euthyroid), it’s a nontoxic goiter. In other words, you don’t have hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
  • 15. Parathyroid Also located in the front of your neck. Hormone: Parathyromone Function: controls the calcium levels in your body, and normalizes bone growth
  • 16. • Hyperparathyroidism: When the parathyroid produces too much PTH, causing blood calcium to rise to unhealthy levels. • Hypoparathyroidism: When the parathyroid is under- active, producing too little PTH and causing blood calcium levels to fall.  Calcium plays a key role in other fundamental biological functions, including muscle contractions and communication between nerve cells. Thus, too much or too little calcium not only affects your bones but also your heart, digestive tract, kidneys, muscles and brain.
  • 18. Thymus Gland Located in the upper torso, the thymus is active until puberty and produces hormones. Hormone: Thymosin Function: Enables the body to produce certain antibodies
  • 19. • DiGeorge syndrome: a rare genetic disorder in which the thymus is underdeveloped or absent at birth. • Thymic hyperplasia: a condition in which the thymus becomes swollen and inflamed. • Thymic cysts: abnormal growths filled with liquid in the thymus. • Tumors of the thymus gland: thymomas or carcinomas that occur within the thymus. • Autoimmune diseases: conditions in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues, such as myasthenia gravis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and others.
  • 21. Pancreas The pancreas is in your abdomen behind your stomach. Hormone: Insulin, Glucagon Function: regulates blood sugar levels Insulin controls whether sugar is used as energy or stored as glycogen. Glucagon signals cells to convert glycogen back into sugar.
  • 23. Testes located at the lower abdomen Hormone: Androgen, Testosterone Function: control maturation and male characteristics
  • 24. Ovary
  • 25. Ovary/Ovaries Located at the lower abdomen Hormone: Estrogen, Progesterone Function: influence female traits, and support reproductive function