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Head injury
Head Anatomy
Brain Injuries
Primary
– Immediate damage to brain tissue
– direct result of injury force.
Secondary
– Result of hypoxia or decreased perfusion.
COMMON CAUSES
 Road accidents
 Falls
 Assaults
 Sporting accidents
 Work place accidents

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This document provides information on head injuries, including definitions, etiology, pathophysiology, consequences, assessment, and management. The main causes of head injury are motor vehicle crashes, falls, assaults, and firearms. Head injuries can cause scalp lacerations, skull fractures, brain contusions and hemorrhages. Assessment involves the Glasgow Coma Scale and examining for neurological deficits. Initial management consists of airway control, immobilization, and monitoring vital signs. Treatments for elevated intracranial pressure include mannitol, furosemide, and midazolam.

Head injury
Head injuryHead injury
Head injury

Head injury refers to any injury to the scalp, skull or brain. Common causes include motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assaults. The brain may experience bruising, bleeding, or swelling which increases intracranial pressure. Nurses monitor patients closely for changes in vital signs, pupil size/reactivity, and neurological status that indicate increased pressure. Treatment involves controlling bleeding, maintaining oxygenation and circulation, preventing infection, and monitoring for complications.

Neuro assessment hdsp final 10.09
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The document provides an overview of performing a neurological assessment, including: 1) It describes assessing level of consciousness, cranial nerves, motor function, and response to painful stimuli. 2) Pupillary examination and response to light are important to check for brain injuries with bleeding or swelling. 3) The Glasgow Coma Scale is used to categorize a patient's level of consciousness.

Pathophysiology
Injury to the head
coup & contra coup
Blood oozes out from the artery and venous
Increased intracranial pressure
brain squeezes
out through foramen
magnum
Dereased cerebral perfusion
Cell death
Coup
– The “3rd collision”
– Area of original impact
Contracoup
– The “4th collision”
– Rebounding hitting the
opposite side
Brain Physiology
Intracranial pressure (ICP)
 Pressure of brain and contents in skull
•Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)
 Pressure required to perfuse brain
•Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
 Pressure maintained in vascular system
MONRO – KELLIE DOCTRINE

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The document provides an overview of performing a neurological assessment, including: 1) It describes the anatomy and physiology of the central and peripheral nervous systems, potential injuries like traumatic brain injury, and signs of increased intracranial pressure. 2) It outlines how to evaluate a patient's level of consciousness, cranial nerves, motor function, and vital signs as part of the neurological exam. 3) The assessment aims to identify neurological deficits or changes that could indicate injuries to the head, brain, or spinal cord.

Stroke
StrokeStroke
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The document discusses stroke, including its pathophysiology, types, risk factors, and management categories. Key points include: - Stroke is caused by interrupted blood flow to the brain and can be ischemic (caused by clots or blockages) or hemorrhagic (caused by bleeding). - Major risk factors include age, gender, race, family history, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, hypertension, and obesity. - Strokes are classified based on location and cause, such as thrombotic, embolic, or hemorrhagic strokes. - Complications include sensory and motor deficits, speech/swallowing issues, and cognitive/emotional changes.

stroke
TBI.pptx
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The document discusses traumatic brain injury (TBI), providing definitions and describing different types of acquired and traumatic brain injuries. It defines TBI as an external force causing injury to the brain and diffuse axonal injury as tearing of brain cells. It then describes various types of non-traumatic and traumatic brain injuries and discusses specific injuries like coup-contra coup and diffuse axonal injuries in more detail. The document outlines assessment, treatment principles including preventing secondary injuries, and rehabilitation approaches for TBI.

information
SYMPTOMS & SIGNS
 Diminishing level of consciousness
 Headache, vomiting, seizures
 Cushing’s Triad –
 bradycardia
 hypertension
 abnormal
respiration
 Pupillary changes
 Papilledema
 Rhinorrhea
 Otorrhoea
 battle sign
 raccoon eyes
head injury
CLASSIFICATION
 Mechanism
 Severity

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The document discusses strokes, also known as brain attacks, including defining strokes as inadequate blood flow to the brain, risk factors, types of strokes, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic studies, prevention, acute care, and rehabilitation care. Strokes are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, with the most common type being ischemic strokes caused by blockages interrupting blood flow to the brain. Nursing management focuses on monitoring vital signs and neurological status, managing respiratory issues, skin integrity, swallowing difficulties, and providing supportive care.

Head Injury - Neurological Disorder
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Mr. Saneesh Dubey, a 28-year-old unmarried Hindu shopkeeper, suffered a head injury and was admitted to the ICU. Head injuries can damage the brain, bones, muscles and other head structures. Mr. Dubey underwent an endotracheal tube procedure. Head injuries are commonly caused by motor vehicle accidents and falls. Clinical exams and CT scans are used to diagnose and differentiate between types of head injuries. Nursing care involves monitoring vitals, neurological status using GCS, preventing pressure ulcers, managing increased ICP, and treating complications like infection or seizures.

nursingnurseneurological
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This document provides information about stroke, including: - Strokes are caused by a blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain, depriving brain tissue of oxygen. - Symptoms vary depending on the area of brain affected but can include weakness, difficulty speaking or swallowing, and visual problems. - Diagnosis involves medical history, physical exam, and brain imaging tests like CT scans or MRI. - Treatment depends on the type of stroke but may include clot-busting drugs, surgery to repair blood vessels, and rehabilitation therapies. Prevention focuses on controlling risk factors like high blood pressure and smoking.

MECHANISM
 BLUNT INJURY
 High Velocity
 Low Velocity
 PENETRATING INJURY
 Gunshot
 Sharp instruments
Glasgow Coma Scale
Suspect severe brain injury < GCS 9
Decorticate
 Arms flexed
and legs extended
Decerebrate
 Arms extended
and legs extended
Skull injuries
Types Skull injuries
 Linear nondisplaced
 Depressed
 Compound
Suspect fracture
 Large contusion or darkened
swelling
Management
 Dressing, avoid excess pressure

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This document summarizes the management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke. It discusses the two main types of strokes - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are caused by blockage of blood flow to the brain while hemorrhagic strokes involve bleeding into or around the brain. Risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic assessments, medical and nursing management are described for both types of strokes. Surgical procedures like carotid endarterectomy are mentioned as prevention and treatment options for ischemic strokes.

HEAD INJURY- AN OVERVIEW
HEAD INJURY- AN OVERVIEWHEAD INJURY- AN OVERVIEW
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HEAD INJURY- AN OVERVIEW Dear viewers, Greetings from “Surgical Educator” Today I have uploaded a video on Head injury- an important topic in trauma because 50% of trauma deaths are due to head injuries. I haven’t talked elaborately but have included the essential minimum an undergraduate medical student should know. I have talked about pathophysiology, clinical approach, symptoms, signs, investigations, different individual types of head injuries and management of all the varieties of head injuries. My aim is after watching this video all of you should be able to arrive at a correct working diagnosis of the type of head injury and should also be able to institute immediate lifesaving treatment to the patients if there is a need. You can watch the video in the following links: Surgicaleducator.blogspot.com Youtube.com/c/surgicaleducator Thank you for watching the video.

cerebral perfusion pressurehead injurycerebral concussion
Brain & S Ci
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The document discusses various types of brain injuries including closed/blunt brain injuries which occur without skull penetration and open brain injuries which involve skull penetration. It describes the pathophysiology of brain injuries including increased intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral blood flow. Clinical manifestations like altered consciousness and abnormal vital signs are also summarized. The management of brain injuries focuses on reducing intracranial pressure through surgery or medication and providing supportive care.

Brain Injuries
Concussion:
Brain shaking
No structural injury to brain
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a frequent result of
traumatic acceleration/deceleration or
rotational injuries. which damage in the form of
extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a
widespread area.
Contusion
Bruising of brain tissue
 Anoxic brain injury which is also called cerebral
hypoxia or hypoxic-anoxic injury(HAI) is a serious,
life-threatening injury; it can cause cognitive
problems and disabilities.
Intracranial hemorrhage
 Epidural
 Between skull and dura
 Subdural
 Between dura and arachnoid
 Intracerebral
 Directly into brain tissue
 Subarachnoid
 Between the arachnoid and pia mater
MANAGEMENT
 Detailed History
 Initial Assessment
 Primary Survey
 Secondary Survey
PRIMARY SURVEY
 Airway maintenance with cervical spine
protection
 Breathing and ventilation
 Circulation with hemorrhage control
 Disability
 Exposure

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Head injury
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This document provides an outline on head injury (HI). It discusses the pathophysiology of HI, classification based on Glasgow Coma Scale and mechanism of injury. It describes the components of HI including scalp laceration, skull fractures, and traumatic brain injury. For traumatic brain injury, it covers concussion, contusion, diffuse axonal injury, and intracranial hematomas. It outlines the primary and secondary survey approach for patients with HI, including airway management, breathing, circulation, disability assessment, and exposure.

Stroke .pptx
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This document provides an overview of the management of acute stroke. It defines stroke and transient ischemic attack, and discusses the epidemiology, classification, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, complications and prognosis of stroke. The management involves resuscitation, reperfusion therapies like thrombolysis and thrombectomy, treating complications, secondary prevention including blood pressure and diabetes control, and rehabilitation. The document emphasizes the importance of specialized stroke units and timely management to improve outcomes for patients with acute stroke.

stroke
SECONDARY SURVEY
 Examination of Head, Neck and Throat
 Glasgow Coma Scale
 Detailed Neurological Examination
 Catheter Insertion
 Investication
 CBC, Blood grouping & typing
 X-ray, CT, MRI, ECG, ABG, & CBG.
 Mannitol 20%, 0.5–1 gm/kg
 Frusemide 0.3 – 0.5 mg/kg IV
 Moderate Hyperventilation (PCO2 25-35mmHg)
 Anticonvulsants
 Phenytoin-
Loading dose - 10 -15 mg/kg
Maintenance dose - 5 - 7mg/kg/day
 Sedation - Opiates
 Endotracheal intubation if GCS < 8
 Moderate hyperventilation.
 Treat shock aggressively
 Resuscitate with normal saline.
 Frequent neurological assessment.
head injury

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Head injuries are commonly caused by motor vehicle accidents (44%) and falls (21%). Common types of head injuries include scalp wounds, skull fractures, and brain injuries such as contusions, hematomas, and hemorrhages. Symptoms vary depending on the location and severity of the injury but may include changes in consciousness, headache, vomiting, and motor or sensory deficits. Diagnostic tests like CT scans are used to evaluate the injury. Treatment focuses on stabilizing the patient, treating increased intracranial pressure through medications like mannitol, and surgical intervention if necessary.

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The document discusses various types of head injuries including concussion, contusion, and skull fractures, defines terms related to increased intracranial pressure, and outlines management of increased ICP including maintaining normal body temperature, administering medications to decrease ICP, and avoiding activities that could raise ICP like turning or suctioning.

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This document discusses earthquakes and is divided into several sections. It begins with an introduction to plate tectonics and the major tectonic plates. It then defines earthquakes and describes the different types of faults that cause earthquakes. It discusses devices used to measure earthquake magnitude like the Richter scale. It outlines India's seismic zones and provides examples of major earthquakes in India. The document covers earthquake hazards and impacts, risk mitigation strategies, and the role of emergency medical services in responding to earthquakes. It concludes by emphasizing the importance of preparedness and the challenges of predicting earthquakes accurately.

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head injury

  • 3. Brain Injuries Primary – Immediate damage to brain tissue – direct result of injury force. Secondary – Result of hypoxia or decreased perfusion.
  • 4. COMMON CAUSES  Road accidents  Falls  Assaults  Sporting accidents  Work place accidents
  • 5. Pathophysiology Injury to the head coup & contra coup Blood oozes out from the artery and venous Increased intracranial pressure brain squeezes out through foramen magnum Dereased cerebral perfusion Cell death
  • 6. Coup – The “3rd collision” – Area of original impact Contracoup – The “4th collision” – Rebounding hitting the opposite side
  • 7. Brain Physiology Intracranial pressure (ICP)  Pressure of brain and contents in skull •Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)  Pressure required to perfuse brain •Mean arterial pressure (MAP)  Pressure maintained in vascular system
  • 8. MONRO – KELLIE DOCTRINE
  • 9. SYMPTOMS & SIGNS  Diminishing level of consciousness  Headache, vomiting, seizures  Cushing’s Triad –  bradycardia  hypertension  abnormal respiration  Pupillary changes
  • 10.  Papilledema  Rhinorrhea  Otorrhoea  battle sign  raccoon eyes
  • 13. MECHANISM  BLUNT INJURY  High Velocity  Low Velocity  PENETRATING INJURY  Gunshot  Sharp instruments
  • 14. Glasgow Coma Scale Suspect severe brain injury < GCS 9
  • 15. Decorticate  Arms flexed and legs extended Decerebrate  Arms extended and legs extended
  • 16. Skull injuries Types Skull injuries  Linear nondisplaced  Depressed  Compound Suspect fracture  Large contusion or darkened swelling Management  Dressing, avoid excess pressure
  • 17. Brain Injuries Concussion: Brain shaking No structural injury to brain Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a frequent result of traumatic acceleration/deceleration or rotational injuries. which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. Contusion Bruising of brain tissue
  • 18.  Anoxic brain injury which is also called cerebral hypoxia or hypoxic-anoxic injury(HAI) is a serious, life-threatening injury; it can cause cognitive problems and disabilities. Intracranial hemorrhage  Epidural  Between skull and dura  Subdural  Between dura and arachnoid  Intracerebral  Directly into brain tissue  Subarachnoid  Between the arachnoid and pia mater
  • 19. MANAGEMENT  Detailed History  Initial Assessment  Primary Survey  Secondary Survey
  • 20. PRIMARY SURVEY  Airway maintenance with cervical spine protection  Breathing and ventilation  Circulation with hemorrhage control  Disability  Exposure
  • 21. SECONDARY SURVEY  Examination of Head, Neck and Throat  Glasgow Coma Scale  Detailed Neurological Examination  Catheter Insertion  Investication  CBC, Blood grouping & typing  X-ray, CT, MRI, ECG, ABG, & CBG.
  • 22.  Mannitol 20%, 0.5–1 gm/kg  Frusemide 0.3 – 0.5 mg/kg IV  Moderate Hyperventilation (PCO2 25-35mmHg)  Anticonvulsants  Phenytoin- Loading dose - 10 -15 mg/kg Maintenance dose - 5 - 7mg/kg/day  Sedation - Opiates
  • 23.  Endotracheal intubation if GCS < 8  Moderate hyperventilation.  Treat shock aggressively  Resuscitate with normal saline.  Frequent neurological assessment.