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Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
1
Encroachment in Data Processing using Big
Data Technology
Tamilselvan Manivannan1
, Susainathan Amuthan2
1
Department of Computer Science, Don Bosco College, Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India
2
Department of Computer Applications, Don Bosco College, Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India
Email : maniorg.t71@gmail.com, muthanazeez@gmail.com
Abstract — The nature of big data is now growing and information is present all around us in different kind of
forms. The big data information plays crucial role and it provides business value for the firms and its benefits
sectors by accumulating knowledge. This growth of big data around all the concerns is high and challenge in
data processing technique because it contains variety of data in enormous volume. The tools which are built on
the data mining algorithm provides efficient data processing mechanisms, but not fulfill the pattern of
heterogeneous, so the emerging tools such like Hadoop MapReduce, Pig, SPARK, Cloudera, Impala and
Enterprise RTQ, IBM Netezza and Apache Giraphe as computing tools and HBase, Hive, Neo4j and Apache
Cassendra as storage tools useful in classifying, clustering and discovering the knowledge. This study will
focused on the comparative study of different data processing tools, in big data analytics and their benefits will
be tabulated.
Keywords—Big data, analysis, tools, study
I. INTRODUCTION
The big data is the concept of large spectrum of data, which is being created day by day. In recent years
handling these data is the biggest challenge. This data is huge in volume and being generated exponentially from
multiple sources like social media (Facebook, Twitter etc.) and forums, mail systems, scholarly as well as
research articles, online transactions and company data being generated daily, various sensors data collected
from multiple sources like health care systems, meteorological department[19], environmental organizations etc.
The data in their native form has multiple formats too. Also, this data is no longer static in nature; rather it is
changing over time at rapid speed. These features owned by huge of current data, put a lot of challenges on the
storage and computation of it. As a result, the conventional data storage and management techniques as well as
computing tools and algorithms have become incapable to deal with these data. Big data solutions are
distinguish by real-time complex processing and data relationship, advanced analytics, and search capabilities.
Now big data has improved the demand of information management specializers in Software companies,
Government, Constructing, and Medical sciences.
After the big data storage, comes the analytic processing. According to there are four critical requirements for
big data processing. The first requirement is fast data loading. Since the disk and network traffic interferes with
the query executions during data loading, it is necessary to reduce the data loading time. The second
requirement is fast query processing. In order to satisfy the requirements of heavy workloads and real-time
requests, many queries are response-time critical. Thus, the data placement structure must be capable of
retaining high query processing speeds as the amounts of queries rapidly increase. Additionally, the third
requirement for big data processing is the highly efficient utilization of storage space. Since the rapid growth in
user activities can demand scalable storage capacity and computing power, limited disk space necessitates that
data storage be well managed during processing, and issues on how to store the data so that space utilization is
maximized be addressed. Finally, the fourth requirement is the strong adaptively to highly dynamic workload
patterns. As big data sets are analyzed by different applications and users, for different purposes, and in various
ways, the underlying system should be highly adaptive to unexpected dynamics in data processing, and not
specific to certain workload patterns. Map Reduce is a parallel programming model, inspired by the “Map” and
“Reduce” of functional languages, which is suitable for big data processing. The contribution of this study is to
provide an analysis of the various big data tools is discussed[19].
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
2
A. Importance of Big Data
The importance of Big Data consists in the potential to improve efficiency in the context of use a huge volume
of data, of different type. If Big Data is defined properly and used accordingly, organizations can get a better
view on their business therefore leading to efficiency in different areas like sales, improving the manufactured
product and so forth. Big Data can be used effectively in the following areas:
 In information technology to improve security and troubleshooting
 In customer service by using information from call centers to enhance customer satisfaction by
customizing services
 In improving services and products through the use of social media content.
 In the detection of fraud in the online transactions for any organization
 In risk assessment by analyzing information from the transactions on the financial market[20].
II. RELATED WORKS
As big data becomes difficult to process using on-hand data management tools or traditional data processing
applications there exists use of Hadoop tool to manage big data[21]. The challenges include capture, storage,
search, sharing, transfer, analysis and visualization. The study presented the specific details along with
description of various open source big data computing and storage tools enlisting the area of specialization[22].
With the recent endeavors of various developers concerning the use of tools in various fields one can expect a
more enhanced environment along with more technical improvements. The work can be a helping hand to
provide an insight in future to develop an application with more efficiency and availability a tool can be
designed which instead of supporting a specific area can be extended to more fields.
A. Need of Big Data Analytics
There are various purposes for handling Big Data and exploring effective management and methodologies. The
Big Data can be used for following purposes[16]. Business Intelligence: Intelligence is incorporated in making
various business strategies as listed below:
 Business alignment strategies: It is required so that the output value and strategy may be tied up closely
and may give the result after appropriate decision making.
 Behavioral and organizational strategies: These strategies speed up the task performance and improve
productivity.
 IT strategies: It provides improved efficiency in IT at lower cost.
 Promotion and Advertisement strategies: These are required to make intelligent and effective marketing
and advertisements to raise the profit.
B. Crime/ Fraud/ Fault Detection and Prediction:
In this reference, the Big Data analytics can play a vital role in several aspects[23].
 Credit card transaction: Analytics can predict the probability of a credit card holder of being fraudulent.
 Criminal identification is possible through deep analysis of call detail record[22].
 Querying, Searching and Indexing
 Keyword based search
 Pattern matching
C. Knowledge discovery / Data Mining
 Healthcare system: In healthcare system, Big Data Analytics could play a very vital role in variety of
disease pattern identification, prediction and therapy suggestions such as diabetes, heart, cancer and
Parkinson disease etc. through deeply digging Big Data using various data mining techniques.
 Statistical Modeling: In various day to day life transactions.
 Climate predictions and operative suggestions can be made based on the effective analytics of huge
amount of climate and environmental data.
Defect detection and prediction in software and manufacturing products.
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
3
III. COMPARISONS OF BIG DATA ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND DISCUSSION
To draw useful implications from the Big Data, appropriate tools are required to perform data collection, data
storage and processing for various analytical perspectives.
DATA Semi-Structured
Data
Structured
Data
Un-Structured
Data
Acquisition and
Recording
Extraction/
Cleaning
Prediction
Analysis and
Modeling
Integration/
Aggregation/
Representaion
Visualization
Data Generated From Multiple Sources
Fig. 1. Process Flow Diagram for Big Data Analytics
Fig. 2.
A. Comparison of Computing Tools
The comparison table it consisting of various computing tools and key features are listed below
TABLE I. COMPUTING TOOLS COMPARISON
Computing
Tools
Scalability
Distributed
Architecture
Parallel
Computation
Fault Tolerance
Single Point
Failure
Hadoop Yes Yes Yes High
Yes-At master
nodes)
Cloudera Impala
RTQ
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes–If any query
execution entire
query is stopped
IBM Netezza Yes Yes
Yes- Asymmetric
Massively Parallel
Processing
Yes-Using
redundant SMP
hosts
At SMP server level
Apache Giraph Yes Yes
Yes–Bulk Parallel
processing
Yes–by check
points
No–Multiple master
threads running
TABLE II. COMPUTING TOOLS COMPARISON
Computing
Tools
Query
Speed
Real-Time Analytics /
Response Time
Streaming Query
Support
ETL
Required
Data Format for
Analytics
Hadoop Slow No No No
Structured/
Unstructured
Cloudera
Impala RTQ
High Yes/in seconds No No
Structured
/Unstructured
IBM Netezza High Yes/in seconds Yes No
Structured
(RDBMS)
Apache
Giraph
High Ye / very less No No Graph Database
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
4
TABLE III. COMPUTING TOOLS COMPARISON
Computing
Tools /
Paradigm
I/O Optimization
Optimized Query
Plans
Efficiency
Latency Time for
Query
Hadoop
MapReduce
No Not Applicable
Low for real
time
application(High
for batch
processing)
Not Applicable
Cloudera
Impala RTQ
Yes Yes Higher
Low Latency due to use
of dedicated distributed
query engine
IBM Netezza Not Required Yes High
Very Low- in seconds,
due to in-memory data
base processing and
parallelism
Apache Giraph Not Required
Yes–In terms of
graph query/
algorithms
High
Low-In memory
computation
Based on the comparison we identified following set of categories on which we would like to evaluate the above
tools and computing paradigm in subsequent sub-sections:
B. Distributed Computation, Scalability and Parallel Computation
As we can see from the comparison tables, all computing tools provide these facilities. Hadoop distributes data
as well as computing via transferring it to various storage nodes. Also, it linearly scales by adding a number of
nodes to computing clusters but shows a single point failure. Cloudera Impala also quits execution of the entire
query if a single part of it stops. IBM Netezza and Apache Giraph whereas does not have single point failure. In
terms of parallel computation IBM Netezza is fastest due to hardware built parallelism[3][11].
C. Real Time Query, Query Speed, Latency Time
The Hadoop employs MapReduce paradigm of computing which targets batch-job processing. It does not
directly support the real time query execution i.e OLTP. Hadoop can be integrated with Apache Hive that
supports HiveQL query language which supports query firing, but still not provide OLTP tasks (such as updates
and deletion at row level) and has late response time (in minutes) due to absence of pipeline parallelism and run-
time scheduling of task assignment to distributed nodes.
All other three computing tools support the real time query execution very well and have early response time in
seconds. However, Cloudera executes queries at least 10 times faster than Hive/MapReduce. Hadoop has
comparatively higher latency time as it targets batch-job processing. The Cloudera Impala has low latency time
as it uses a dedicated distributed engine to access data. IBM Netezza and Apache Giraph also achieve very low
latency time due to in-memory database processing and computation. Apart from these tools there are other
frameworks that are dedicated only to big data stream computing and mining for supporting real time analytics
too but they are not discussed in this paper[12].
D. I/O and Query Optimization, Efficiency & Performance
Hadoop does not generate optimized query execution plans thus offers low efficiency for queries whereas
Cloudera, IBM Netezza and Giraph have provision of I/O and query execution plans optimizations which results
in higher efficiency and high performance in query execution. In Cloudera, purely I/O bound queries achieve
approximately 3-4 times, queries of join or multiple Map Reduces achieves approximately 7-45 and simple
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
5
aggregation queries achieve 20-90 times performance gain over Hive/MapReduce. Giraph also provides high
performance in terms of large scale graph processing for even trillion of edges[13].
E. ETL Requirement, Cost Effectiveness, Fault Tolerance
Since Hadoop, Giraph and Cloudera RTQ are open sourced, hence are a cost effective solution whereas IBM
Netezza is proprietary to IBM, hence a costly solution for handling BigData. Also, since Clouera and Giraph
perform in memory computation they do not require data input and data output that saves a lot of processing
cost involved in I/O. None of the tools require the ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) service, thereby they save
a major cost involved in data preprocessing. Hadoop is highly fault tolerant that is achieved by maintaining
multiple replicas of data sets, and its architecture that facilitates dealing with frequent hardware malfunctions.
Giraph achieves fault tolerance using barrier checkpoints[5][6].
F. Data Format, Language Support and Application Development
Hadoop HDFS is purpose built for supporting multi-structure data unlike the relational data bases whereas IBM
Netezza deals strictly with the relational database. The Cloudera Impala RTQ supports both structured as well as
unstructured data store. Apache Giraph is designed specially to work on graph data base such as Neo4j. Hadoop
itself work on simply MapReduce paradigm but may support a range of languages for application development
when integrated with other technologies such as Apache PIG that supports Python, JavaScript and JRuby
languages. Cloudera can be successfully integrated with various BI tools supporting various languages. IBM
Netezza directly supports a wide range of languages (C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lua, Perl, PythonR) for application
development. Apache Giraph builds applications implemented using Java libraries[11].
G. Comparison of Storage Paradigms/Tools
The comparison table it consisting of various storage tools and key features are listed below.
TABLE IV. STORAGE TOOLS COMPARISON
Reference
Storage Tools
Open
Source
Distributed Scalable
Data Storage
Format
ETL
Required?
[17] HBase Yes Yes Yes Structured Yes
[8][17]
Apache Hive Yes Yes Yes - Good
Structured/
Unstructured
Yes -
Hence a bit
higher
latency in
minutes
[17]
Neo4j Yes Yes Yes
Non-relational
No
[17] Apache
Cassandra
Yes Yes Yes -vast
Structured / Semi-
structured /
unstructured
(schema less)
No
Based on the comparison tables, storage tools can be categorized and evaluated based on following subsets of
characteristics that provides some insights of applicability of various tools in different application domains:
H. Distributed, Scalability and Data Format Flexibility
All storage tools provide distributed data storage and querying facility and scalable in nature. HBase can be
easily scaled-up with new records up to millions of rows and billions of columns. HBase and Hive run on
Hadoop data node clusters, hence exploits its scalable property to further expand the database through data
partitioning over multiple cluster data nodes. Neo4j supports scalability in terms of parallel readings on multiple
nodes. Cassandra is highly scalable NoSQL database whose throughput and query response scales linearly with
machine nodes. HBase has tabular data structure format, but it is wide-column and key-value-based data store
capable of supporting a huge number of columns and flexible schema architecture. Hive also supports the
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
6
unstructured database whereas Cassandra supports a full range of structured and unstructured data formats and
the dynamic changes in data structure can be accommodated easily[4]. Neo4j is extremely flexible schema less
database solutions that solves graph modeled problems.
I. Availability, Fault Tolerance, Fault Recovery
The HBase and Hive run on Hadoop master/slave architecture of nodes that cause a single point failure at the
master level failure. In HBase, Region Server that manages the partitioned data into a cluster region becomes
single-point-failure. Similarly, Neo4j's write-master is single point failure. All these are fault tolerant but HBase
and Hive offers a bit low availability. Neo4j has a much better availability whereas Cassandra is highly
available due to the absence of master/slave paradigm[14].
J. Real Time and Streaming Query Support, Query Performance
HBase is optimized for read operations and hence not much efficient for writes. On the other hand, Hive does
not suit for OLTP due to absence of row level updates and deletes. Neo4j supports real time queries, but in the
form of graph traversals. Cassandra supports OLTP very well on a full range of data formats. For stream query
analysis, Cassandra is the best solution. The HBase stores data in Map Files (that are indexed Sequence Files)
thus becomes a suitable choice for streaming analysis of a MapReduce kind of style that involves occasional
random look ups. The performance of query in Hive is increased through meta-store, data partitioning and
external level table support that is not required to be pushed on HDFS. Neo4j overcomes the performance
degradation problem in traditional RDBMS queries with several joins because a graph traversal is performed
which works at the same speed, no matter how much data constitutes it. Cassandra provides very high
throughput for write operation queries[15].
K. Open Source, Access Control, Language Support
All storage tools discussed in this paper are open source, hence free available and cost effective. Out of them,
Cassandra and Neo4j does not have a requirement of ETL services that causes no extra processing cost overhead
and become the cheapest choices among them. HBase, Neo4j and Apache Cassandra fully support an access
control mechanism that provides security, authorized access and modification to the database whereas Hive does
not provide such efficient control. HBase is java centric hence directly supports lesser languages but through
REST and Thrift Gateways interface support languages. Neo4j supports several languages through various
Neo4j language clients and REST APIs whereas Cassandra supports all key languages that are required to
develop a variety of applications without need of any intermediate gateways[16].
The overall management of Big Data involves storing, processing and analyzing it for various purposes; hence
we can visualize the infrastructure, to handle Big Data related tasks, as a layered architecture.
TABLE V. STORAGE TOOLS COMPARISON
Reference
Storage
Tools
ACID
Transaction
Support
Real Time
Query/
OLTP
Stream
Query
Support
Range of SQL
Supported
queries
Single Point
Failure
[17]
HBase
Yes –
Rollback
support
No
No-
partially
No Support of
SQL Can
support when
integrated with
Hive
Yes- At Region
Server level
[8][17]
Apache
Hive
Yes No No
Limited –
through
HiveQL that
has been
extended
through writing
Yes – At master
node of underlying
hadoop framework
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
7
custom
function
[17]
Neo4j Yes
Yes – in
form of
graph
traversal
and deletion
of node
No
Queries in the
form of Graph
Traversals
Yes – At Master
level responsible
for write replicas
[17]
Apache
Cassandra
Yes –
provides AID
only
Yes Yes
Yes – through
CQL whereas
JOINs and most
SQL search are
supported by
defining
schema
No – Hence high
Availability
TABLE VI. STORAGE TOOLS COMPARISON
Reference Storage
Tools
Failover
Recovery
Fault
Tolerance
Meta Data
Store
Language
Interface Support
Access
Control
[17][18]
HBase
Long time at
node level
failure
whereas
10 to 15
minutes at
Region
Server level
Yes Yes
Less - Java
Centric, Non-java
clients are
supported through
REST and Thrift
gateways
Yes
[8][17][18]
Apache
Hive
Yes -
supports node
level
recovery
Yes -
replication
mechanism
to have
synced with
metastore
Yes
Clojure, Go,
Groovy, Java
JavaScript, Perl,
PHP, Python,
JRuby, Scala
No in-built
security
provisions
[17][18]
Neo4j
Yes -
Select the
new master
Yes -
Supported
by ACID
Transaction
system
Yes -
Optional
schema
Java, PHP, .Net,
Python, Clojure,
Ruby, Scala, etc.
Yes
[17][18] Apache
Cassandra
Yes -
Optimized for
the Recovery
performance
Yes -
Optional
Yes -Due to
flexible
schema
support
Java, Python,
Node.JS, etc.
Yes -
Provided by
the DataStax
Enterprise
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
8
Data Format Data Storage Layer
Semi-
Structured
Unstructured
Structured
Data Computing and
Analytics
End Result
Real Time
Analytics
MapReduce
Analytics
Business
Intelligence
Analytics
Real
Time
Insight
Real Time
Operations
Business
Intelligence
and Actionable
Insights
Operational
Applications
Real Time
NoSQL
Database
File Storage
System such
as HDFS
Data
Warehuse
Fig. 3. Layered Architecture for Big Data Handling
IV. CONCLUSIONS
This comparison aims to find some available computing and storage tools that are being used in current scenario
to address challenges of Big Data processing. We have categorized the survey into two streams. One stream
contains study and survey of existing computing paradigms and tools used to perform computation on Big Data
and the other stream gives a detailed survey of storage mechanisms and tools available today. In this reference,
we focused on Apache Hadoop, Cloudera Impala and Enterprise RTQ, IBM Netezza and Apache Giraph as
computing tools and HBase, Hive, Neo4j and Apache Cassandra as storage tools. Based on deep and detailed
analysis of their features, relative advantages and disadvantages we have made a critical comparison among
these tools. The comparison is made on the most striking attributes that one looks for before choosing these
tools for its application domain to handle Big Data. We have discussed various issues associated with various
tools and compared them accordingly and gave critical review on the suitability and applicability of different
storage and computing tools with respect to a variety of situations, domains, users and requirements.
V. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS
As we know big data is an emerging field. In this study we have discussed the various analytical tools and its
features. We can implement one of the tools in future. The hope is to implement better and better technique
which can robustly resolve the drawbacks and find the best solution. Future work will focus on performance of
Hadoop on cloud platforms.
References
[1] Gandomi, A,Haider, M. Beyond the hype: Big data concepts, methods and analytics,International Journal of
Information Technology,35(2)- 2011.
[2] Seema Acharya, Subhasini chellapan, “Big data Analytics”,Willey,edition-2015.
[3] M. Kendrick, Big data, Big Challenges, Big opportunities: IOUG Big data Strategies Survey- 2015
[4] Shavachko K, Kuang H, Radia and chansler R, The hadoop distributed file system, Proccedings of IEEE
Conference-2010.
[5] Fransico P, The Netezza data appliance architecture: A platform for high performance data warehousing
and analytics,IBM Redbooks-2011.
[6] DataStax Corporation-Introduction to cassendra-A White Paper(2013)
[7] Katal,A wazid ,m,”big data:Issues,callenges,tools and good pratcices”.
[8] Baski,k,”Considerations for big data:Architecture and approach”-2012.
[9] http://www.gise.iitb.ac.in/wiki/images/2/26/Hive.pdf
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm
Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76
ISSN: 2278-2397
9
[10]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/big-data ret retrived 2015-03-12
[11]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache-Hadoop retrieved 2015-03-12
[12]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map Reduce retrieved 2015-02-27
[13]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pig retrieved 2015-02-27
[14]Tom white “hadoop the definitive guide” proc O’Reilly Media,Edition 3,May 2012.
[15]Donald Minner,Adam Shook “mapreduce design pattens” proc O’Reilly Media,Edition November 2012.
[16]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264555968_Big_Data_Analytics
[17]http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/%7Ekumar/dmbook/ch4.pdf
[18]http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/analystreports/infrastructure/ioug-big-data-survey-1912835.pdf
[19]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299423030Comparative_StudBig_Data_Computing_and_Storage
_Tools
[20]http://www.dbjournal.ro/archive/10/10.pdf
[21]https://www.edureka.co/blog/videos/introduction-hadoop-administration
[22]An efficient Parkinson disease diagnosis system based on Least_Squares Twin_Support Vector Machine
and Particle Swarm Optimization
[23]http://www.dailymail.co.uk/indiahome/indianews/article-3004655/India-play-vital-role-dealing-threat-
Boko-Haram.htm

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Encroachment in Data Processing using Big Data Technology

  • 1. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 1 Encroachment in Data Processing using Big Data Technology Tamilselvan Manivannan1 , Susainathan Amuthan2 1 Department of Computer Science, Don Bosco College, Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India 2 Department of Computer Applications, Don Bosco College, Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India Email : maniorg.t71@gmail.com, muthanazeez@gmail.com Abstract — The nature of big data is now growing and information is present all around us in different kind of forms. The big data information plays crucial role and it provides business value for the firms and its benefits sectors by accumulating knowledge. This growth of big data around all the concerns is high and challenge in data processing technique because it contains variety of data in enormous volume. The tools which are built on the data mining algorithm provides efficient data processing mechanisms, but not fulfill the pattern of heterogeneous, so the emerging tools such like Hadoop MapReduce, Pig, SPARK, Cloudera, Impala and Enterprise RTQ, IBM Netezza and Apache Giraphe as computing tools and HBase, Hive, Neo4j and Apache Cassendra as storage tools useful in classifying, clustering and discovering the knowledge. This study will focused on the comparative study of different data processing tools, in big data analytics and their benefits will be tabulated. Keywords—Big data, analysis, tools, study I. INTRODUCTION The big data is the concept of large spectrum of data, which is being created day by day. In recent years handling these data is the biggest challenge. This data is huge in volume and being generated exponentially from multiple sources like social media (Facebook, Twitter etc.) and forums, mail systems, scholarly as well as research articles, online transactions and company data being generated daily, various sensors data collected from multiple sources like health care systems, meteorological department[19], environmental organizations etc. The data in their native form has multiple formats too. Also, this data is no longer static in nature; rather it is changing over time at rapid speed. These features owned by huge of current data, put a lot of challenges on the storage and computation of it. As a result, the conventional data storage and management techniques as well as computing tools and algorithms have become incapable to deal with these data. Big data solutions are distinguish by real-time complex processing and data relationship, advanced analytics, and search capabilities. Now big data has improved the demand of information management specializers in Software companies, Government, Constructing, and Medical sciences. After the big data storage, comes the analytic processing. According to there are four critical requirements for big data processing. The first requirement is fast data loading. Since the disk and network traffic interferes with the query executions during data loading, it is necessary to reduce the data loading time. The second requirement is fast query processing. In order to satisfy the requirements of heavy workloads and real-time requests, many queries are response-time critical. Thus, the data placement structure must be capable of retaining high query processing speeds as the amounts of queries rapidly increase. Additionally, the third requirement for big data processing is the highly efficient utilization of storage space. Since the rapid growth in user activities can demand scalable storage capacity and computing power, limited disk space necessitates that data storage be well managed during processing, and issues on how to store the data so that space utilization is maximized be addressed. Finally, the fourth requirement is the strong adaptively to highly dynamic workload patterns. As big data sets are analyzed by different applications and users, for different purposes, and in various ways, the underlying system should be highly adaptive to unexpected dynamics in data processing, and not specific to certain workload patterns. Map Reduce is a parallel programming model, inspired by the “Map” and “Reduce” of functional languages, which is suitable for big data processing. The contribution of this study is to provide an analysis of the various big data tools is discussed[19].
  • 2. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 2 A. Importance of Big Data The importance of Big Data consists in the potential to improve efficiency in the context of use a huge volume of data, of different type. If Big Data is defined properly and used accordingly, organizations can get a better view on their business therefore leading to efficiency in different areas like sales, improving the manufactured product and so forth. Big Data can be used effectively in the following areas:  In information technology to improve security and troubleshooting  In customer service by using information from call centers to enhance customer satisfaction by customizing services  In improving services and products through the use of social media content.  In the detection of fraud in the online transactions for any organization  In risk assessment by analyzing information from the transactions on the financial market[20]. II. RELATED WORKS As big data becomes difficult to process using on-hand data management tools or traditional data processing applications there exists use of Hadoop tool to manage big data[21]. The challenges include capture, storage, search, sharing, transfer, analysis and visualization. The study presented the specific details along with description of various open source big data computing and storage tools enlisting the area of specialization[22]. With the recent endeavors of various developers concerning the use of tools in various fields one can expect a more enhanced environment along with more technical improvements. The work can be a helping hand to provide an insight in future to develop an application with more efficiency and availability a tool can be designed which instead of supporting a specific area can be extended to more fields. A. Need of Big Data Analytics There are various purposes for handling Big Data and exploring effective management and methodologies. The Big Data can be used for following purposes[16]. Business Intelligence: Intelligence is incorporated in making various business strategies as listed below:  Business alignment strategies: It is required so that the output value and strategy may be tied up closely and may give the result after appropriate decision making.  Behavioral and organizational strategies: These strategies speed up the task performance and improve productivity.  IT strategies: It provides improved efficiency in IT at lower cost.  Promotion and Advertisement strategies: These are required to make intelligent and effective marketing and advertisements to raise the profit. B. Crime/ Fraud/ Fault Detection and Prediction: In this reference, the Big Data analytics can play a vital role in several aspects[23].  Credit card transaction: Analytics can predict the probability of a credit card holder of being fraudulent.  Criminal identification is possible through deep analysis of call detail record[22].  Querying, Searching and Indexing  Keyword based search  Pattern matching C. Knowledge discovery / Data Mining  Healthcare system: In healthcare system, Big Data Analytics could play a very vital role in variety of disease pattern identification, prediction and therapy suggestions such as diabetes, heart, cancer and Parkinson disease etc. through deeply digging Big Data using various data mining techniques.  Statistical Modeling: In various day to day life transactions.  Climate predictions and operative suggestions can be made based on the effective analytics of huge amount of climate and environmental data. Defect detection and prediction in software and manufacturing products.
  • 3. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 3 III. COMPARISONS OF BIG DATA ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND DISCUSSION To draw useful implications from the Big Data, appropriate tools are required to perform data collection, data storage and processing for various analytical perspectives. DATA Semi-Structured Data Structured Data Un-Structured Data Acquisition and Recording Extraction/ Cleaning Prediction Analysis and Modeling Integration/ Aggregation/ Representaion Visualization Data Generated From Multiple Sources Fig. 1. Process Flow Diagram for Big Data Analytics Fig. 2. A. Comparison of Computing Tools The comparison table it consisting of various computing tools and key features are listed below TABLE I. COMPUTING TOOLS COMPARISON Computing Tools Scalability Distributed Architecture Parallel Computation Fault Tolerance Single Point Failure Hadoop Yes Yes Yes High Yes-At master nodes) Cloudera Impala RTQ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes–If any query execution entire query is stopped IBM Netezza Yes Yes Yes- Asymmetric Massively Parallel Processing Yes-Using redundant SMP hosts At SMP server level Apache Giraph Yes Yes Yes–Bulk Parallel processing Yes–by check points No–Multiple master threads running TABLE II. COMPUTING TOOLS COMPARISON Computing Tools Query Speed Real-Time Analytics / Response Time Streaming Query Support ETL Required Data Format for Analytics Hadoop Slow No No No Structured/ Unstructured Cloudera Impala RTQ High Yes/in seconds No No Structured /Unstructured IBM Netezza High Yes/in seconds Yes No Structured (RDBMS) Apache Giraph High Ye / very less No No Graph Database
  • 4. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 4 TABLE III. COMPUTING TOOLS COMPARISON Computing Tools / Paradigm I/O Optimization Optimized Query Plans Efficiency Latency Time for Query Hadoop MapReduce No Not Applicable Low for real time application(High for batch processing) Not Applicable Cloudera Impala RTQ Yes Yes Higher Low Latency due to use of dedicated distributed query engine IBM Netezza Not Required Yes High Very Low- in seconds, due to in-memory data base processing and parallelism Apache Giraph Not Required Yes–In terms of graph query/ algorithms High Low-In memory computation Based on the comparison we identified following set of categories on which we would like to evaluate the above tools and computing paradigm in subsequent sub-sections: B. Distributed Computation, Scalability and Parallel Computation As we can see from the comparison tables, all computing tools provide these facilities. Hadoop distributes data as well as computing via transferring it to various storage nodes. Also, it linearly scales by adding a number of nodes to computing clusters but shows a single point failure. Cloudera Impala also quits execution of the entire query if a single part of it stops. IBM Netezza and Apache Giraph whereas does not have single point failure. In terms of parallel computation IBM Netezza is fastest due to hardware built parallelism[3][11]. C. Real Time Query, Query Speed, Latency Time The Hadoop employs MapReduce paradigm of computing which targets batch-job processing. It does not directly support the real time query execution i.e OLTP. Hadoop can be integrated with Apache Hive that supports HiveQL query language which supports query firing, but still not provide OLTP tasks (such as updates and deletion at row level) and has late response time (in minutes) due to absence of pipeline parallelism and run- time scheduling of task assignment to distributed nodes. All other three computing tools support the real time query execution very well and have early response time in seconds. However, Cloudera executes queries at least 10 times faster than Hive/MapReduce. Hadoop has comparatively higher latency time as it targets batch-job processing. The Cloudera Impala has low latency time as it uses a dedicated distributed engine to access data. IBM Netezza and Apache Giraph also achieve very low latency time due to in-memory database processing and computation. Apart from these tools there are other frameworks that are dedicated only to big data stream computing and mining for supporting real time analytics too but they are not discussed in this paper[12]. D. I/O and Query Optimization, Efficiency & Performance Hadoop does not generate optimized query execution plans thus offers low efficiency for queries whereas Cloudera, IBM Netezza and Giraph have provision of I/O and query execution plans optimizations which results in higher efficiency and high performance in query execution. In Cloudera, purely I/O bound queries achieve approximately 3-4 times, queries of join or multiple Map Reduces achieves approximately 7-45 and simple
  • 5. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 5 aggregation queries achieve 20-90 times performance gain over Hive/MapReduce. Giraph also provides high performance in terms of large scale graph processing for even trillion of edges[13]. E. ETL Requirement, Cost Effectiveness, Fault Tolerance Since Hadoop, Giraph and Cloudera RTQ are open sourced, hence are a cost effective solution whereas IBM Netezza is proprietary to IBM, hence a costly solution for handling BigData. Also, since Clouera and Giraph perform in memory computation they do not require data input and data output that saves a lot of processing cost involved in I/O. None of the tools require the ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) service, thereby they save a major cost involved in data preprocessing. Hadoop is highly fault tolerant that is achieved by maintaining multiple replicas of data sets, and its architecture that facilitates dealing with frequent hardware malfunctions. Giraph achieves fault tolerance using barrier checkpoints[5][6]. F. Data Format, Language Support and Application Development Hadoop HDFS is purpose built for supporting multi-structure data unlike the relational data bases whereas IBM Netezza deals strictly with the relational database. The Cloudera Impala RTQ supports both structured as well as unstructured data store. Apache Giraph is designed specially to work on graph data base such as Neo4j. Hadoop itself work on simply MapReduce paradigm but may support a range of languages for application development when integrated with other technologies such as Apache PIG that supports Python, JavaScript and JRuby languages. Cloudera can be successfully integrated with various BI tools supporting various languages. IBM Netezza directly supports a wide range of languages (C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lua, Perl, PythonR) for application development. Apache Giraph builds applications implemented using Java libraries[11]. G. Comparison of Storage Paradigms/Tools The comparison table it consisting of various storage tools and key features are listed below. TABLE IV. STORAGE TOOLS COMPARISON Reference Storage Tools Open Source Distributed Scalable Data Storage Format ETL Required? [17] HBase Yes Yes Yes Structured Yes [8][17] Apache Hive Yes Yes Yes - Good Structured/ Unstructured Yes - Hence a bit higher latency in minutes [17] Neo4j Yes Yes Yes Non-relational No [17] Apache Cassandra Yes Yes Yes -vast Structured / Semi- structured / unstructured (schema less) No Based on the comparison tables, storage tools can be categorized and evaluated based on following subsets of characteristics that provides some insights of applicability of various tools in different application domains: H. Distributed, Scalability and Data Format Flexibility All storage tools provide distributed data storage and querying facility and scalable in nature. HBase can be easily scaled-up with new records up to millions of rows and billions of columns. HBase and Hive run on Hadoop data node clusters, hence exploits its scalable property to further expand the database through data partitioning over multiple cluster data nodes. Neo4j supports scalability in terms of parallel readings on multiple nodes. Cassandra is highly scalable NoSQL database whose throughput and query response scales linearly with machine nodes. HBase has tabular data structure format, but it is wide-column and key-value-based data store capable of supporting a huge number of columns and flexible schema architecture. Hive also supports the
  • 6. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 6 unstructured database whereas Cassandra supports a full range of structured and unstructured data formats and the dynamic changes in data structure can be accommodated easily[4]. Neo4j is extremely flexible schema less database solutions that solves graph modeled problems. I. Availability, Fault Tolerance, Fault Recovery The HBase and Hive run on Hadoop master/slave architecture of nodes that cause a single point failure at the master level failure. In HBase, Region Server that manages the partitioned data into a cluster region becomes single-point-failure. Similarly, Neo4j's write-master is single point failure. All these are fault tolerant but HBase and Hive offers a bit low availability. Neo4j has a much better availability whereas Cassandra is highly available due to the absence of master/slave paradigm[14]. J. Real Time and Streaming Query Support, Query Performance HBase is optimized for read operations and hence not much efficient for writes. On the other hand, Hive does not suit for OLTP due to absence of row level updates and deletes. Neo4j supports real time queries, but in the form of graph traversals. Cassandra supports OLTP very well on a full range of data formats. For stream query analysis, Cassandra is the best solution. The HBase stores data in Map Files (that are indexed Sequence Files) thus becomes a suitable choice for streaming analysis of a MapReduce kind of style that involves occasional random look ups. The performance of query in Hive is increased through meta-store, data partitioning and external level table support that is not required to be pushed on HDFS. Neo4j overcomes the performance degradation problem in traditional RDBMS queries with several joins because a graph traversal is performed which works at the same speed, no matter how much data constitutes it. Cassandra provides very high throughput for write operation queries[15]. K. Open Source, Access Control, Language Support All storage tools discussed in this paper are open source, hence free available and cost effective. Out of them, Cassandra and Neo4j does not have a requirement of ETL services that causes no extra processing cost overhead and become the cheapest choices among them. HBase, Neo4j and Apache Cassandra fully support an access control mechanism that provides security, authorized access and modification to the database whereas Hive does not provide such efficient control. HBase is java centric hence directly supports lesser languages but through REST and Thrift Gateways interface support languages. Neo4j supports several languages through various Neo4j language clients and REST APIs whereas Cassandra supports all key languages that are required to develop a variety of applications without need of any intermediate gateways[16]. The overall management of Big Data involves storing, processing and analyzing it for various purposes; hence we can visualize the infrastructure, to handle Big Data related tasks, as a layered architecture. TABLE V. STORAGE TOOLS COMPARISON Reference Storage Tools ACID Transaction Support Real Time Query/ OLTP Stream Query Support Range of SQL Supported queries Single Point Failure [17] HBase Yes – Rollback support No No- partially No Support of SQL Can support when integrated with Hive Yes- At Region Server level [8][17] Apache Hive Yes No No Limited – through HiveQL that has been extended through writing Yes – At master node of underlying hadoop framework
  • 7. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 7 custom function [17] Neo4j Yes Yes – in form of graph traversal and deletion of node No Queries in the form of Graph Traversals Yes – At Master level responsible for write replicas [17] Apache Cassandra Yes – provides AID only Yes Yes Yes – through CQL whereas JOINs and most SQL search are supported by defining schema No – Hence high Availability TABLE VI. STORAGE TOOLS COMPARISON Reference Storage Tools Failover Recovery Fault Tolerance Meta Data Store Language Interface Support Access Control [17][18] HBase Long time at node level failure whereas 10 to 15 minutes at Region Server level Yes Yes Less - Java Centric, Non-java clients are supported through REST and Thrift gateways Yes [8][17][18] Apache Hive Yes - supports node level recovery Yes - replication mechanism to have synced with metastore Yes Clojure, Go, Groovy, Java JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, JRuby, Scala No in-built security provisions [17][18] Neo4j Yes - Select the new master Yes - Supported by ACID Transaction system Yes - Optional schema Java, PHP, .Net, Python, Clojure, Ruby, Scala, etc. Yes [17][18] Apache Cassandra Yes - Optimized for the Recovery performance Yes - Optional Yes -Due to flexible schema support Java, Python, Node.JS, etc. Yes - Provided by the DataStax Enterprise
  • 8. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 8 Data Format Data Storage Layer Semi- Structured Unstructured Structured Data Computing and Analytics End Result Real Time Analytics MapReduce Analytics Business Intelligence Analytics Real Time Insight Real Time Operations Business Intelligence and Actionable Insights Operational Applications Real Time NoSQL Database File Storage System such as HDFS Data Warehuse Fig. 3. Layered Architecture for Big Data Handling IV. CONCLUSIONS This comparison aims to find some available computing and storage tools that are being used in current scenario to address challenges of Big Data processing. We have categorized the survey into two streams. One stream contains study and survey of existing computing paradigms and tools used to perform computation on Big Data and the other stream gives a detailed survey of storage mechanisms and tools available today. In this reference, we focused on Apache Hadoop, Cloudera Impala and Enterprise RTQ, IBM Netezza and Apache Giraph as computing tools and HBase, Hive, Neo4j and Apache Cassandra as storage tools. Based on deep and detailed analysis of their features, relative advantages and disadvantages we have made a critical comparison among these tools. The comparison is made on the most striking attributes that one looks for before choosing these tools for its application domain to handle Big Data. We have discussed various issues associated with various tools and compared them accordingly and gave critical review on the suitability and applicability of different storage and computing tools with respect to a variety of situations, domains, users and requirements. V. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS As we know big data is an emerging field. In this study we have discussed the various analytical tools and its features. We can implement one of the tools in future. The hope is to implement better and better technique which can robustly resolve the drawbacks and find the best solution. Future work will focus on performance of Hadoop on cloud platforms. References [1] Gandomi, A,Haider, M. Beyond the hype: Big data concepts, methods and analytics,International Journal of Information Technology,35(2)- 2011. [2] Seema Acharya, Subhasini chellapan, “Big data Analytics”,Willey,edition-2015. [3] M. Kendrick, Big data, Big Challenges, Big opportunities: IOUG Big data Strategies Survey- 2015 [4] Shavachko K, Kuang H, Radia and chansler R, The hadoop distributed file system, Proccedings of IEEE Conference-2010. [5] Fransico P, The Netezza data appliance architecture: A platform for high performance data warehousing and analytics,IBM Redbooks-2011. [6] DataStax Corporation-Introduction to cassendra-A White Paper(2013) [7] Katal,A wazid ,m,”big data:Issues,callenges,tools and good pratcices”. [8] Baski,k,”Considerations for big data:Architecture and approach”-2012. [9] http://www.gise.iitb.ac.in/wiki/images/2/26/Hive.pdf
  • 9. Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) International Journal of Computing Algorithm Volume: 07, Issue: 01, June 2018, Page No.68-76 ISSN: 2278-2397 9 [10]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/big-data ret retrived 2015-03-12 [11]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache-Hadoop retrieved 2015-03-12 [12]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map Reduce retrieved 2015-02-27 [13]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pig retrieved 2015-02-27 [14]Tom white “hadoop the definitive guide” proc O’Reilly Media,Edition 3,May 2012. [15]Donald Minner,Adam Shook “mapreduce design pattens” proc O’Reilly Media,Edition November 2012. [16]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264555968_Big_Data_Analytics [17]http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/%7Ekumar/dmbook/ch4.pdf [18]http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/analystreports/infrastructure/ioug-big-data-survey-1912835.pdf [19]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299423030Comparative_StudBig_Data_Computing_and_Storage _Tools [20]http://www.dbjournal.ro/archive/10/10.pdf [21]https://www.edureka.co/blog/videos/introduction-hadoop-administration [22]An efficient Parkinson disease diagnosis system based on Least_Squares Twin_Support Vector Machine and Particle Swarm Optimization [23]http://www.dailymail.co.uk/indiahome/indianews/article-3004655/India-play-vital-role-dealing-threat- Boko-Haram.htm