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                                                                            ENGLISH - 1033
                                                                                       H




                                  A GUIDETO
                                  AGUIDETO

                            PRAYER
                            PRAYER
                                       IN ISLAM
                                       IN ISLAM


                                           Saqib
                            M. Abdul Karim Saqib




The Co-operative forCsll to.eigne.s
                 Office                       Guidance Sullrnah
                                                       at
The Co-operative Office for Call & foreigners Guidance at Sultanah
Under suoeftsron
      lhe             0llvinistrv samc Alla and
                                   0l
Under the supervisIOn 0 I Ministry 01 Islam ic AHai rs and Endowment and Cal I and Gu idance
                                                    $      Endowmenland Gu
                                                                         Caland dance
Te 4240C// 4251005P0
             F                   80x926i5Riyadh11663EnE           Sullanah22@halma
Tel 4240077 Fax 4251005 POBox 92675 Riyadh 11663 E-mail Sultanah22@holmail com          com
*i   f!fi li
  #1rt:i#
      IN'IHE NAME OF ALLAH
       IN THE NAI}IE  ALIJH
11IE MERCIFUL 'IHE COMPASSIONATE
TIIE MERCIFI,'L THE COMPASSIONAIE
~lo~4~..,
 $iJl ;Ii4 LL.c
  GII]I]Dtr
A GUIJD)E TO

 ililPilIRAYililE
 ms nsn,aMt
 IN ISJLAM



 M. ~lJdul KfJrim SoqilJ
 fi|. tbdul Karin fagib
A G U I D E T O PRAYER
  GUIDE TO P R A Y E R

        INl ISLAM
        ri rsLAM


*                         by:
    Researched and Edited by:
    Renearched Edited
               and

    Mohammed AbdulKarim Saqib.
    Mohammed Abdul KarimSaqib.


*   Translated by:
    Translated by:

    Ijaz Begum Saqib.
    ljazBegum  Saqib.
FOREWORDD
FOREWOR

                                      the Subiect Salat
There are many books dealing with the Subject of Salat in
There are many books dealing
both Arabic and Urdu. Many thesebooks are lvell
both Arabic and Urdu. Many of these books are well written
and provide an informative and comprehensiveview
and provide an informative and comprehensive view of
      Salat should be performed according         the teach-
how Salat should be performed according to the teach-
         Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Unfonunately( there
ings of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Unfortunately~. there
ings
                                               the subjectin
are very few books in English which deal with the subject in
are very few books in Englishwhich deal
the same informative and comprehensive way. The books,
the same informative and comprehensive     way.The books,
which
which do exist, have three main disadvantages.
          exist, havethree main disadvantages.

Firstly, literature concerningSalat availablein English is
Firstly, literature concerning Salat available in English is
either so                does        cover essentialpoints
either so brief that it does not cover essential points in
nearly enough detail,
nearly enough detail, or it is so bulky and detailed that it
                              is so bulky and detailedthat
becomes difficult to use it for quick reference, and es~
becomes                 use          quick reference,and es-
sentialpoints may get lost in the unnece$sary
sential points may get lost in the unnecessary detail.
                                               detail.

Secondly,the            the Salat lacksthe quality
Secondly, the text of the Salat lacks the quality of direct
                                                     direct
research from the zunnah           the Prophet Muhammad
research from the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad
(SAW). There are also books which contain materialwith-
(SAW). There are also books which contain material with-
out any reference to the original sources.
    any reference the originalsources.

Thirdly, the majority of books have been written accord-
          the majority    books have been           accord-
ing
ing to the views held by certain schools of thought and for
        the views held   certain schools thought and
this reasonsome peoplehesitate
this reason some people hesitate to follow them.
                                           them.

Because these weaknesses existing literature in English
Because of these weaknesses in existing literature in English
                             in
we                                prgduce medium sized
we felt that the need existed to prpduce a medium sized
             the need existed
book on Salat which would approachthe subjectaccording
book on Salat which would approach the subject according
io the teachings the Prophet Muhammad(SAW). The
to the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). The
Prophet,himself,said,
Prophet, himself, said,

"Pray as you haveseenme praying."
"Pray as you have seen me praying."

Such book needs.to contain all the essential
Such a book needs to contain all the essential details of
                                                   details
Salat
Salat without being 'too bulky or complicated so that the
               being too bulky       complicatedso that the
readercan use as                               journey
reader can use it as a point 01 reference on a journey or at
                             oJ reference
home. .
home

It was also fE~lt that a comprehensive book on Salat in
ft was also felt that    comprehensive book on Salat in
English would be useful
English would be useful for converts to Islam and for
                              converts    lslam and
Muslim youth brought up in this country. Keeping
Muslim youth brought up in this country. Keeping in

                             5
mind the needs of our brothers and sistersevery effort has
          needs       brothers and sisters every effort has
been made to produce this book in simple and easy
been made       produce                   simple and easy
language.
language.

During       research    sometimes                differences
During our researchwe sometimes found that differences
occurred between established practices        various prayer
occurred between established practices in various prayer
books. In these circumstances we referred to authentic
books.      these circumstances       referred      authentic
                  Prophet Muhammad (SAW), so
hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), so that the
hadiths of
points could be clarified as much as possible.This was,
points could be clarified as much as possible. This was,
because, for a true Muslim there is no greater proof for
because, for          Muslim there is      greater
settling arguments than authentic hadiths and practices
settling arguments than authentic hadiths and practices
   Prophet Muhammad(SAW).
of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

We hope that Allah will accept this humble attempt be-
We hope         Allah      accept this humble        be-
cause without his support and help we would never have
cause without his           and help we       never have
been able to do this work.
been abfe

Finally we ask all our Muslim brothers and sisters to study
Finally we ask all      Muslim brothers and sisters study
the text and to strive to pray according to it. If anyone
          and     strive         according        lf anyone
finds anything unacceptable or to be against the sunnah
finds anything unacceptable         be against       sunnah
        Prophet (SAW) we          be grateful
of the Prophet (SAW) we would be grateful if they wo!!ld
                                                      worrld
inform us.
        us.

                             Muhammad Abdul Karim Saqib
                             Muhammad Abdul Karim Saqib




                            6
c0ilrEilrs
CONTENTS

                                                               Pages
                                                               Pages
Foreword
Foreword                             ......................•....... 5
Notes
Notes                                .............................. t 010
Chapter One                         ...............................12 2
                                                               ... .t
  Before doing Wudu (Ablution)
  Before          Wuqu               ...............................12 2
                                                               ... .t
  Tooth Stick (Siwak)
                 (Siwak)            ...............................I.2
                                                               . . . 12
  Niyat for Wuflu (Ablution)
  Niyat      Wuc;lu                 ..............................12  J2
  Actions of wudu (Ablution)
  Actions of          (Ablution)    .............................. . . r 2
                                                               . . . 12
  Special facilities     Ab.ution.
  Specialfacilities in Ab.ution.    .............................. .13
                                                              , . . . I .3
  Du'a          end of Ablution
  Du'i[ at the end of Ablution      .                          . . . .I. 3
                                                                       13
  Tayammum                          .............................. l 4 14
         Two
Chapter Two                         .............................. 16  r6
         of ~alat (Prayer)
  Time of $alat (Prayer)            .............................. . 6
                                                               . . . . 16
                                                                       I
  Forbidden Times for PraYer
                       for Player   ............................... 17t 7
                                                              ,.. ..
             ~alat (PraYer)
  Placefor $alat (Prayer)
  Place                             ...............................18
                                                               . . . l.8
  Dress for ~alat (Prayer)
  Dress      $alat  (Prayer)                               . . . . . l.8
                                    ...............................18    .
                   (Prayer)
  Types of $alat (Prayer)
  Types of $alat                    ...............................19
                                                               . . . I.9
  FarQ or Obligatory Pra}er
  Far{     ObligatoryPraPr          ...............................19
                                                               . . . I. 9
  Nafl Prayer
        Prayer                                                 . . . l.9
                                    .......•.......................,19
  Sunnat Mu'akkadah (canpulsory) .............................. 202 0
  Sunnat Mu'akkadah(conPulsory)                               ,.....
  Nafl (extra) Prayer
        (extra) PraYer              .............................. 20 20
  Number of Rakats
  Number       Rakats              .............................. 222 2
Chapter Three
Chapter Three                      ..............................22   22
  Story of Azan
             Aian                  ..............................233  2
  The Muazzin
  The Muai2in                      .............................. 23  23
  Text of the Aian
  Text of the                      .............................. 24  24
  Azan for Fajr
  Aian for Fajr                    .............................. 24  24
  Listening to the AZan
  Listening to the Aian            .............................. 255 2
  Dariidafter the Azan
  Danidafter the A2an              .............................. 255 2
  Du"a after the Azan
  Du'ii after the Aian             ..............................266  2
  lqamat
  lqamat                           ..............................266  2
  Text of Iqamat
  Text of Iqamat




                                 7
Chapter Four
ChapterFour                                            . . . 282 8
                                                             ..
  'Sutra
  'Sutra                                               . . . 282 8
                                                             ..
   Qiblah
   Qiblah                                              . . . 282 8
                                                             ..
   Intention (Niyat)
   Intention(NiYat)                                    . . . 282 8
                                                             ..
   Talcbir Tahrimah
   Takbir Tahrimah                                     .....29
                                                             29
   Folding of hands
    Folding hands                                      . . . 292 9
                                                             ..
   .Recitation before Fatihah
   Recitation   beforeFatihah                          . . . 292 9
                                                             ..
   Ta'awwuz
   Ta'awwuz                                            . . . 303 0
                                                             ..
   'fasmiah
    fasmiah                                            .....30
                                                             30
   Surah Fatihah
    Surah  Fatihah                                     . . . 31I3
                                                             ..
   Recitation of Surah Fatihah Behind an Imam ..-.-.32
   Recitation SurahFatihah Bdrind an Imam                    32
   Ameen
   Ameen                                               .....32
                                                             32
   Recitation after Surah Fatihah ._
    Recitationafter SurahFatihah             .........-....-.33
                                                             33
   Ruku (J,owing)
    Ruku (&owing)
   Du'as in Ruku
   Du'as Ruku
              (standing  afterRukfr)
   Qawman (standing after Rukii)
                                      :":::::::::::::        34
                                                             35
                                             ................36
                                                             36
    Qawman
   Du'as in Qawmah
    Du'is Qawmah                                       .....37
                                                             37
    First Sajdah
    First Sajdah                                       .....38
                                                            .38
   Du'as in Sajdah
    Du'[s Sajdah                                       .....38
                                                             38
    Jalsah (sittingbetween
   Jalsah (sitting between two Sajdcbs)
                              two Sajddrs)             .....39
                                                            .39
   Second Sajdah
    Second Sajdalt                                     .....40
                                                             40
                       (sittingfor rest)
    Jalsah-e-Istarahat (sitting for rest)
    Jalsah+-Istarahat                              .........40
                                                             40
    Second Rakat
    SecondRakat                                        .....40
                                                             40
    Tashahud
    Tashahud                                           .....40
                                                             40
    Standing up for third Rakat
              up
    Standing for third Rakat                 ................41
                                                            .41
    ~alat Alan-Nabi  (Darfid)
    $alatAlan-Nabi (Dariid)              -.  ................42
                                                            .42
    Du'5safter~a1at Alan-nabi     (Darfrd)
    Du'as after $alatAlan-nabi (Dari"xl)            ........42
                                                            .42
    Ending the Prayer
    Fnding the Prayer                                        45
    Du'as after Salutation
    Du'6s                                                   .45
 Chapter Five                                                48
    Witr Prayer
    Witr Prayer                                             .48
    Number of Rakat of Witr PraYer
              of        ofWitr Prayer                        48
    Time of Witr Prayer
    Time           Prayer                                    49
     How to PrayWitr
     How Pray
     Du'i Qunfitin witr Prayer
     Du'i Quniit          Prayer
                                      :::::::::::::::::      49
                                                             50
                                             ................50
     Text of Du'EQunilt
             Du'i                                            50
     Jumah (FridayPrayer)
     Jumah  (Friday Prayer)             · · .................5
                                                             511
     Importance FridayPrayer
     Importance of Friday Prayer             ..---...........51
                                                             51
     lmportance Cleanliness lriday Prayer .....51
     Importance of Cleanliness for Iriday Prayer
                  of                                         51
     Going earlyto FridayPrayer
     Going  early    Friday Prayer           ...-............52
                                                             52
     Prayer before Jumah
     PrayerbeforeJumalt                                      52



                           8
                           I
Listening to Khutbah (Sennon
 Listening Khutbah (Sermon
Prayer after Jumah
 Prayerafter Jumah
Eid Prayer
                             ::::::::::::::::::
                                            53
                                            54
                                           .544
                                             5
 Eid Prayer
Janazah l)rayer
Junazuh   llrayer                           56
                                            56
Conduct,'f Janazah
Conduct If Janazah Prayer
        I            Prayer                 577
                                            s
First Takbir
Fint l-akbir                                57
                                            57
Du'as of starting
Du'Es starting                              57
                                            57
Surah Fatihah
Surah Fatihah                               58
                                            58
Recitation of a Surah
Recitation a Surah                          58
                                            58
Second Takbir
Second                                      58
                                            58
Third Takbir
Third Takbir                                59
                                            59
Du'as of Janazah
Du'frs Janazah                              59
                                            59
Ending the Janazah Prayer
Ending the Janazah   Prayer                 61r
                                            6
         Takbir
Fourth Takbir                               61l
                                             6
PrayerDuring a Journey
Prayer During a Journey                     61l
                                             6
When shortenand combinePrayers
When to shorten and combine Prayers   ........62
                                            62
Duration journey
D-uration of journey                         63
                                             63
Nafl Prayeron a journey
Natl Prayer on a journey                    .63
                                             63




    ••••••••••••
    oo oa oo oo oo tt




                    9
thtes about the Transliteration
   Notes about the Transliteration
 The following  system beenadopted represent
                        has
 The following system has been adopted to represent corresponding
                                       t0           r:orresponding
 sounds theArabic
        of            Alphabet.
 sounds of the Arabic Alphabet.

        letter
 ArJbic letter
 Ar.rbic             English
                     English           Example l e
                                       Examp               Example l e
                                                           Examp
                     Equivalent
                     Equivalent        I Arabic) c )
                                       tArabi              ( English) h )
                                                             Englis

             I      a                  Allah h
                                       Alla               ~pplel e
                                                          App
       ~
       Y            b                  bismillah
                                       bismillah            bat
                                                            bat
       ~
       dr           t                  Tirmiziz i
                                       Tirmi                !oy
                                                            loy
       ,i•
       '-oJ         rh
                    th                 uthman n
                                       uthma               t.Drough h
                                                            throug
        c
        C           J                  Jabiri r
                                       Jab                  jugg
                                                            iu
        c
        C;          h
                    h                  Ra~eem
                                       Raheem              bate
                                                            [ate
        c
        C           kh
                    kh                 Khalifah
                                       Khalifah          no English
                                                         no English
                                                         equivalent
                                                         equivalent
        ..)
        J           d                  Dn, mi
                                       Dn.mi                the
                                                            lbe
        j           i
        oJ                             Aian
                                       Aian                 re~emble
                                                             reEemble
        )
        J           r
                    I                  Asr
                                       fur                 river
                                                            liver
        )
        J           z
                    2                  zahid
                                       zahid                gero
                                                            !ero
      tA
      IJ"           s                  salam
                                       sal5m                seen
                                                           ~een
        ...
      ,.*
      fJ'"          sh
                    sh                 shuaib
                                       shuaib               shop
                                                            mop
      .c
      oj'           ~
                    I                  ~alat
                                       salat                ~ardine
                                                            sardine

      ~
      f
      j;
      -b
                    ,
                    d
                    {
                     I
                                       wu~u
                                       wudu
                                        fahir
                                        fahir
                                       guhr
                                                       no equivalent
                                                       no equivalent
                                                       no equivalent
                                                       no equivalent
                    ,
                    1
                    ?
                    ,
                                       ~uhr                  razor
                                                            ra~or

       e
       e                               Jam6'at
                                       JamIt'at        no equivalent
                                                       no equivalent

      ~
       e
      15
                     gh
                     gh
                     f
                                       Maghrib
                                       Maghrib
                                        Fajr
                                       Fajr-
                                                       no equivalent
                                                       no equivalent
                                                            fan
                                                            lan
                      g
                      q                 lqamat
                                       Iqamat                queen
                                                             queen
       ~  (l,        k                 kitab
                                       kitab                 feen
                                                             f,een
       J  J          I                 Jibreel
                                       Jibreel              lean
                                                            lean
        r    I       m                 Muhammad
                                       Muhammad             !!loon
                                                             l[oon
          o
          U          n                  Nisai
                                       Nisai                 noon
                                                            noon
            t
            j        w                 wu{u
                                       wUQu                 wallet
                                                             fiallet
        j
        ~            h                 janazah
                                       janazah               ttour
                                                             [our
       •  I         ,                                 no equivalent
                                                       no equivalent
  in the middleof the letterI
( in the middle of the letter)
t
       c.S
       L5            v
                     y                                      year
                                                           'year




                                  to
                                  10
The following system has been adopted to represent someof the
The followingsystemhas been adoptedto represent     some of the
 complex sounds theArabiclanguage.
complex   sounds of the Arabic language.
                  of
    A macron (-) placed on a transcribed Arabicvowel indicates
    A macron(-) placed0n a transcribed    Arabic vowel indicates
lengthening thesoundof thatletter.
 lengthening of the sound of that letter.
             of

Arabic
Arabic                   English
                         English                Example
                                               Example       Example
                                                             Example
                         Equivalents
                         Equivalents           (Arabic)
                                                (Arabic)   ((E n s l i s)h
                                                             English)
            .-           a
                         e                     Allih
                                               AilAh        Apple
                                                            Apple

     .sL
     r5l                 ee
                         ee                     Raheem
                                               Raheem       seen
                                                            seen
        J
        )                Ii                    istanja
                                               istanja      sit
                                                            sit
           ISo           iio r e e
                            or ee                           seen
                                                            seen
          .Jb             hi
                         hT                                 he
                                                            he
          '1
          6
          I'I            u                                  boot
                                                            boot
       )1                -u                                 true
      ll                  u                    0awfid
                                               Dawud        true
      jji f              aw
                         aw                                 sew
                                                            sew
       )1
       ii                aww
                         aww                   awwal
                                               awwal        shovel
                                                            shovel
     (51
     $i                  ay
                         ay                                 baY
                                                            bay
     Cf
     t5i                 ayy
                         aYy                                age
                                                            age
     ~~
     13t                 ivv
                         iyy



                                              sound   according its
Note: Sometimes an Arabic letter changes sound according to its
Note:$ometimes Arabic
                   an         letterchanges                    t0
                                   whether is at theheginning,
                                             it                    in
position in the word; for example; whether it is at the beginning, in
position theword;for example;
         in
ihe middle at the end. such
            0r             In     circumstances  theArabic  letterhas
the middle or at the end. In such circumstances the Arabic letter has
heen  representedmore
                 by      than English
                              one         equivalent.
been represented by more than one English equivalent.


                                     Abbrwirtionr
                                     Abbreviations

Thefollowing  abbrwiations been in thisbook.
The following abbreviations have been used in this book.
                            have used

So ,A . U v , SAl--lAl LANU AlAYHI WA SAL- LAM
$ AW  0          0                 lIA $Al,-
              $tt ul. Lllltj ALAYlll        LAt
                     II PEACt AND BLESSING OF AllAH BE UPON HIM II
                        PtACr 8l.tS$lll0 ALt 8t uP0t l{lt
                               At0          0F Af{


R .A .
R A
 0    0              RADI ALLAHU|J ANHU I/ANHA
                      RA0tAil.llf Ailll||  lillA
                     IIMAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITh HIMI/ HER
                        tAy Aruil 8t PLtA$t0 llh lllt l{tR
                                            |1

                                        11 1
                                         1
Chcrpter
Chapter I
BEFOREHDOING G I J O U
B E F O D O I N WUQU
        E       W

lf someone   needs go to thetoilet, should the toiletanddo
                    to
If someone needs to go to the toilet, he should use the toilet and do
                                      he        use
istanja before doing  wudu.
istanja before doing wudu.
A B L U T IN
ABLUTION   O

SIWAK KT O T H- S T I C K )
        ( O
S I W A (TOOTH--STlCK)

 It is a goodpractice clean teethwith a tooth-stick, a tooth-
                        to
It is a good practice to clean the teeth with a tooth-stick, or a tooth-
                                  the                         or
brushbefore      performing     wudu. In this way you can avoidmany
brush before performing wudu. In this way you can avoid many
          which
diseases arecaused unclean    by
diseases which are caused by unclean teeth.
                                         teeth.
     fu mentioned the hadith        Aisha (R.A.)
    As mentioned in the hadith Aisha (R.A.) reported Allah's messen-
                     in                           reportedAllah'smessen-
gerassaying:-     'The
                          useof a tooth-stick a means purifying
ger as saying:- ''The use of a tooth-stick is a means of purifying the
                                               is        of          the
mouth    andis pleasing the Lordaswell"
                          to
mouth and is pleasing to the Lord as well"                               )
                                              (Ahmad.
                                              (Ahmad. Oarmi, and Nisai ..l
                                                        0armi, Nisai
                                                              and
    Prophet   Muhammad       (S.A.W.) said:-      "lf wouldn't
    Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ also said:- "If I wouldn't have felt
                                      also                      have felt
that it is diffic,ult my people wouf have
                      for
that it is difficult for my people I would have ordered them to use a
                                            d        orderedthemto use  a
tooth-stick   with everyprayer,
tooth-stick with every prayer, that is, before doing each wuQu. So"
                                    that is, before  doingeach wudu. So,
muslims   should                                                (S.A.W.).
muslims should always try to fulfil this wish of our Prophet (S.A.W.).
                   always to fulfilthiswishof ourProphet
                            try

MAKING INTENTION N 0 RWUI}UU N | Y A T )
                                    (
M A K T N I N T E N T | 0 FOR W U g (NIYAT)
          G               F

Before  starting actions wu~u
                 the
Before starting the actions 0 wu{u it is necessary to make niyat.
                              o         is necesary makeniyat.
                                                     t0
MakeNiyatthat the act of performing     wu~u is for the purpose of
Make Niyat that the act of performing wuf,uis for the purpose
purityonfy.Niyatshould made theheart
purity only. Niyat should be made in the heart becauseis anaction
                           be      in          because it is an action
of theheart not of thetongue.
of the heart andnot of the tongue.
             and
    Niyatby words not approved Prophet
                   is              by          Muhammad (S.A.W.l.
    Niyat by words is not approved by Prophet Muhammad       (S.A.W.).
   Then start the wu~u by saying:- Bismillah hir-ra[rma
   Thenstartthe wu{u by saying:-Bismillbh      hir-ra~ma nir-raheem
                                                           nir-raheem
(ln thename Allah,     most graciou$, merciful)
(In the name of Allah, mostgracious, mostmerciful)"
                                     most           II




ACTIO]tIS PER RMIIIIG LUTIOI{.
ACTIONS FORPERFORMING A8
        FOR   FO      ABLUTION.
l. Wash hands to the wrist making
1. Wash the hands up the wrist making surethat n0 partof the
         the          up              sure that no part the
   hands left dry.
   hands is left dry.
         is
2. Rinse mouthtaking water
2. Rinse themouth taking up water w;ththe righthand.
         the             up       with the right hand.

3. Clean the nose: sniffwaterup from the rightpalmandtheneject
3. Clean nose:
         the        sniff water up from the right palm and then eject
   waterwith the left hand.
   water with the left hand.

                                 12
                                 12
a. Wash the face,from earto ear, andforehead chin making sure
4. {ash the face, from ear -eat, forehead to chin making
                                    and                  sure
   that no partof the faceis left dry.
   that no part the face is left dry.
5. Then wash the forearms (right forearmfirst) up to the elbou,s
5. Then rvashthe forearms   (right forearm first) up the elbows
   making that no partof themis left dry.
   making sure
          sure that no part them is left dry.
6.Rub the head asfollows:-
                as
6. Rubthehead follows:-
   Wet your fingers andthen wipe the head with yourfingerqnstarting
                    and
   Wetyour fingers thenwipethehead        with your fingers,starting
   from the forehead, takingthem to the napeof the neck,then
   from the forehead,   taking them to the nape    the neck, then
   bring thembackto theforehead.
   bring them back to the forehead.

7. Clean eanby inserting tipsof theindex
7. Clean theears by inserting thetips the index fingers
          the                 the                fingers wetted
                                                         wetted with
                                                                with
   unter into the ears,
   water into the ears, twist themaround foidsof the ears
                        twist them around the foids the ears then
                                           the                  then
   pass thumbbehind ears
   pass thethumb behind theears fromthebottom,
        the               the     from the bottom, upwards.
                                                   upwards.
8. *Washthe feet (right foot fint) up to the ankles
8. *Wash the feet (right foot first) up to the ankles making sure
                                                          making  sure
   that no parts   the feetareleft dry, especially   between the toes.
   that no parb of the feet are left dry, especially betrueen toes.
                                                             the

*SPECIALAFACILITIESEINl A B L U T I O T {
* S P E C I F A C I L I T I IS ABLUTION
            L                i
    Rubbing the socks with wet hands instead of washing the feet;;
    Eubbing sockswith wet hands
             the                          instead washing feetthe
allowed, provided the socks have been on after perfonr'
allowed,  provided that the socks
                    that             have been put 0n afterperfonr',lg
                                               put                    ,rg
an ablution, including washing the feet. This is allowed for 24 hours
an ablution,  including washing feet.Thisis aflowed 24 hours
                                 the                       for
from the time of ablution, and for 3 days if the person is on a journey.
fromthe timeof ablution, for3 days theperson
                            and                         isona   journey.
After this time the feet must be washed. Similarly if there is a wound
After thistime the feetmustbewashed.        Similarly there wound
                                                             is
in any pars the bodywhichhasto bewashed ablution,
in any parts of the body which has to be washed in ablution, and if
                                                    in            and
         that particular  part is likelyt0 cause harm, is permisible
washing that particular part is likely to cause harm, it is permissible
washing
to wipethedressing thewound
to wipe the dressing of the wound with a wet hand.
                     of              with wethand.
HADITH H
HAOIT

    Mughira shu'bah
            bin           said, "Prophet(S.A.W.)   performed
    Mughira bin shu'bah said, "Prophet (S.A.W.) performed ablution
                                                                ablution
 and wiped over his socks and his sandals."
 andwiped   over socks hissandals."
                 his       and
                         (Ahmad,
                         (Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah).
                                   Tirmizi,Abu Dawild, lbn Maiah).
                                                       and
     Eachdetail ablution been
                of          has       performed Prophet
    Each detail of ablution has been performed by Prophet Muhammad
                                               by           Muhammad
 (S.A.W.)  once,twice 0r threetimes(except
 (S.A.W,) once, twice or three times (except rubbing of head and
                                                rubbing headand
                                                           of
 cleaning ears,i.e. actions and shouldonly bb doneonce).
 cleaning of ears, i.e. actions 6 and 7 should only be done once).
          of
 Sinceall the above    methods   meet Prophet  (S.A.W.)t
Since all the above methods meet Prophet (S.A.W,}'s approval we
                                                           approval  we
 can perform ablution by doing the actions once, twice or three times.
 canperform   ablution doing actions
                        by        the       once, twice0r three   times.
 provided no parthasbeen drY.
 provided that no Dart has been left dry.
          that                   left
    Amr bin Shuaib,   quoting fatheron the authority hisgrand'
    Amr bin Shuaib, quoting his father on the authority of his grand-
                               his                         of
fathernarrated    that Prophet              {S.A.W.)  said,"lf anyone
father narrated that Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said, "If anyone
                                 Muhammad
performs   actions ablution
                   of            morethan timesrhe done
performs actions of ablution more than 3 times,he has done wrong,
                                                      has        wrong,
transgressed, and done wickedly.
tramgresed, donewickedly.
              and
                                                    (Nisai, Majah)
                                                    (Nisai, Ibn Majah)
                                                            lbn
DU'AA T THEEEND OFFABLUTION T {
O U ' AT T H E i l DO A B L U T I O
      A

   "Ash hadu an Iii iI aha
   "Ashhaduanl5 itaha
   iIIallahu wah dahu Ifshareeka lahu
   illalldhurmh dahu shareeka
                        lf       lahfi
                                 13
                                 13
wa ash hadu an-na
   waash  haduatrna
                 'abduhE
                       wa
   Muhammadan 'abduhu wa
   illuhammadan
             (Mrnliml.
   rasuluhu: (Muslim).
   rruluhu:

 fi;*l t f            $jli,Et          l,frglilfS *r;i;*i
             "e,j'i                         rfi'i-*$s;#l
                   'alnse minat
   "Allah hum maj 'alnn minat
   "Allahhummai
               sni hlneo  minal
   taw-wlbeen"Mj 'alnee minal
   trpwlbmn
   mubph-hiren."(Tirmiril.
   muta 18h-hireen." (TirmizH.


<tr;:toiriFi"isl..v}bQy*;5lrtirest;ay;$rf

   "l tctify that there no deityexcept       Allahalone.  And testify
   "1 testify that there is no rjeity except Allah alone. And I testify
                         is
                 (S.AW.I His             and
that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is His servant and messenger."
thatMuhammad               is servant messenger."
                                                              (Muslim)
                                                              (Muslim)
       Allahmake among
                    me           those who arepenitent make
   "0 Allah make me among those who are penitent and make me
                                                          and       me
              who purified."
       thoss are
among those who are purified."
among
                                                             (Tirmizil
                                                             (Tirmizi)
TAYAMMUM
TAYATIi,IUIt|
    In circumstances when water cannot be found, or justenough is
                        when
    In circumstancs rvater         cannot found,or just enough
                                            be                        is
arailable drinking,
             for         or is iniufous health: such  in     situations
available for drinking, or it is injurous to health: in such situations
                                           t0
                (dry
Tayammum ablution) beperformed.
Tayammum (dry ablution) can be performed.
                             can
    The procedure     below given    according Ouran
                                                 to        and Hadith.
    The procedure below is given according to Ouran and Hadith.
                            is
    ".........And you don'tfind anywater,         thentakeclean
    ".........And if you don't find any water, then take clean earth
                                                                  eafth
(orsand) rub on yourface, hands.       and          Allahdoes wish
                                                               not
(or sand) and rub it on your face, and hands. Allah does not wish
              and
to put you in a difficulty, hewants make clean, to
                              but            to       you        and
to put you in a difficulty, but he wants to make you clean, and to
complete-His untoyou,so youshould grateful Him."
                 frvour                            be         to
complete -His favour unto you, so you should be grateful to Him."
(Surah verse (Thepermision use          to      sand thispurpose
                                                     for
(Surah V. verse 6). (The permission to use sand for this purpose is
           V.       6).                                               is
allowed in the Quran).
allorved theOuran).
            in
PRO U8E
   CEO
PROCEDURE

l. Make niyat thehmrt.
              in
1. Make niyat in the heart.

         with
2. Begin with the name of Allah.
2. Begin thename Allah.of
3. Strike both palms handon clean
3. Strike both palms of hand on clean sand, dust or anything con-
                       of                sand, dustor anything con-
   taining these, wall or stone      etc.fren blowinto the palms.
   taining these, e.g. wall or stone etc. then blow into the palms.
                  e.g.
   pan the pafms both hands         overthe faceonce thenruh
   pass the palms of both hands over the face once and then rub
                    of                                and
   your rit'rt hand  with the left palmandlett hand   with the right
   your right hand with the left palm and left hand with the right
   palml.
   palm).
                                               (Bukhari Mrslim).
                                              (Bukhari and Muslim).
                                                       and
                                14
                                14
4. Finish with thesameDu'a asgiven theendof ahlution.
4. Finish with the same Du'das given at the end ablution.
Note: Other procedures includethe forearms shoulders wellm
f{ote: 0ther proceduresinclude the forearms andshoulders aswell as
                                              .and        as
armpits. Thesehave beentransmitted reputable
armpits. These havebeen transmitted by reputable scholanbut the
                                                   scholars   the
mostpreferable authentic thatgiven
most preferable andauthentic is that given above.
                and          is            above.




       o o o
       oooooo                      o        o        o




                                15
                                15
Chspter 2
Chapter 2
  TIME·- PLACE -- DRESS and -- TYPES OF SALAT
  TIME PTACE DRESS and TYPES OF SALAT

1.. TIMEEO FSALAT T
I T I M OF S A L A

Each,qalat. be offered or during_iu
Each ~alat must be offered at or during its proper time.. No flist Cln
           Tult             at              proper time..No plat crn
be offered before time.There five.obligatory iiiiaai.
                  its
be offered before its time. There are five obligatory falat in a day.
                                   are                 dat
FAJRR R A Y E B
F A J PRAYER
      P

    The time for the Fajror the morning
    The time for the Fajr or the morning prayer starts at dawn and
                                         prayer starts dawnand
                                                       at
         at
    ends sunrise.
    ends at sun-rise.
ZuhrPnyer
Zuhr Prayer
   The time for Zuhr or the earlyaftemoon              prayer
   The time for Zuhr or the early afternoon prayer starts when the
                                                                rtartswhenthe
   sun begins to decline from its zenith and ends when the size of an
   sunbegins decline rom its zenithandendrwtren rize an
                to            f                                    the
   object's shadow is equal to the ~ize of the object.
   obiecttshadow equal thesize the obiect.
                      is          to          of
                                (R.A.l narrated,    'The
       Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A.) narrated, "The angel Jibreel came
       Jabirbin Abdulfah                                  angel   Jibreel  cams
   to Prophet    Muhammad         (S.A.W.) saidto him, 'Stand and
   to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and said to him, 'Stand up and
                                            and                          up
    pray Zuhr'. the messenger Allah (S.A.W prayedZuhr
   pray Zuhr'. So the messenger of Allah (S.A.W  prayed Zuhr
                  So                       of                 I
   when the sun had declined
   when the sun had decl ined from its zenith. Then the Angel
                                         from its zenlth.Then tne Anget
   Jibreel          again the time of Asr andsaid,'Standup and
   Jibreel came again at the time of Asr and said, 'Stand up and
            came           at
   Pray Asr~ Then Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed Asr when
    PrayAsri ThenProphet            Muhammad     (S.A.W.)   prayed    Asr'when
   the shadow of everything wasequal to itself. Then Jibreel
   the shadow everything equal itself.ThenJibreel came
                                     was                                   came
   the next day to Prophet
   the next day to Prophet Muhammad               (S.A.W.) said,Stand
                                    Muhammad (S.A.W.) and said, 'Stand
                                                             and
    !p and prayZuhr'.Then Prophet
    up and pray Zuhr', ThenProphet Muhammad                  (S.A.W.)
                                               Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed  prayed
   Zuhr whenthe shadow everything equalto itself.Then
    Zuhr when the shadow of everything wasequal    was             itself. Then
   Jibreel cameagain at Asr time andsaid,'Stand andprayAsr'.
   Jibreel  came again Asr time and said, 'Stand up and pray Asr'.
                          at                                up
   Thenhe prayedfur whenthe shadow everything trvice
   Then he prayed Asr when the $hadow of everything rvastwice        was
   its length
   itslength                              _
   Therr
   Then Jibreel   said, (afterpraying 10 prayers Prophet
          Jibreel said,  (after praying prayers with Prophet Muham-
                                           10          with            Muham-
   mad (S.A.W.)in nruo
   mad (S.A.W.) in two consecutive that the time of prayer
                                consecutive days)
                                              days) that the time prayer
   is in between
   is in between th$e two timesl"
                   these two times:"
       Ahmad, Nasai,Tirmizi and Bukhari remarked
       Ahmad, Nasai, Tirmizi and Bukhari remarked that this is    that this is
   the most authentic     hadith giving times prayer.
   the mostauthentic hadith         giving the times of prayer.
                                           the
       We find that many books on $alatstatethe endingtime
       We find that many books on ~alat stat~ the ending time
   of Zuhr prayerand the startingtime of fui prayerwhen the
        Zuhr prayer and the starting time Asr prayer whEnthe
   shadow something twice itself.But this contradicts
   shadow of something is twice itself. But this contradicts the
                                 is                                          the
   above
   above hadith 0n thefirstdayJibreel
           hadith ason the first day Jibreel asked
                  as                              asked Prophet
                                                        Prophet Muhammad
                                                                   Muhammad
   (S.A.W.) prayfur whenthe shadow everything equaf
   (S.A.W.) t0 pray Asr when the shadow of everything waseQuat
              to                                                     was
   to itself.This means wasthe endtime of Zuhr prayer.
   to itself. This means that was the end time of Zuhr prayer. And
                             that                                           And
   we alreadyknow that all the ulamas the MuslimUmmah
   we already know that all the ulamas of the Muslim Ummah
                                                    of

                                   16
                                   16
agree unanimously n0 prayercan be offered
     agree    unanimously that no prayer can be offered before time.
                                that                                before its time.
                                                                            its
Asr Prryer
Arr Prayer
     The time for Asr or late afternoon prayer
     Thetrmefor Asror lateafternoon                       starts whentheshadow
                                                  prayer starts  when the shadow
     of  something is equal to itself andends just before sunset.
      of somethingequal itselfand ends bef sunset.
                        is         to                  just ore
         It is betterto offerfur prayer orethesunbeeomes
          It is better to offer Asr prayer bef the sun becomes yellow
                                                  before                      yellow
      because eventhoughit is allowedto offer the orayerat this
     because       even though it is allowed to offer the prayer at this
     time the Prophet (S.A.Y{.}
     timethe Prophet                      disliked Muslims 0elayAsr prayer
                               (S.A.W.l disliked    Muslims to Oelay fur prayer
                                                              to
      up
     up to this time. He remarked                that the Munafiq (Hypocritel
                 this time. He remarked that the Munafiq(Hypocrite)
      offered his prayer at this time.
                  his
     offered prayer thistime. at
Maghrib Praycr
Maghrib    Prayer
       The time for the Maghrib 0r th~ sunset prayer
       Thetimefor the Maghrib th0sunset   or                      starts justafter
                                                          prayer starts after
                                                                         just
       sunsp.t and ends whentwilighthas disappeared.
       sunset endsand         when twilight hasdisappeared.
!sha Prayer
!sha Prayer
      The time for lshaor nightprayer
       The time for Isha or night prayer starts    starts fromthe disappearaitue
                                                           from the disappearance
       of twilight andends justbefore midnight.
                      and
       of twilight ends before    just         midnight.
           It ii preferable offer this prayerbefore midnight it
               is preferable io offer this prayer before
                                 to                                midnight but but
       can  be offered rightuo tn thebreak dawn'
       can be offered      right uo to thp. break of dawn.
                                                    of
l,lote:- In countries
 Note:       In countries wheredue to cloudyweather sun is not
                              where due to cloudy weather the sun is not
                                                                   the
 always visibleit is advisable follow printedcalendars giving
 alurnys visible       is advisable to follow printed calendars
                                       to                                giving the
                                                                                 the
 accurate timeof each PraYer.
           time
 accurate of each            prayer.
FORBIDDEN T I TIMES OF PRAYER
F O R B I D D E NM E S FP H A Y E R
                      O
    Uqbah bin Amir said, " There were three times at which Allah's
    uqbahbin Amir said, There H,   were  three  times which
                                                       at        Allah's
    messenger  (S.A.W.)   used forbidus to pray0r bury our dead.
    messenger (S.A. W.) used to forbid us to pray or bury our dead.
                              to
    (i) When the sun began to rise untir it was fully up.
    (i)   When sunbegan rise
                the           to    untit wasfullyup.
    (jj) When the sun was at its height at midday til! it p~sed
    (ii) Whenthe sun was at its heightat middaytil! passed
          the meridian,
          themeridian,
    (iii) When sundrewnear setting
    (iii) When the sun drew near to setting till it had set:'
                the              to         till hadsetl'
                                                              (MUSLIM) M )
                                                              (MUSLI
 FORBIDDEN E iIl M E S O RN A F LP R A Y E R
 FOBBIDD T     TIMES FOR NAFl PRAYER
                        F

 (i)
 {i}     Abu Sa'eed Khudree
                       al           (R.A.) reported  Allah'smes$enger
         Abu Sa'eed al Khudree (R.A.) reported Allah's messenger
          (S.A.W.) saying,   "No prayeris to be saidafter the Fair
         (S.A.W.) as saying, "No prayer is to be said after the Fajr
                    as
         prayeruntil the sun rises, after the fur prayer     until the
         prayer until the sun rises, or after the Asr prayer until the
                                     or
         sun sets:'
         sunsetsl'
                                                   (Bukhari-&i 'Muslim)m )
                                                   (Bukhar Musli&

          Only nafl prayer forbidden these          timesbut a missed
         Only naf1 prayer is forbidden at these times but a missed
                            is            at
                                      Mostof the ulamas theMuslim
                                                          of
         fard prayer can de offered. Most of the ulamas of the Muslim
          fard prayer de offered.
                     san
                                                      fard prayerafter
         Um'mah allowed the offering of missed fard prayer after
          Ummahallowedthe offeringof missed
          Fajrandfur because thefollowing
                               of              hadith
         Fair and Asr because of the following hadith
                                   (S.A.W.)  said, '1/Vho forgotten
            Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said, 'Who has forgotten
             ProphetMuhammad                              has
          the prayerhe shouldpray it whenever remembers
         the prayer he should pray it whenever he remembers it:'
                                                     he               iti'
                                                    (Bukharia& i Muslim)m )
                                                     (Bukh & Musli
                                                             r

  (ii)
 (ij)    A nafl prayercannotbe offeredoncethe lqamatfor fard
         A nafl prayer cannot be offered once the Iqamat for fard
         prayerhas beensaid. Abu Hurairah
         prayer has been said. Abu Hurairah nal'rated that the mes:
                                            flarrated  that the mes-
                                     177
                                     1
't{hen the lqanlat been
      senger Allah (S.A.W.l                           has      said,
      senger of Allah (S.A.W.) said, "When the Iqamat has been said"
             of                said,
      thenrthere no prayer
                   is            valid (Nafl or sunnat)
      then, there is no prayer valid (Nafl or sunnat) except the
                                                        except  the
      Fard prayer whichthe lqamat said."
      Fard prayer for which the Iqamat was said."
                  for                    was
                                                  (Ahmad Muslim)
                                                  (Ahmad & Muslim)
             is seen practice
                      in         that manypeople
         It is seen in practice that many people continue with the
                                                  continue with the
      sunnat   prayer
      sunnat prayer even though the iqamat has been said for the
                        wen thoughthe iqamat beensaidfor the
                                              has
      far~ prayer especially in the Fajr prayer. They feel that the
      far{ prayer    epecially the Fajr prayer.
                              in                 They feel that the
      2 Rakat sunnat of Fajr can only be offered before the Far~.
         Rakat   sunnat Fajrcanonly be offered
                          of                       before Far{.
                                                          the
      This practice against
      This practice is against congregation Philosophy, discipline
                        is                   Philosophy,
                                  congregation            discipline
      of Jama'at, and a clear violation of Hadith. They should
          Jamd'at,   and clearviolation Hadith.They should
      offer 2 rakat sunnat of Fajr immediately after the Fard or
      offer rakatsunnatof Fairimmediately         after the Fardor
      after sunrise.
      aftersunrise.

2.. PLACE E O RS A L A T
2 P L A C FOR SALAT
          F

              or building  which is used the purpose woship
     A place or a building which is used for the purpose of worship
         place                             for            of
and prayeris called mciid (Mosque). hadithtellsus that "all
and prayer is called a masjid (Mosque). A hadith tells us that "all
the earthhasbeenrendered the Muslims, mosque
                              for                          (Pure
the earth has been rendered for the Muslims, a mosque (Pure and  and
clea!l)."
clmn)."
     This means that wherever a muslim might be he can offer his
     This mearsthat wherever muslimmight be he can offer his
prayerbut the reuard        prayer offeredin mosque far grmEr
prayer but the revvard of a prayer offered in a mosque is far greater
                                                        is
thanthat offered an ordinary
                  in              place. following
                                         The           points
than that offered in an ordinary place. The following points should
                                                              should
benoted    whenchoosing place prayer.
be noted when choosing a place for prayer.
                               for

(a) The place
(a) The place should be clean and pure. ~Iat in a dirty, filthy and
               shouldbe clan andpure.     $alatin dirty, filthy and
    impure place such as a rubbish tip, slaughter house, bathing
    impure placesuch if         rubbishtip, slaughter
                                                    house,bathing
    place             pen
    place and a camel pen is forbidden.
          and camel is forbidden.
(bl The placeshouldbe free from danger.
(b) The place should be free from danger. The danger could be
                                          The danpr could be
    due to someone or something that may disturb the worshipper.
    due to someone something may disturbthe worshipper.
                    or          that
(c)    prayerplacewherethe worshipper
(c) A prayer place where the worshipper might hinder movement
                                           might hindermovement
    of others should be avoided, e.g. busy pavements, public road-
    of othersshouldbe avoided, busy pavements,
                                 e.g.                 public road-
    ways etc.
    waysetc.

(d) lt is forbidden prayon the roofof Baitullah      (Ka'bahl.
(d) It is forbidden to pray on the roof of Saitullah (Ka'bah).
(e) lt is forbidden prayon top or facing
(e) It is forbidden to pray on top of or facing towards a grave.
                    to                          towards grave.

3. DRESS FOR SALAT
3. DRESS FORSATAT

MENN
ME

(i)
(j)     The dres for the menshouldbe suchthat covers
        The dress for the men should be such that it covers from the
                                                            from the
        navel the kneemt
        navel to the kneesat least.
                             lect.

                                18
                                18
(iil
(in       The shoulders should beleft uncovered.
          ThEshoulders  should not be left uncovered.
                               not
(iiil
(iii)     $alatcan be prayedin one garment it coversthe body
          $alat tan be prayed in one garment if         covers the body
          from the navel the knees wellastheshoulders.
          from the navel to the knees aswell as the shoulders.
                                      as

          "None of you must pray in a sin$e garment whirh no
          "None      you must pray in single garment of whilh no
          part comes overthe shoulder:'
                     over
          partcomes theshoulderj'

                                              ( B U K H A R IM U S L I M }
                                                          &
                                              (BUKHARI & MUSLIM)

          lf, however, grment is not long enough uoverthe
          If, however, the garment is not long enough to cover the
                        the                              to
          shoulders  then parts       the body between the naveland
          shoulders then parts of the body between     the navel and
          the knees should least covered.
          the knees should at least becovered.
                            at      be

WOMEN
WOM N
   E

The dress the womanshouldbe suchthat it covers whole
The dress of the woman should be such that covers her whole
                                                          her
body from head
body from headto foot leaving      only the face and the hands un'
                      foot leaving only the faceand the hands     un·
covered. A prayer offered transparent clothing not valid.Also
covered. prayeroffered in transparent
           A                in            clothing is not valid. Also
                                                    is
tight fitting clothing which shows the shape of the body should
tight fitting cfothing whichshows    the shape the body should
                                                 of
beavoided.
be avoided.

4 T Y P E OF ~ALAT
4.. TYPES S FS A L A T
          O

a) Far~ or obligatory $alat.
a) Fard obligrtory
        or            Salat.

        Far~ prayer is an obligatory prayer. Every believer is ordered
        Fardprayer an obligatory
                      is              prayer.                is
                                             [very believer ordered
                                          prayers a day. Failure     to
        by Allah to offer five obligatory prayers in a day. Failure to
        by Allahto offer five obligatory          in
        observe one of the five obligatory
                any                            prayers a serious
        observe anyone of the five obligatory prayers is a serious and
                                                      is           and
        punishable
        punishable sin.
                   sin.

b) NafJ Prayer.
b) ltlaflPrayer.

        Thisis a voluntary  prayer whichthe Prophet   (S.A.W.)
        This is a voluntary prayer which the Prophet (S.A.W.) observed
                                                              observed
        before or after Far~ at special and isolated occasions. It also
        before after Fardat special
                or                       and isolated           lt
                                                      occasions. also
        includes those which encouraged
                             he            Muslims prav.
        includes those which he encouraged Muslims to pray.
                                                   to

        The Nafl Prayer can be divided into three categones.
        TheNaflPrayer bedivided three
                        can            into       categortes.

(i) Sunnat            (compuhory)
(i) Sunnat Mu'akkadah (compulsory)
           Mu'akkadah

        Thatisthose   whic,h emphasizedthe HolyProphet
                            are            by                  (S.A.W.)
        That is those which are emphasized by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
        and offeredregularly him beforeor afterthe Fardprayrlr.
        and offered regularly by him before or after the Far~ praYI~r.
                                by

(iil Gheir            (optional)
(ii) Ghair Mu'akkadah (optional)
           Mu'akkadah

                              only occasionally Prophet    Muhammad
        That is those offered only occasionally by Prophet Muhammad
        That is thoseoffered                    by
        (s.A.w.l.
        (S.A.W.).
                                   r9
                                   19
(iiil thfl Prryrr(Extnl
(iii) Nell Preyer (Extrl)

    Thb is an extraprayer.       There a reward praying andno
                                        is          for          it
    This is an extra prayer. There is a reward for praying it and no
    sinfor leaving lt can offered anyisolated
                    it.        be          at             instance
    sin for leaving it. It can be offered at any isolated instante atcord-
                                                                    accord-
    ingto thetimeandcapacity thebeliever.
                                      of              Prophet  Muhammad
    ing to the time and capacity of the believer. Prophet Muhammad
    (S.AW,)encouraged believers praynall to helpmake
                              the
    (S.A.W.) encouraged the believers to pray natl to help make
                                              t0
    up for anyminor        ombsions other
                                      or         defec$ the obligatory
    up for any minor omissions or other defects in the obligatory
                                                         in
    praysr.
    prayer.
5. TUTIBER RAKATS
          OF        FORTHEFIVEOETIGATORY
5. NUMBER OF RAKATS FORTHE FIVE OBLIGATORY PRAYERS
                                           PRAYERS
(il Frir Prryrr.
(0 Fejr Prlyer.
    2 rakar  sunnat Mu'akkadah, 2 Rakats
    2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 2 Rakats Far~.
                                         Fard.

(ii) ZuhrPrryrr,
(ii) Zuhr Prlver.

       or rakats   sunnatMu'akkadah,   rakab  far{, rakats
    2 or 4 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats far~, 2 rakats sunnat
                                                             sunnat
    Mu'akkadah anunspecified
                  and             number naflro timeandcap-
                                           of
    Mu'akkadah and an unspecified number of nafl as time and cap-
    acity alloun.
    acity allows.
    lbn Umar(R.A.)   said"l prayed        with Allah'smesengel
    Ibn Umar (R.AJ said "I prayed alone with Allah's messenger
                                    alone
    (S.A.W.) rakats         and rakats   afterthe Zuhrprayer."
    (S.A.WJ 2 rakats before and 2 rakats after the Zuhr prayer."
                     before
                                         (BUKHARI R I MUSLIM)M )
                                         (BUKHA & MUSLI

       is familiarpractice offer rakatssunnatbeforeZuhr
    It is a familiar practice to offer 4 rakats sunnat before Zuhr
                               to
    prayer, this hadith proves
    prayer, but this hadith proves that 2 rakat sunnat before the
            but                     that rakat sunnatbeforethe
    Zuhrprayer also
    Zuhr prayer is also allowed.
                 is     allowed.
(iiil Arr Prryrr.
(iii) Asr Praver.

        0r     rakat sunnat$rair Mu'akkadah, rakatsFard.
    2 or 4 rakats sunnat ghair Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats Fard.
    Ali (R.A.) said, "Allah's messenfr  (S.A.W.} t0 pray 4 rakafu
    Ali (R.A,) said, "Allah's messenger,(S.A.W,) used to pray rakats
                                                  used
    before r prayer
           Ae         ssparatang witha salu
                                 them
    before Per prayer separating them with a salll tation........"
                                                   tation........"
                                                           (TlBftllZll
                                                           (TfRMIZI)

            hadith  narrated Ali (R.A.)
                            by            says, "Allah's
    Another hadith narrated by Ali (R.AJ says, "Allah's messenger
    Another                                             mesenger
    (S.A.W.} to pray two rakas
    (S.A.WJ used to pray rakats before prayer."
            used        tw'o              Asr
                                   before Asr prayer."       _
                                                   (ABU
                                                   (ABU DAWUO}
                                                        DAWUO)
(ivl Mrghrib
(iv) Meghrib Prryar.
             Preyer.

      rakats nafl, 3 rakanfard, 2 rakats
    2 rakats nafl,   rakats fard, rakats sunnat
                                         sunnat Mu'akkadah
                                                Mu'akkadah and
                                                            and
    an unspacified
    an unspecified number nafl 6 time and capacity
                    number of nafl as time and capacity allows.
                             of'                        allows.
    Abdullah Mughaffal
             bin           reported the Prophet (S.A.W.) saying,
    Abdullah bin Mughaffal reported Prophet
                                    the         (S.A.W.) assaying,
                                                         as
                                 20
                                 20
"Pray beforethe Maghrib        prayerj'
    "Pray before the Maghrib prayer;' adding when saying it the
                                          adding  when saying the
    thirdtime,"Thisapplies those wish d0s0."
    third time, "This applies to those who wish to do so."
                              to       who      to
                                             (BUKHARI R tMUSLIM)M I
                                             (EUKHA &MUSL| &

    That wasbecause did not wish people treat asa com-
                     he
    That was because he did not wish people to treat it as a com-
                                            t0
    pulsory
    pulsory sunnat.
            sunnat.

                rakats aftersunset before maghrib
                      nafl
             2 rakats nafl after sunset and before the maghrib prayer
                                        and           the             prayer
   areeallowede do r tliose e v h owish hto doo : 0 . For r this sthee abovev e
   a r a l l o w for t l i o s who w i s t o d ::0. F o t h i t h a b o
                  f            l
   hadithis a sureproof.However,          somepeople
   hadith is a sure proof. However, some people forbid this and
                                                          forbidthisand
   othersfind very srrange they seea person
   others find it very suange if they see a person offer 2 rakats
                                                             offer rakats
   naflbefore
   natl before Maghrib.
                 Maghrib.
(v) lshaPmyer.
(v) Isha Prayer.

   An unspecified  number nafl rakats
   An unspecified number of nafl rakats according to the time
                           0f             according the time
                                                    to
   andcapacity, rakats
   and capacity 4 rakats fard, 2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, un-
                 I       fard, rakats   sunnat Mu'akkadah,  un-
   specified number of nafl 'as time and capacity allows and 3
   specified numberof nafl as time and capacity   alloranand
   witr.
   witr.

   Somepeople     insistvery emphatically
   Some people insist very emphatically upon the offering of 4
                                             upon the offering of
                    sunnatbeforethe ishaprayerbut duringour
   rakats optional sunnat before the isha prayer but during our
   rakatsoptional
   entireresearch could not find a single       proof,any practice
   entire research we could not find a single proof, any practice
                    we
   or orderfrom Prophet   Muhammad       (S.A.W.) his companions
   or order from Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ or his companions
                                                 or
   to justifythis claim. Certainly it is allowed tQ pray nafl while
   to justify this claim.Certainly is allowed praynaflwhile
                                   it            ta
   waiting for Jama'at.
   waiting Jamd'at.
            for

   Some people offer 2 rakats ~nafl after the witr prayer. How-
   Somepeopleoffer rakats        .nafl after the witr prayer.  How-
    evet,thereis an authentic    hadithwhichstates
   ever, there is an authentic hadith which states that the witr
                                                       that the witr
   prayer should offeredafterall the naflwhicha person
                  be                                          wishcs
   prayer should be offered after all the nafl which a person wishes
   to prayhave
   to pray have been offered.
                been offered.

   lbn Umar(H.A.)reported the Mesenger Allah(S.A.W)
   Ibn Umar (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
                                 that                of
         "Make witr asthelat prayer yournightprayerl'
   said, "Make witr as the last prayer of your night prayer:'
   said,                               of
                                                              (MtsHKATI
                                                              (MISHKAT)




                     o o o                   o o



                                    21
                                    21
Chspter t
Chapter J
 AZAN
 AZAN ..... IQAMAT
            IQAMAT



     As you know, in alf MuslimcountriesAian is calledaloud
     As you know, in all Muslim countries Aian is called aloud
fivetimesa day andyou musthave           it.      you      wondered
five times a day and you must have heard it. Have you ever wondered
                                   heard Have ever
how it started?
how stafted?

sroRY n2nr*r
      0F
STORY OF AZAN

                 whenthe Muslims     migrated from Makkah Madinah
A long time ago when the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madinah
   longtimeago                                              to
they usedto agree    abouta fixedtime for the congregational     prayer.
they used to agree about a fixed time for the congregational prayer.
They found difficultt0 remember time fixed for the prayer
They found it difficult to remember the time fixed for the prayer
                                        the
sometimes, especially when they were busy doing their work. One
sometimesrespecially they were busy doingtheir work. One
                        when
                             (S.A.W.)  and the Muslims
day Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ and the Muslims discussed the
day ProphetMuhammad                                       discused    the
                    the people the congregational         prayerat the
matter of calling the people for the congregational prayer at the
matter of calling                for
exacttime. Some the believers
exact time. Some of the believers suggested the use of something like
                    of              suggested useof something
                                              the                    like
the bell of the Christians, others suggested the use of a horn like that
the bell the Christians,    othes suggested uss a hornlike that
                                             the
of the Jews, Umar
              but       (R.A.)
of the Jews, but Umar (R.A.) suggested sending someone to announce
                               suggested sending somsone announce
                                                           t0
      prayer.Then Allah's Messenger       (S.AW.)appointed
the prayer. Then Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) appointfd Bital to
the                                                             Bilal t0
call the people prayer.
call the people to prayer. But it seems through the study of ahadith
                t0          But seems     through study ahadith
                                                  the
that the methodwas not satisfactory.        Then Prophet
that the method was not satisfactory. Then Prophet Muhammad Muhammad
(S.A.W.}  agreed usea Naqoose eonch),
                  to                 (a
(S.A.WJ agreed to use a NaQoose (a oooch), something like the bell
                                                something the bell
                                                           like
of Christians but he was not happy to use it because of its similarity
of Christians he wc not happyto use because itssimilarity
              but
with the Christians.
with the Christians.

     AfterProphet               (S.A.W.) ordered bellto bemade
                                         had
     After Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ had ordered a bell to be made
                    Muhammad                         a
so that couldbe struckto gather people prayer; that
so that it could be struck to gather the people to prayer; on that
                                        the        to        on
                                    bin
                         Abdullah Zaidbin Abd Rabbihirsaid,
same day a companion, Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rabbihi"said, "1
same   day a companion,                                            "l
was sleeDing when I saw a man carrying a naqoose in his hands, and
     sleeping when                         a
vrras 'Servant sawa mancarrying nagoose his hands,   in          and
  said,              Allah,will you selfthis to me?'When cked
I said, 'Servant of Allah, will you sell this to me?' When he asked
                                                            he
what woufddo with it?l replied,that would use to callthe
what I would do with it?t replied, that we would use it to call the
                                          we
peopfe prayer. said, Shalf not guide to somsthing
        t0         He                         you
people to prayer. He said, 'Shall I not guide you to something better
                                                               better
than that?' repliedr'Certainly', tnld me t0 sav,
                                  so he
than that?' I replied/Certainly', so he told me to sav.
          'Allehu
                  Akbar, AllEhu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Altdhu
          'AI/ahu Akbar, A/llJhu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, AI/shu
 AkMr, ,Ash            lE ildha illal lEh, xh hdu
Akbar,. Ash hadu an Ii ilaha illal lah, ash hadu an la ilaha
                                                        li il6ha
illal lEh, Ash
iI/allah, Ash hadu an-na Mul)ammadar resulu/·/iJh, Ash hadu
                    an-ru, Mufiammadar resitut4en, Ash
an-na MuQammadAr rafilullEh,                 'al4 galEh,
an-na Mul)ammadilr rasulul-llJh, I)ayya 'a/Sf $a/ah, payya
 'alq galdh                          bayya 'alal-falEh bayya
                      'alal falal), Qayya 'alaI-fa Ilh Allahu
'alSf ~aISh, payya 'alaI fa6h, fuayya
               fuayya                                 ' AllEhu
Akbar, AI/ahu Akbar, La ilaha iI/allah. '
 Aktur, AllEhu Aktur, G ilffia illal lilh.'l          ·

                                22
                                22
After the Aian the stranger kept quietfor a while and then
       After the Aian the stranger          kept quiet for a while and then
said, {lhen thecongregationrea~y youshould
said,  When the congregation is readyyou should say:- Allihu Akbar,
                                   is                    say:- Allahu Akbar,
 Allfihu Akbar, Ash hadu an Iii lilaha illallah,fuh hadu an'naMuham-
All6huAkbar.Ashhaduan li lilahaiIIallah, 'alalhaduan·na [luham-
                                                     Ash
                                'alaqsalah, bayya
madarrasOlul-lah, hayya 'ala, galih,bayya 'alai fal-ah, qEma
 madar ras0lul-lifr,    ~ayya                             fala~, qad qama tis
                                                                  qad           tis
~Iah, qad qama tis salah, AII3hu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, la ilatll illal
satah,qad q6matii iaieh,A[l6huAkbar,All6huAkbar,li ilihillal
 lah.
Hh.
        When II told Allah'sMessenger (S'A.W.) the morning
        When told Allah's Mesenger             (S.A.W.) in the morning what  what
                  said, 'lt
   had seen1he said, is true vision, insha'Allah,getup along
II hadseenrhe 'It isa truevision,            insha·Allah, so get up along with
                                                          so                 with
Bilal,andwhenyou havetaught him whatyou have
 Bilal, and when you have taughthim what you have seen him use seen let him use
                                                                     let
                  the           prayer, for he has stronger voicethanyou
 it in making call to prayer, he hasstronger
        making the call                  for                    voice than you
 have'.
have'.
      So I got up alongwith Bilaland begnn teachit to him, and
      So I got up along with Bilal and began to teach                  him, and
heused in making callto grayer..
 he used it making the call praver.
                          the
       Umarbin al-Khattab        heard this' when he was in his house, and
       Umar bin al-Khattab heardthis whenhe wu in hishouse,                   and
 he came out trailing his cloak andsaid, 'Mesenger Allah (S.A.W.),
he came trailing cloak said,'Messenger of Allah(S.A.W.),
             out            his       and
 by Him who has sent you with the truth, I have seen same
 by Him who hassentyou with the truth, I have              seen the same kind
                                                                 the         kind
 oi   thin~ as has been revealed", To this Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.)
 of thing as hasbeenrevealed'' this Allah'sMesenger
                                         To                              (S.A,WJ
 replied, 'Praise to Allah!"'
 replied,
    '       'Praise be Allah!'"
                    be
                      (Darmi,
                      (Oarmi, Ntmad,Ibn Maiah, Khuzahah,
                                Ahmad, lbn Majah, lbn, KhuzaicDah, Tirmizi)
                                                     Ibn,               Tirmizi)
       So from that day0n t0 the present Aian is saidto gather
       So  from that day on to the present day Aian is said
                                                  day                       gather
 people thecongregational prayer.
 people for the congregational
          for                        prayer.

THE mun2iru
THE MUAizlN

A person who calls people for the congregational prayer is called
   person  who callspeople the congregational
                              for                                is
                                                        Frayer called
                      saying Aian he should                 facing
a Muaziin Before saying the Aian he should stand facing Ka'bah
a Mua2iin Before             the                    stand          Ka'bah
in Makkah. shouldraisehis hands his ean puttingthe tips
in Makkah. He should raise his hands to his ears putting the tips
             He                            to
of forefingers his earsand call in a loud voice.           Whenhe says
of forefingers into his ears and call in a loud voice. When he says
                into
 Havva'alC Saldh should        turn his faceto the rightandwhenhe
~ayya 'al~ ~alah he should turn his face to the right and when he
                    he
says ~ayya 'alai Fala~ he should turn his face to the left.
$yi'flayya"aialFalElr should
                       he        turn hisfaceto the left.

TEXT OF THE AlAN
TEXT OFTHE A'NT.I


               f.-5{ Ji i -.;3 $et -";3 fti'i'*-::;l,'}A
               glfif {tfr::t ',ri,!r'^ll9e1;41
          ,,"iif
       rt^t
           JFui'#&)'rjsAil, jr,IJ#fsJa, St"offi
                                 'rF"i                ';*V
                     b;~~~ J"i~J::s..:r
                     " rji*rt l -e9^1-rr
                   ~-r~~::# lr ~~l~~
                   og{.dt&G va$5t'e%
                             J~~T~; ,'i5fu"t
                                        ~
                            ,'r{Si,Aii (i,
                           l7            j

                                'o'"i'r
                                      9yUfX
                                       23
                                       23
Allihu Akbar
Allihu Akbar
 Allahis the greatest
Allah is the greatest
 AllEhu Akbar
AlliJhu Akbar
 Allahis the greatest
Allah is the greatest
 Allahu Akbar
Allahu Akbar
 Allahis the greatest
Allah is the greatest
 Allihu Akbar
AlliJhu Akbar
 Allahis the greatesr
Allah is the greatest
 Ash hadu an lE il6ha illal l1h
Ash hadu an la i!§ha iI/allah
 I bear
I bear witness that thp.re is no deity but Allah.
        witnes thatthere no deitybut Allah.
                            is
 Ash hadu an ld it1ha iilat LEh
Ash hadu an la ilaha illal Lah
II bear witness that there is no deity but Allah.
   bear witnes that there no deitybut Allah.
                            is
Ash hadu an~na Muhammadar rasululliJh
 Ash hadu an-na Muhammadar rasulul Eh
   bear witnes thatMuhammad        (S.A.W.I the messengerAllah.
I bear witness that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah.
                                            ls           of
 Ash         an-na Mul"tammadar rasulul lEh
Ash hadu an-na Muhammadar rasululliJh
II bear witness that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah.
   bear witness Muhammad
                that              tS.A.tiJ.)the messengerAllah.
                                           is           of
Hayyalalag galah
l;Iayya~/a~ ~alah
 tiometo prayer
(;ome to prayer
Hayya'alag sal1h
1;Iayya 'ala1 salah
 Come Prayer.
Come to Prayer.
        to
Hayya'alal falah
/;/ayya 'alaI falal)
 Come yourGood
Come to your Good
        to
Hayya'alal falah
I;!ayya 'alaI falalJ
 Come yourGodA.
Come to your Good.
        to
Alldhu Akbar
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
Allah is the greatest
Allahu Akbar
Allihu Akbar
Allahis the greatest
Allah is the greatest
LlI iliha illal lah
LE ildha         Lah
There is no deity but Allah.
There no deitybut Allah.
        is
 ainru FoR
 AZAN FOR FA"IB
          FAJR
An additional phrase included the Aian for the Fajr prayer
An additional   phrase is included in the Aian for the Fajr prayer
                       is           in
                        'alal
afterthe second  ~ayya        Fal~~
after the second thyya 'alai Fal6h

                 !:'j,lrr'+:+'!it>iat
                 e+Att;Hr)-iit
          ~hayrum minan nawm -
A~ ~al5tu Kh-ayrumminan nawm .          prayer better
                                        Prayer is better thansleep.
                                               is        than sleep.
4tr+1lfl!
As.                                     prayer better sleep.
~ ~aliJtu Khayrumminannarvm-
  ralatu Khayrum minan nawm-            Prayer is better thansleep.
                                               is        than
TISTEIIIilG THEA2Ail
LISTENING TO THE A!AN
          TO
ll whenthe beliaren
1) When the believers hearthe Aian theyshourd
                      hear the Aian they should risten ir in
                                                listen to it in
                                                       to

                               24
                               24
and
   silence repeat     each phrase the Aian in silence immedi'
   silence and repeat eachphrase of the Aian in silence    immedi·
   ately afterthe Muaiiin has
   ately after the Muaiiin has finished saying the phrase.
                               finished sayingthe  phrase.

2l When     the Muaziin says:- t:tayya 'al4 ~alah and I:tavya 'alat
2) When the Muaiiin says:-tlayya'al~ salEh Havya'alal-
                                                    and
   fal'ah :. thQ.ljstener
   fal-ah                 should say in reply:-- Lahawla Walaquw'
           . the listener shouldsay in reply:--Lahawla   Wala quw-
   wata Bil-hh.
    wata rllaBil-lah.
          Ina

                 d+V,Ei-id;JF!
3) When Aian hasbeen
3) When the Aian has been completed, listener the
         the                 completed, the listener andthe
                                        the          and
   Muaziin
   Muaiiin      recite Dariid unto Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.}
                recite Oariid unto ProphetMuhammad          (S.A.W.)
   followed by the Du'a.
   follomif by the Du f;.

OARUO AFTER AZAN
OARiiDAFTER THEAiAN
            THE

  J3 3t hi3 +fu,J I'gG,;
                        ;f.e- ULJljfrti
                |*1ai,+G1 g.a't'*i
 fu:irb'++P?;i,"f       4r'      th.l
  ''i+V,1,# -JI:$ W                   Jt F i $t!. JL1tV
                      "*l
                dt *4'q#              U'L-i;+tJ:. )t &i

                                           'ald
"Allah humma ¥l1·li 'ala Mul)ammadin wa 'ali ali Muf1am·
 "AlEh         Eal-li hlE Mufiammadin wa        1li Muftam-
                                        'ald ali Ibraheema
madin kama ~/-Iayta 'ali Ibraheema wa 'ala ili lbrEhema
       kamE qal-layta'alE lbr1hffima wa
innaka lJameedum majeed. "
       fiamedum maied."
"0h Allah, let your peace  comeupon Muhammad      (S.A.W.)
"Oh Allah, let your peace come upon Muhammad (S.A.W.) and and
the family of Muhammad   (S.A.W.} you havesent peace
the family of Muhammad (S.A.W-l as you have sent peace upon
                                   as                    upon
lbrahim tA.S.) and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy
Ibrahim (A.S.) and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy and
                                                          and
gloriouJ~"
glorioug:"
                                             'alE 6li Multam-
!!ilEh
~'Allah        ffirik 'alE Mulammadin wa
        humma barik 'ala Mul}ammadin wa 'ala ali Mu/;Jam-
                                         'alE Eli lbrEheema
                      'ali Ibraheema wa 'aliJ ali Ibraheema
madin kama blJtakta 'alll lbrhheema wa
       kamd bitakta
innaka I}ameedum majeed. "
innaka hamedum maied."

"0h, Alah,bles Muhammad       (S.A.W.) the family Muhammad
"Oh, Allah, bless Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the family of Mlihammad
                                     and            of
(S.A.W.) you hare blessed
          as                   lbrahim(A.S.)and his family.Truly
(S.A.W.) as you have blessed Ibrahim (A.S.) and his family. Truly
you are praiseworthy and glorious."
you arepraiseworthy glorious."
                     and

     OF
DU'A A2AN
OU'A OF AZAN

    H,':.L33),:il,i-*{6r-tff:tr{+L:7iur:t
't|*.-*3,tA'"r;3'2,i#;'rlJi?,'ttv'ei3iyi
                                                 o'nJJUb$ty
 "AllEh
"Allah humma rabbarabba
Hazhi hid da~wa tit
 Hathi     da'wa tit
tdm       was sald
tam mati was sala
til Qa imati iJii
tit Oi imati hii
Mufiammada ni I waseelata
Muhammada nil waseelata
                     'ath-hu
waf Far;Jeelata wab ~ath-hu
wal Fa{eelata wab
maqimam mahmhda
maqamam mahmuda nil
 lazee wa ad tahfi."
taiee wa ad tahu."

"0h Allah! Lord of this complete      prayer oun. By the blesing
"Gh Allah! Lord of this complete prayer of ours. By the blessing
                                              of
of it, give Muhammad      (S.A.W.) eternal
of it, give Muhammad (S.A.W.) his eternal rights of intercession,
                                    his          rightsof intercesion,
distinction  and highest  class(in paradise). raise
distinction and highest class (in paradise). And raise him to the
                                                And         him t0 the
promised youhave
           rank          promised
promised rank you have promised him.
                                  him.
     Jabir(R.A.)reported    Allah's Mesenger   (S.A.W.) sayin$"lf
     Jabir (R.A.) reported Alla~'s Messenger (S.A.W.) as saying, "If
                                                          as
anyone   says whenhe hears Aian '0 God,Lordof thisperfect
anyone says when he hears the Aian ,. '0 God, Lord of this perfect
                             the
callandof the prayer   whichis established time,
                                            forall        grant
call and of the prayer which is established for all time, grant Muham-
                                                                Muham'
rmad(S.A.W.) Wasila excellency, raise up in a praise-
                the
Imad (S.A.W.) the Wasila and excellency, and raise him up in a praise-
                           and             and        him
worthy position   which you havepromised', will h asuredof
worthy position which you have promised', he will be assured of
                                                 he
my intercession."
my intercession."
                                                              (Bukhari)
                                                              (Bukhari)

IOAMAT
IQAMAT

lqamat the second to prayer is uttered
       is
Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before
                     call           and            immediately before
the beginning the obligatory
               of                 prayeroffered
the beginning of the obligatory prayer offered with congregation.
                                                   with congregtion.

TEXTTOF IOAMAT T
T E X O FI O A M A

                       o'@N 54';i
                       i,ltl ly:,iYt'J'rIal
                   c,,arr 'r;:Ltt Sag
                      tCi:
                 cAY.aSt r,;*:e,:t& e
                       Jt,s
           6'-qrt l*ii3 i'e!&tl5't3ii
               I.r
                i. :rlr* y:r{'1.,'i$fi;{'i3 %i
Allahu Akbar
         Akbar
Allahis thegreatest
Allah is the greatest
Allahu Akhar
          Akbar
Allahis thegreate$t
Allah is the greatest
                               26
                               26
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
En a guide to prayer in islam     صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

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En a guide to prayer in islam صفة صلاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

  • 1. E N G L I S- 1 0 ENGLISH - 1033 H A GUIDETO AGUIDETO PRAYER PRAYER IN ISLAM IN ISLAM Saqib M. Abdul Karim Saqib The Co-operative forCsll to.eigne.s Office Guidance Sullrnah at The Co-operative Office for Call & foreigners Guidance at Sultanah Under suoeftsron lhe 0llvinistrv samc Alla and 0l Under the supervisIOn 0 I Ministry 01 Islam ic AHai rs and Endowment and Cal I and Gu idance $ Endowmenland Gu Caland dance Te 4240C// 4251005P0 F 80x926i5Riyadh11663EnE Sullanah22@halma Tel 4240077 Fax 4251005 POBox 92675 Riyadh 11663 E-mail Sultanah22@holmail com com
  • 2. *i f!fi li #1rt:i# IN'IHE NAME OF ALLAH IN THE NAI}IE ALIJH 11IE MERCIFUL 'IHE COMPASSIONATE TIIE MERCIFI,'L THE COMPASSIONAIE
  • 3. ~lo~4~.., $iJl ;Ii4 LL.c GII]I]Dtr A GUIJD)E TO ililPilIRAYililE ms nsn,aMt IN ISJLAM M. ~lJdul KfJrim SoqilJ fi|. tbdul Karin fagib
  • 4. A G U I D E T O PRAYER GUIDE TO P R A Y E R INl ISLAM ri rsLAM * by: Researched and Edited by: Renearched Edited and Mohammed AbdulKarim Saqib. Mohammed Abdul KarimSaqib. * Translated by: Translated by: Ijaz Begum Saqib. ljazBegum Saqib.
  • 5. FOREWORDD FOREWOR the Subiect Salat There are many books dealing with the Subject of Salat in There are many books dealing both Arabic and Urdu. Many thesebooks are lvell both Arabic and Urdu. Many of these books are well written and provide an informative and comprehensiveview and provide an informative and comprehensive view of Salat should be performed according the teach- how Salat should be performed according to the teach- Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Unfonunately( there ings of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Unfortunately~. there ings the subjectin are very few books in English which deal with the subject in are very few books in Englishwhich deal the same informative and comprehensive way. The books, the same informative and comprehensive way.The books, which which do exist, have three main disadvantages. exist, havethree main disadvantages. Firstly, literature concerningSalat availablein English is Firstly, literature concerning Salat available in English is either so does cover essentialpoints either so brief that it does not cover essential points in nearly enough detail, nearly enough detail, or it is so bulky and detailed that it is so bulky and detailedthat becomes difficult to use it for quick reference, and es~ becomes use quick reference,and es- sentialpoints may get lost in the unnece$sary sential points may get lost in the unnecessary detail. detail. Secondly,the the Salat lacksthe quality Secondly, the text of the Salat lacks the quality of direct direct research from the zunnah the Prophet Muhammad research from the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). There are also books which contain materialwith- (SAW). There are also books which contain material with- out any reference to the original sources. any reference the originalsources. Thirdly, the majority of books have been written accord- the majority books have been accord- ing ing to the views held by certain schools of thought and for the views held certain schools thought and this reasonsome peoplehesitate this reason some people hesitate to follow them. them. Because these weaknesses existing literature in English Because of these weaknesses in existing literature in English in we prgduce medium sized we felt that the need existed to prpduce a medium sized the need existed book on Salat which would approachthe subjectaccording book on Salat which would approach the subject according io the teachings the Prophet Muhammad(SAW). The to the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). The Prophet,himself,said, Prophet, himself, said, "Pray as you haveseenme praying." "Pray as you have seen me praying." Such book needs.to contain all the essential Such a book needs to contain all the essential details of details Salat Salat without being 'too bulky or complicated so that the being too bulky complicatedso that the readercan use as journey reader can use it as a point 01 reference on a journey or at oJ reference home. . home It was also fE~lt that a comprehensive book on Salat in ft was also felt that comprehensive book on Salat in English would be useful English would be useful for converts to Islam and for converts lslam and Muslim youth brought up in this country. Keeping Muslim youth brought up in this country. Keeping in 5
  • 6. mind the needs of our brothers and sistersevery effort has needs brothers and sisters every effort has been made to produce this book in simple and easy been made produce simple and easy language. language. During research sometimes differences During our researchwe sometimes found that differences occurred between established practices various prayer occurred between established practices in various prayer books. In these circumstances we referred to authentic books. these circumstances referred authentic Prophet Muhammad (SAW), so hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), so that the hadiths of points could be clarified as much as possible.This was, points could be clarified as much as possible. This was, because, for a true Muslim there is no greater proof for because, for Muslim there is greater settling arguments than authentic hadiths and practices settling arguments than authentic hadiths and practices Prophet Muhammad(SAW). of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). We hope that Allah will accept this humble attempt be- We hope Allah accept this humble be- cause without his support and help we would never have cause without his and help we never have been able to do this work. been abfe Finally we ask all our Muslim brothers and sisters to study Finally we ask all Muslim brothers and sisters study the text and to strive to pray according to it. If anyone and strive according lf anyone finds anything unacceptable or to be against the sunnah finds anything unacceptable be against sunnah Prophet (SAW) we be grateful of the Prophet (SAW) we would be grateful if they wo!!ld worrld inform us. us. Muhammad Abdul Karim Saqib Muhammad Abdul Karim Saqib 6
  • 7. c0ilrEilrs CONTENTS Pages Pages Foreword Foreword ......................•....... 5 Notes Notes .............................. t 010 Chapter One ...............................12 2 ... .t Before doing Wudu (Ablution) Before Wuqu ...............................12 2 ... .t Tooth Stick (Siwak) (Siwak) ...............................I.2 . . . 12 Niyat for Wuflu (Ablution) Niyat Wuc;lu ..............................12 J2 Actions of wudu (Ablution) Actions of (Ablution) .............................. . . r 2 . . . 12 Special facilities Ab.ution. Specialfacilities in Ab.ution. .............................. .13 , . . . I .3 Du'a end of Ablution Du'i[ at the end of Ablution . . . . .I. 3 13 Tayammum .............................. l 4 14 Two Chapter Two .............................. 16 r6 of ~alat (Prayer) Time of $alat (Prayer) .............................. . 6 . . . . 16 I Forbidden Times for PraYer for Player ............................... 17t 7 ,.. .. ~alat (PraYer) Placefor $alat (Prayer) Place ...............................18 . . . l.8 Dress for ~alat (Prayer) Dress $alat (Prayer) . . . . . l.8 ...............................18 . (Prayer) Types of $alat (Prayer) Types of $alat ...............................19 . . . I.9 FarQ or Obligatory Pra}er Far{ ObligatoryPraPr ...............................19 . . . I. 9 Nafl Prayer Prayer . . . l.9 .......•.......................,19 Sunnat Mu'akkadah (canpulsory) .............................. 202 0 Sunnat Mu'akkadah(conPulsory) ,..... Nafl (extra) Prayer (extra) PraYer .............................. 20 20 Number of Rakats Number Rakats .............................. 222 2 Chapter Three Chapter Three ..............................22 22 Story of Azan Aian ..............................233 2 The Muazzin The Muai2in .............................. 23 23 Text of the Aian Text of the .............................. 24 24 Azan for Fajr Aian for Fajr .............................. 24 24 Listening to the AZan Listening to the Aian .............................. 255 2 Dariidafter the Azan Danidafter the A2an .............................. 255 2 Du"a after the Azan Du'ii after the Aian ..............................266 2 lqamat lqamat ..............................266 2 Text of Iqamat Text of Iqamat 7
  • 8. Chapter Four ChapterFour . . . 282 8 .. 'Sutra 'Sutra . . . 282 8 .. Qiblah Qiblah . . . 282 8 .. Intention (Niyat) Intention(NiYat) . . . 282 8 .. Talcbir Tahrimah Takbir Tahrimah .....29 29 Folding of hands Folding hands . . . 292 9 .. .Recitation before Fatihah Recitation beforeFatihah . . . 292 9 .. Ta'awwuz Ta'awwuz . . . 303 0 .. 'fasmiah fasmiah .....30 30 Surah Fatihah Surah Fatihah . . . 31I3 .. Recitation of Surah Fatihah Behind an Imam ..-.-.32 Recitation SurahFatihah Bdrind an Imam 32 Ameen Ameen .....32 32 Recitation after Surah Fatihah ._ Recitationafter SurahFatihah .........-....-.33 33 Ruku (J,owing) Ruku (&owing) Du'as in Ruku Du'as Ruku (standing afterRukfr) Qawman (standing after Rukii) :"::::::::::::: 34 35 ................36 36 Qawman Du'as in Qawmah Du'is Qawmah .....37 37 First Sajdah First Sajdah .....38 .38 Du'as in Sajdah Du'[s Sajdah .....38 38 Jalsah (sittingbetween Jalsah (sitting between two Sajdcbs) two Sajddrs) .....39 .39 Second Sajdah Second Sajdalt .....40 40 (sittingfor rest) Jalsah-e-Istarahat (sitting for rest) Jalsah+-Istarahat .........40 40 Second Rakat SecondRakat .....40 40 Tashahud Tashahud .....40 40 Standing up for third Rakat up Standing for third Rakat ................41 .41 ~alat Alan-Nabi (Darfid) $alatAlan-Nabi (Dariid) -. ................42 .42 Du'5safter~a1at Alan-nabi (Darfrd) Du'as after $alatAlan-nabi (Dari"xl) ........42 .42 Ending the Prayer Fnding the Prayer 45 Du'as after Salutation Du'6s .45 Chapter Five 48 Witr Prayer Witr Prayer .48 Number of Rakat of Witr PraYer of ofWitr Prayer 48 Time of Witr Prayer Time Prayer 49 How to PrayWitr How Pray Du'i Qunfitin witr Prayer Du'i Quniit Prayer ::::::::::::::::: 49 50 ................50 Text of Du'EQunilt Du'i 50 Jumah (FridayPrayer) Jumah (Friday Prayer) · · .................5 511 Importance FridayPrayer Importance of Friday Prayer ..---...........51 51 lmportance Cleanliness lriday Prayer .....51 Importance of Cleanliness for Iriday Prayer of 51 Going earlyto FridayPrayer Going early Friday Prayer ...-............52 52 Prayer before Jumah PrayerbeforeJumalt 52 8 I
  • 9. Listening to Khutbah (Sennon Listening Khutbah (Sermon Prayer after Jumah Prayerafter Jumah Eid Prayer :::::::::::::::::: 53 54 .544 5 Eid Prayer Janazah l)rayer Junazuh llrayer 56 56 Conduct,'f Janazah Conduct If Janazah Prayer I Prayer 577 s First Takbir Fint l-akbir 57 57 Du'as of starting Du'Es starting 57 57 Surah Fatihah Surah Fatihah 58 58 Recitation of a Surah Recitation a Surah 58 58 Second Takbir Second 58 58 Third Takbir Third Takbir 59 59 Du'as of Janazah Du'frs Janazah 59 59 Ending the Janazah Prayer Ending the Janazah Prayer 61r 6 Takbir Fourth Takbir 61l 6 PrayerDuring a Journey Prayer During a Journey 61l 6 When shortenand combinePrayers When to shorten and combine Prayers ........62 62 Duration journey D-uration of journey 63 63 Nafl Prayeron a journey Natl Prayer on a journey .63 63 •••••••••••• oo oa oo oo oo tt 9
  • 10. thtes about the Transliteration Notes about the Transliteration The following system beenadopted represent has The following system has been adopted to represent corresponding t0 r:orresponding sounds theArabic of Alphabet. sounds of the Arabic Alphabet. letter ArJbic letter Ar.rbic English English Example l e Examp Example l e Examp Equivalent Equivalent I Arabic) c ) tArabi ( English) h ) Englis I a Allah h Alla ~pplel e App ~ Y b bismillah bismillah bat bat ~ dr t Tirmiziz i Tirmi !oy loy ,i• '-oJ rh th uthman n uthma t.Drough h throug c C J Jabiri r Jab jugg iu c C; h h Ra~eem Raheem bate [ate c C kh kh Khalifah Khalifah no English no English equivalent equivalent ..) J d Dn, mi Dn.mi the lbe j i oJ Aian Aian re~emble reEemble ) J r I Asr fur river liver ) J z 2 zahid zahid gero !ero tA IJ" s salam sal5m seen ~een ... ,.* fJ'" sh sh shuaib shuaib shop mop .c oj' ~ I ~alat salat ~ardine sardine ~ f j; -b , d { I wu~u wudu fahir fahir guhr no equivalent no equivalent no equivalent no equivalent , 1 ? , ~uhr razor ra~or e e Jam6'at JamIt'at no equivalent no equivalent ~ e 15 gh gh f Maghrib Maghrib Fajr Fajr- no equivalent no equivalent fan lan g q lqamat Iqamat queen queen ~ (l, k kitab kitab feen f,een J J I Jibreel Jibreel lean lean r I m Muhammad Muhammad !!loon l[oon o U n Nisai Nisai noon noon t j w wu{u wUQu wallet fiallet j ~ h janazah janazah ttour [our • I , no equivalent no equivalent in the middleof the letterI ( in the middle of the letter) t c.S L5 v y year 'year to 10
  • 11. The following system has been adopted to represent someof the The followingsystemhas been adoptedto represent some of the complex sounds theArabiclanguage. complex sounds of the Arabic language. of A macron (-) placed on a transcribed Arabicvowel indicates A macron(-) placed0n a transcribed Arabic vowel indicates lengthening thesoundof thatletter. lengthening of the sound of that letter. of Arabic Arabic English English Example Example Example Example Equivalents Equivalents (Arabic) (Arabic) ((E n s l i s)h English) .- a e Allih AilAh Apple Apple .sL r5l ee ee Raheem Raheem seen seen J ) Ii istanja istanja sit sit ISo iio r e e or ee seen seen .Jb hi hT he he '1 6 I'I u boot boot )1 -u true ll u 0awfid Dawud true jji f aw aw sew sew )1 ii aww aww awwal awwal shovel shovel (51 $i ay ay baY bay Cf t5i ayy aYy age age ~~ 13t ivv iyy sound according its Note: Sometimes an Arabic letter changes sound according to its Note:$ometimes Arabic an letterchanges t0 whether is at theheginning, it in position in the word; for example; whether it is at the beginning, in position theword;for example; in ihe middle at the end. such 0r In circumstances theArabic letterhas the middle or at the end. In such circumstances the Arabic letter has heen representedmore by than English one equivalent. been represented by more than one English equivalent. Abbrwirtionr Abbreviations Thefollowing abbrwiations been in thisbook. The following abbreviations have been used in this book. have used So ,A . U v , SAl--lAl LANU AlAYHI WA SAL- LAM $ AW 0 0 lIA $Al,- $tt ul. Lllltj ALAYlll LAt II PEACt AND BLESSING OF AllAH BE UPON HIM II PtACr 8l.tS$lll0 ALt 8t uP0t l{lt At0 0F Af{ R .A . R A 0 0 RADI ALLAHU|J ANHU I/ANHA RA0tAil.llf Ailll|| lillA IIMAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITh HIMI/ HER tAy Aruil 8t PLtA$t0 llh lllt l{tR |1 11 1 1
  • 12. Chcrpter Chapter I BEFOREHDOING G I J O U B E F O D O I N WUQU E W lf someone needs go to thetoilet, should the toiletanddo to If someone needs to go to the toilet, he should use the toilet and do he use istanja before doing wudu. istanja before doing wudu. A B L U T IN ABLUTION O SIWAK KT O T H- S T I C K ) ( O S I W A (TOOTH--STlCK) It is a goodpractice clean teethwith a tooth-stick, a tooth- to It is a good practice to clean the teeth with a tooth-stick, or a tooth- the or brushbefore performing wudu. In this way you can avoidmany brush before performing wudu. In this way you can avoid many which diseases arecaused unclean by diseases which are caused by unclean teeth. teeth. fu mentioned the hadith Aisha (R.A.) As mentioned in the hadith Aisha (R.A.) reported Allah's messen- in reportedAllah'smessen- gerassaying:- 'The useof a tooth-stick a means purifying ger as saying:- ''The use of a tooth-stick is a means of purifying the is of the mouth andis pleasing the Lordaswell" to mouth and is pleasing to the Lord as well" ) (Ahmad. (Ahmad. Oarmi, and Nisai ..l 0armi, Nisai and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said:- "lf wouldn't Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ also said:- "If I wouldn't have felt also have felt that it is diffic,ult my people wouf have for that it is difficult for my people I would have ordered them to use a d orderedthemto use a tooth-stick with everyprayer, tooth-stick with every prayer, that is, before doing each wuQu. So" that is, before doingeach wudu. So, muslims should (S.A.W.). muslims should always try to fulfil this wish of our Prophet (S.A.W.). always to fulfilthiswishof ourProphet try MAKING INTENTION N 0 RWUI}UU N | Y A T ) ( M A K T N I N T E N T | 0 FOR W U g (NIYAT) G F Before starting actions wu~u the Before starting the actions 0 wu{u it is necessary to make niyat. o is necesary makeniyat. t0 MakeNiyatthat the act of performing wu~u is for the purpose of Make Niyat that the act of performing wuf,uis for the purpose purityonfy.Niyatshould made theheart purity only. Niyat should be made in the heart becauseis anaction be in because it is an action of theheart not of thetongue. of the heart andnot of the tongue. and Niyatby words not approved Prophet is by Muhammad (S.A.W.l. Niyat by words is not approved by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). Then start the wu~u by saying:- Bismillah hir-ra[rma Thenstartthe wu{u by saying:-Bismillbh hir-ra~ma nir-raheem nir-raheem (ln thename Allah, most graciou$, merciful) (In the name of Allah, mostgracious, mostmerciful)" most II ACTIO]tIS PER RMIIIIG LUTIOI{. ACTIONS FORPERFORMING A8 FOR FO ABLUTION. l. Wash hands to the wrist making 1. Wash the hands up the wrist making surethat n0 partof the the up sure that no part the hands left dry. hands is left dry. is 2. Rinse mouthtaking water 2. Rinse themouth taking up water w;ththe righthand. the up with the right hand. 3. Clean the nose: sniffwaterup from the rightpalmandtheneject 3. Clean nose: the sniff water up from the right palm and then eject waterwith the left hand. water with the left hand. 12 12
  • 13. a. Wash the face,from earto ear, andforehead chin making sure 4. {ash the face, from ear -eat, forehead to chin making and sure that no partof the faceis left dry. that no part the face is left dry. 5. Then wash the forearms (right forearmfirst) up to the elbou,s 5. Then rvashthe forearms (right forearm first) up the elbows making that no partof themis left dry. making sure sure that no part them is left dry. 6.Rub the head asfollows:- as 6. Rubthehead follows:- Wet your fingers andthen wipe the head with yourfingerqnstarting and Wetyour fingers thenwipethehead with your fingers,starting from the forehead, takingthem to the napeof the neck,then from the forehead, taking them to the nape the neck, then bring thembackto theforehead. bring them back to the forehead. 7. Clean eanby inserting tipsof theindex 7. Clean theears by inserting thetips the index fingers the the fingers wetted wetted with with unter into the ears, water into the ears, twist themaround foidsof the ears twist them around the foids the ears then the then pass thumbbehind ears pass thethumb behind theears fromthebottom, the the from the bottom, upwards. upwards. 8. *Washthe feet (right foot fint) up to the ankles 8. *Wash the feet (right foot first) up to the ankles making sure making sure that no parts the feetareleft dry, especially between the toes. that no parb of the feet are left dry, especially betrueen toes. the *SPECIALAFACILITIESEINl A B L U T I O T { * S P E C I F A C I L I T I IS ABLUTION L i Rubbing the socks with wet hands instead of washing the feet;; Eubbing sockswith wet hands the instead washing feetthe allowed, provided the socks have been on after perfonr' allowed, provided that the socks that have been put 0n afterperfonr',lg put ,rg an ablution, including washing the feet. This is allowed for 24 hours an ablution, including washing feet.Thisis aflowed 24 hours the for from the time of ablution, and for 3 days if the person is on a journey. fromthe timeof ablution, for3 days theperson and isona journey. After this time the feet must be washed. Similarly if there is a wound After thistime the feetmustbewashed. Similarly there wound is in any pars the bodywhichhasto bewashed ablution, in any parts of the body which has to be washed in ablution, and if in and that particular part is likelyt0 cause harm, is permisible washing that particular part is likely to cause harm, it is permissible washing to wipethedressing thewound to wipe the dressing of the wound with a wet hand. of with wethand. HADITH H HAOIT Mughira shu'bah bin said, "Prophet(S.A.W.) performed Mughira bin shu'bah said, "Prophet (S.A.W.) performed ablution ablution and wiped over his socks and his sandals." andwiped over socks hissandals." his and (Ahmad, (Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah). Tirmizi,Abu Dawild, lbn Maiah). and Eachdetail ablution been of has performed Prophet Each detail of ablution has been performed by Prophet Muhammad by Muhammad (S.A.W.) once,twice 0r threetimes(except (S.A.W,) once, twice or three times (except rubbing of head and rubbing headand of cleaning ears,i.e. actions and shouldonly bb doneonce). cleaning of ears, i.e. actions 6 and 7 should only be done once). of Sinceall the above methods meet Prophet (S.A.W.)t Since all the above methods meet Prophet (S.A.W,}'s approval we approval we can perform ablution by doing the actions once, twice or three times. canperform ablution doing actions by the once, twice0r three times. provided no parthasbeen drY. provided that no Dart has been left dry. that left Amr bin Shuaib, quoting fatheron the authority hisgrand' Amr bin Shuaib, quoting his father on the authority of his grand- his of fathernarrated that Prophet {S.A.W.) said,"lf anyone father narrated that Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said, "If anyone Muhammad performs actions ablution of morethan timesrhe done performs actions of ablution more than 3 times,he has done wrong, has wrong, transgressed, and done wickedly. tramgresed, donewickedly. and (Nisai, Majah) (Nisai, Ibn Majah) lbn DU'AA T THEEEND OFFABLUTION T { O U ' AT T H E i l DO A B L U T I O A "Ash hadu an Iii iI aha "Ashhaduanl5 itaha iIIallahu wah dahu Ifshareeka lahu illalldhurmh dahu shareeka lf lahfi 13 13
  • 14. wa ash hadu an-na waash haduatrna 'abduhE wa Muhammadan 'abduhu wa illuhammadan (Mrnliml. rasuluhu: (Muslim). rruluhu: fi;*l t f $jli,Et l,frglilfS *r;i;*i "e,j'i rfi'i-*$s;#l 'alnse minat "Allah hum maj 'alnn minat "Allahhummai sni hlneo minal taw-wlbeen"Mj 'alnee minal trpwlbmn mubph-hiren."(Tirmiril. muta 18h-hireen." (TirmizH. <tr;:toiriFi"isl..v}bQy*;5lrtirest;ay;$rf "l tctify that there no deityexcept Allahalone. And testify "1 testify that there is no rjeity except Allah alone. And I testify is (S.AW.I His and that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is His servant and messenger." thatMuhammad is servant messenger." (Muslim) (Muslim) Allahmake among me those who arepenitent make "0 Allah make me among those who are penitent and make me and me who purified." thoss are among those who are purified." among (Tirmizil (Tirmizi) TAYAMMUM TAYATIi,IUIt| In circumstances when water cannot be found, or justenough is when In circumstancs rvater cannot found,or just enough be is arailable drinking, for or is iniufous health: such in situations available for drinking, or it is injurous to health: in such situations t0 (dry Tayammum ablution) beperformed. Tayammum (dry ablution) can be performed. can The procedure below given according Ouran to and Hadith. The procedure below is given according to Ouran and Hadith. is ".........And you don'tfind anywater, thentakeclean ".........And if you don't find any water, then take clean earth eafth (orsand) rub on yourface, hands. and Allahdoes wish not (or sand) and rub it on your face, and hands. Allah does not wish and to put you in a difficulty, hewants make clean, to but to you and to put you in a difficulty, but he wants to make you clean, and to complete-His untoyou,so youshould grateful Him." frvour be to complete -His favour unto you, so you should be grateful to Him." (Surah verse (Thepermision use to sand thispurpose for (Surah V. verse 6). (The permission to use sand for this purpose is V. 6). is allowed in the Quran). allorved theOuran). in PRO U8E CEO PROCEDURE l. Make niyat thehmrt. in 1. Make niyat in the heart. with 2. Begin with the name of Allah. 2. Begin thename Allah.of 3. Strike both palms handon clean 3. Strike both palms of hand on clean sand, dust or anything con- of sand, dustor anything con- taining these, wall or stone etc.fren blowinto the palms. taining these, e.g. wall or stone etc. then blow into the palms. e.g. pan the pafms both hands overthe faceonce thenruh pass the palms of both hands over the face once and then rub of and your rit'rt hand with the left palmandlett hand with the right your right hand with the left palm and left hand with the right palml. palm). (Bukhari Mrslim). (Bukhari and Muslim). and 14 14
  • 15. 4. Finish with thesameDu'a asgiven theendof ahlution. 4. Finish with the same Du'das given at the end ablution. Note: Other procedures includethe forearms shoulders wellm f{ote: 0ther proceduresinclude the forearms andshoulders aswell as .and as armpits. Thesehave beentransmitted reputable armpits. These havebeen transmitted by reputable scholanbut the scholars the mostpreferable authentic thatgiven most preferable andauthentic is that given above. and is above. o o o oooooo o o o 15 15
  • 16. Chspter 2 Chapter 2 TIME·- PLACE -- DRESS and -- TYPES OF SALAT TIME PTACE DRESS and TYPES OF SALAT 1.. TIMEEO FSALAT T I T I M OF S A L A Each,qalat. be offered or during_iu Each ~alat must be offered at or during its proper time.. No flist Cln Tult at proper time..No plat crn be offered before time.There five.obligatory iiiiaai. its be offered before its time. There are five obligatory falat in a day. are dat FAJRR R A Y E B F A J PRAYER P The time for the Fajror the morning The time for the Fajr or the morning prayer starts at dawn and prayer starts dawnand at at ends sunrise. ends at sun-rise. ZuhrPnyer Zuhr Prayer The time for Zuhr or the earlyaftemoon prayer The time for Zuhr or the early afternoon prayer starts when the rtartswhenthe sun begins to decline from its zenith and ends when the size of an sunbegins decline rom its zenithandendrwtren rize an to f the object's shadow is equal to the ~ize of the object. obiecttshadow equal thesize the obiect. is to of (R.A.l narrated, 'The Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A.) narrated, "The angel Jibreel came Jabirbin Abdulfah angel Jibreel cams to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) saidto him, 'Stand and to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and said to him, 'Stand up and and up pray Zuhr'. the messenger Allah (S.A.W prayedZuhr pray Zuhr'. So the messenger of Allah (S.A.W prayed Zuhr So of I when the sun had declined when the sun had decl ined from its zenith. Then the Angel from its zenlth.Then tne Anget Jibreel again the time of Asr andsaid,'Standup and Jibreel came again at the time of Asr and said, 'Stand up and came at Pray Asr~ Then Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed Asr when PrayAsri ThenProphet Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed Asr'when the shadow of everything wasequal to itself. Then Jibreel the shadow everything equal itself.ThenJibreel came was came the next day to Prophet the next day to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said,Stand Muhammad (S.A.W.) and said, 'Stand and !p and prayZuhr'.Then Prophet up and pray Zuhr', ThenProphet Muhammad (S.A.W.) Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed prayed Zuhr whenthe shadow everything equalto itself.Then Zuhr when the shadow of everything wasequal was itself. Then Jibreel cameagain at Asr time andsaid,'Stand andprayAsr'. Jibreel came again Asr time and said, 'Stand up and pray Asr'. at up Thenhe prayedfur whenthe shadow everything trvice Then he prayed Asr when the $hadow of everything rvastwice was its length itslength _ Therr Then Jibreel said, (afterpraying 10 prayers Prophet Jibreel said, (after praying prayers with Prophet Muham- 10 with Muham- mad (S.A.W.)in nruo mad (S.A.W.) in two consecutive that the time of prayer consecutive days) days) that the time prayer is in between is in between th$e two timesl" these two times:" Ahmad, Nasai,Tirmizi and Bukhari remarked Ahmad, Nasai, Tirmizi and Bukhari remarked that this is that this is the most authentic hadith giving times prayer. the mostauthentic hadith giving the times of prayer. the We find that many books on $alatstatethe endingtime We find that many books on ~alat stat~ the ending time of Zuhr prayerand the startingtime of fui prayerwhen the Zuhr prayer and the starting time Asr prayer whEnthe shadow something twice itself.But this contradicts shadow of something is twice itself. But this contradicts the is the above above hadith 0n thefirstdayJibreel hadith ason the first day Jibreel asked as asked Prophet Prophet Muhammad Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayfur whenthe shadow everything equaf (S.A.W.) t0 pray Asr when the shadow of everything waseQuat to was to itself.This means wasthe endtime of Zuhr prayer. to itself. This means that was the end time of Zuhr prayer. And that And we alreadyknow that all the ulamas the MuslimUmmah we already know that all the ulamas of the Muslim Ummah of 16 16
  • 17. agree unanimously n0 prayercan be offered agree unanimously that no prayer can be offered before time. that before its time. its Asr Prryer Arr Prayer The time for Asr or late afternoon prayer Thetrmefor Asror lateafternoon starts whentheshadow prayer starts when the shadow of something is equal to itself andends just before sunset. of somethingequal itselfand ends bef sunset. is to just ore It is betterto offerfur prayer orethesunbeeomes It is better to offer Asr prayer bef the sun becomes yellow before yellow because eventhoughit is allowedto offer the orayerat this because even though it is allowed to offer the prayer at this time the Prophet (S.A.Y{.} timethe Prophet disliked Muslims 0elayAsr prayer (S.A.W.l disliked Muslims to Oelay fur prayer to up up to this time. He remarked that the Munafiq (Hypocritel this time. He remarked that the Munafiq(Hypocrite) offered his prayer at this time. his offered prayer thistime. at Maghrib Praycr Maghrib Prayer The time for the Maghrib 0r th~ sunset prayer Thetimefor the Maghrib th0sunset or starts justafter prayer starts after just sunsp.t and ends whentwilighthas disappeared. sunset endsand when twilight hasdisappeared. !sha Prayer !sha Prayer The time for lshaor nightprayer The time for Isha or night prayer starts starts fromthe disappearaitue from the disappearance of twilight andends justbefore midnight. and of twilight ends before just midnight. It ii preferable offer this prayerbefore midnight it is preferable io offer this prayer before to midnight but but can be offered rightuo tn thebreak dawn' can be offered right uo to thp. break of dawn. of l,lote:- In countries Note: In countries wheredue to cloudyweather sun is not where due to cloudy weather the sun is not the always visibleit is advisable follow printedcalendars giving alurnys visible is advisable to follow printed calendars to giving the the accurate timeof each PraYer. time accurate of each prayer. FORBIDDEN T I TIMES OF PRAYER F O R B I D D E NM E S FP H A Y E R O Uqbah bin Amir said, " There were three times at which Allah's uqbahbin Amir said, There H, were three times which at Allah's messenger (S.A.W.) used forbidus to pray0r bury our dead. messenger (S.A. W.) used to forbid us to pray or bury our dead. to (i) When the sun began to rise untir it was fully up. (i) When sunbegan rise the to untit wasfullyup. (jj) When the sun was at its height at midday til! it p~sed (ii) Whenthe sun was at its heightat middaytil! passed the meridian, themeridian, (iii) When sundrewnear setting (iii) When the sun drew near to setting till it had set:' the to till hadsetl' (MUSLIM) M ) (MUSLI FORBIDDEN E iIl M E S O RN A F LP R A Y E R FOBBIDD T TIMES FOR NAFl PRAYER F (i) {i} Abu Sa'eed Khudree al (R.A.) reported Allah'smes$enger Abu Sa'eed al Khudree (R.A.) reported Allah's messenger (S.A.W.) saying, "No prayeris to be saidafter the Fair (S.A.W.) as saying, "No prayer is to be said after the Fajr as prayeruntil the sun rises, after the fur prayer until the prayer until the sun rises, or after the Asr prayer until the or sun sets:' sunsetsl' (Bukhari-&i 'Muslim)m ) (Bukhar Musli& Only nafl prayer forbidden these timesbut a missed Only naf1 prayer is forbidden at these times but a missed is at Mostof the ulamas theMuslim of fard prayer can de offered. Most of the ulamas of the Muslim fard prayer de offered. san fard prayerafter Um'mah allowed the offering of missed fard prayer after Ummahallowedthe offeringof missed Fajrandfur because thefollowing of hadith Fair and Asr because of the following hadith (S.A.W.) said, '1/Vho forgotten Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said, 'Who has forgotten ProphetMuhammad has the prayerhe shouldpray it whenever remembers the prayer he should pray it whenever he remembers it:' he iti' (Bukharia& i Muslim)m ) (Bukh & Musli r (ii) (ij) A nafl prayercannotbe offeredoncethe lqamatfor fard A nafl prayer cannot be offered once the Iqamat for fard prayerhas beensaid. Abu Hurairah prayer has been said. Abu Hurairah nal'rated that the mes: flarrated that the mes- 177 1
  • 18. 't{hen the lqanlat been senger Allah (S.A.W.l has said, senger of Allah (S.A.W.) said, "When the Iqamat has been said" of said, thenrthere no prayer is valid (Nafl or sunnat) then, there is no prayer valid (Nafl or sunnat) except the except the Fard prayer whichthe lqamat said." Fard prayer for which the Iqamat was said." for was (Ahmad Muslim) (Ahmad & Muslim) is seen practice in that manypeople It is seen in practice that many people continue with the continue with the sunnat prayer sunnat prayer even though the iqamat has been said for the wen thoughthe iqamat beensaidfor the has far~ prayer especially in the Fajr prayer. They feel that the far{ prayer epecially the Fajr prayer. in They feel that the 2 Rakat sunnat of Fajr can only be offered before the Far~. Rakat sunnat Fajrcanonly be offered of before Far{. the This practice against This practice is against congregation Philosophy, discipline is Philosophy, congregation discipline of Jama'at, and a clear violation of Hadith. They should Jamd'at, and clearviolation Hadith.They should offer 2 rakat sunnat of Fajr immediately after the Fard or offer rakatsunnatof Fairimmediately after the Fardor after sunrise. aftersunrise. 2.. PLACE E O RS A L A T 2 P L A C FOR SALAT F or building which is used the purpose woship A place or a building which is used for the purpose of worship place for of and prayeris called mciid (Mosque). hadithtellsus that "all and prayer is called a masjid (Mosque). A hadith tells us that "all the earthhasbeenrendered the Muslims, mosque for (Pure the earth has been rendered for the Muslims, a mosque (Pure and and clea!l)." clmn)." This means that wherever a muslim might be he can offer his This mearsthat wherever muslimmight be he can offer his prayerbut the reuard prayer offeredin mosque far grmEr prayer but the revvard of a prayer offered in a mosque is far greater is thanthat offered an ordinary in place. following The points than that offered in an ordinary place. The following points should should benoted whenchoosing place prayer. be noted when choosing a place for prayer. for (a) The place (a) The place should be clean and pure. ~Iat in a dirty, filthy and shouldbe clan andpure. $alatin dirty, filthy and impure place such as a rubbish tip, slaughter house, bathing impure placesuch if rubbishtip, slaughter house,bathing place pen place and a camel pen is forbidden. and camel is forbidden. (bl The placeshouldbe free from danger. (b) The place should be free from danger. The danger could be The danpr could be due to someone or something that may disturb the worshipper. due to someone something may disturbthe worshipper. or that (c) prayerplacewherethe worshipper (c) A prayer place where the worshipper might hinder movement might hindermovement of others should be avoided, e.g. busy pavements, public road- of othersshouldbe avoided, busy pavements, e.g. public road- ways etc. waysetc. (d) lt is forbidden prayon the roofof Baitullah (Ka'bahl. (d) It is forbidden to pray on the roof of Saitullah (Ka'bah). (e) lt is forbidden prayon top or facing (e) It is forbidden to pray on top of or facing towards a grave. to towards grave. 3. DRESS FOR SALAT 3. DRESS FORSATAT MENN ME (i) (j) The dres for the menshouldbe suchthat covers The dress for the men should be such that it covers from the from the navel the kneemt navel to the kneesat least. lect. 18 18
  • 19. (iil (in The shoulders should beleft uncovered. ThEshoulders should not be left uncovered. not (iiil (iii) $alatcan be prayedin one garment it coversthe body $alat tan be prayed in one garment if covers the body from the navel the knees wellastheshoulders. from the navel to the knees aswell as the shoulders. as "None of you must pray in a sin$e garment whirh no "None you must pray in single garment of whilh no part comes overthe shoulder:' over partcomes theshoulderj' ( B U K H A R IM U S L I M } & (BUKHARI & MUSLIM) lf, however, grment is not long enough uoverthe If, however, the garment is not long enough to cover the the to shoulders then parts the body between the naveland shoulders then parts of the body between the navel and the knees should least covered. the knees should at least becovered. at be WOMEN WOM N E The dress the womanshouldbe suchthat it covers whole The dress of the woman should be such that covers her whole her body from head body from headto foot leaving only the face and the hands un' foot leaving only the faceand the hands un· covered. A prayer offered transparent clothing not valid.Also covered. prayeroffered in transparent A in clothing is not valid. Also is tight fitting clothing which shows the shape of the body should tight fitting cfothing whichshows the shape the body should of beavoided. be avoided. 4 T Y P E OF ~ALAT 4.. TYPES S FS A L A T O a) Far~ or obligatory $alat. a) Fard obligrtory or Salat. Far~ prayer is an obligatory prayer. Every believer is ordered Fardprayer an obligatory is prayer. is [very believer ordered prayers a day. Failure to by Allah to offer five obligatory prayers in a day. Failure to by Allahto offer five obligatory in observe one of the five obligatory any prayers a serious observe anyone of the five obligatory prayers is a serious and is and punishable punishable sin. sin. b) NafJ Prayer. b) ltlaflPrayer. Thisis a voluntary prayer whichthe Prophet (S.A.W.) This is a voluntary prayer which the Prophet (S.A.W.) observed observed before or after Far~ at special and isolated occasions. It also before after Fardat special or and isolated lt occasions. also includes those which encouraged he Muslims prav. includes those which he encouraged Muslims to pray. to The Nafl Prayer can be divided into three categones. TheNaflPrayer bedivided three can into categortes. (i) Sunnat (compuhory) (i) Sunnat Mu'akkadah (compulsory) Mu'akkadah Thatisthose whic,h emphasizedthe HolyProphet are by (S.A.W.) That is those which are emphasized by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and offeredregularly him beforeor afterthe Fardprayrlr. and offered regularly by him before or after the Far~ praYI~r. by (iil Gheir (optional) (ii) Ghair Mu'akkadah (optional) Mu'akkadah only occasionally Prophet Muhammad That is those offered only occasionally by Prophet Muhammad That is thoseoffered by (s.A.w.l. (S.A.W.). r9 19
  • 20. (iiil thfl Prryrr(Extnl (iii) Nell Preyer (Extrl) Thb is an extraprayer. There a reward praying andno is for it This is an extra prayer. There is a reward for praying it and no sinfor leaving lt can offered anyisolated it. be at instance sin for leaving it. It can be offered at any isolated instante atcord- accord- ingto thetimeandcapacity thebeliever. of Prophet Muhammad ing to the time and capacity of the believer. Prophet Muhammad (S.AW,)encouraged believers praynall to helpmake the (S.A.W.) encouraged the believers to pray natl to help make t0 up for anyminor ombsions other or defec$ the obligatory up for any minor omissions or other defects in the obligatory in praysr. prayer. 5. TUTIBER RAKATS OF FORTHEFIVEOETIGATORY 5. NUMBER OF RAKATS FORTHE FIVE OBLIGATORY PRAYERS PRAYERS (il Frir Prryrr. (0 Fejr Prlyer. 2 rakar sunnat Mu'akkadah, 2 Rakats 2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 2 Rakats Far~. Fard. (ii) ZuhrPrryrr, (ii) Zuhr Prlver. or rakats sunnatMu'akkadah, rakab far{, rakats 2 or 4 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats far~, 2 rakats sunnat sunnat Mu'akkadah anunspecified and number naflro timeandcap- of Mu'akkadah and an unspecified number of nafl as time and cap- acity alloun. acity allows. lbn Umar(R.A.) said"l prayed with Allah'smesengel Ibn Umar (R.AJ said "I prayed alone with Allah's messenger alone (S.A.W.) rakats and rakats afterthe Zuhrprayer." (S.A.WJ 2 rakats before and 2 rakats after the Zuhr prayer." before (BUKHARI R I MUSLIM)M ) (BUKHA & MUSLI is familiarpractice offer rakatssunnatbeforeZuhr It is a familiar practice to offer 4 rakats sunnat before Zuhr to prayer, this hadith proves prayer, but this hadith proves that 2 rakat sunnat before the but that rakat sunnatbeforethe Zuhrprayer also Zuhr prayer is also allowed. is allowed. (iiil Arr Prryrr. (iii) Asr Praver. 0r rakat sunnat$rair Mu'akkadah, rakatsFard. 2 or 4 rakats sunnat ghair Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats Fard. Ali (R.A.) said, "Allah's messenfr (S.A.W.} t0 pray 4 rakafu Ali (R.A,) said, "Allah's messenger,(S.A.W,) used to pray rakats used before r prayer Ae ssparatang witha salu them before Per prayer separating them with a salll tation........" tation........" (TlBftllZll (TfRMIZI) hadith narrated Ali (R.A.) by says, "Allah's Another hadith narrated by Ali (R.AJ says, "Allah's messenger Another mesenger (S.A.W.} to pray two rakas (S.A.WJ used to pray rakats before prayer." used tw'o Asr before Asr prayer." _ (ABU (ABU DAWUO} DAWUO) (ivl Mrghrib (iv) Meghrib Prryar. Preyer. rakats nafl, 3 rakanfard, 2 rakats 2 rakats nafl, rakats fard, rakats sunnat sunnat Mu'akkadah Mu'akkadah and and an unspacified an unspecified number nafl 6 time and capacity number of nafl as time and capacity allows. of' allows. Abdullah Mughaffal bin reported the Prophet (S.A.W.) saying, Abdullah bin Mughaffal reported Prophet the (S.A.W.) assaying, as 20 20
  • 21. "Pray beforethe Maghrib prayerj' "Pray before the Maghrib prayer;' adding when saying it the adding when saying the thirdtime,"Thisapplies those wish d0s0." third time, "This applies to those who wish to do so." to who to (BUKHARI R tMUSLIM)M I (EUKHA &MUSL| & That wasbecause did not wish people treat asa com- he That was because he did not wish people to treat it as a com- t0 pulsory pulsory sunnat. sunnat. rakats aftersunset before maghrib nafl 2 rakats nafl after sunset and before the maghrib prayer and the prayer areeallowede do r tliose e v h owish hto doo : 0 . For r this sthee abovev e a r a l l o w for t l i o s who w i s t o d ::0. F o t h i t h a b o f l hadithis a sureproof.However, somepeople hadith is a sure proof. However, some people forbid this and forbidthisand othersfind very srrange they seea person others find it very suange if they see a person offer 2 rakats offer rakats naflbefore natl before Maghrib. Maghrib. (v) lshaPmyer. (v) Isha Prayer. An unspecified number nafl rakats An unspecified number of nafl rakats according to the time 0f according the time to andcapacity, rakats and capacity 4 rakats fard, 2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, un- I fard, rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, un- specified number of nafl 'as time and capacity allows and 3 specified numberof nafl as time and capacity alloranand witr. witr. Somepeople insistvery emphatically Some people insist very emphatically upon the offering of 4 upon the offering of sunnatbeforethe ishaprayerbut duringour rakats optional sunnat before the isha prayer but during our rakatsoptional entireresearch could not find a single proof,any practice entire research we could not find a single proof, any practice we or orderfrom Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) his companions or order from Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ or his companions or to justifythis claim. Certainly it is allowed tQ pray nafl while to justify this claim.Certainly is allowed praynaflwhile it ta waiting for Jama'at. waiting Jamd'at. for Some people offer 2 rakats ~nafl after the witr prayer. How- Somepeopleoffer rakats .nafl after the witr prayer. How- evet,thereis an authentic hadithwhichstates ever, there is an authentic hadith which states that the witr that the witr prayer should offeredafterall the naflwhicha person be wishcs prayer should be offered after all the nafl which a person wishes to prayhave to pray have been offered. been offered. lbn Umar(H.A.)reported the Mesenger Allah(S.A.W) Ibn Umar (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) that of "Make witr asthelat prayer yournightprayerl' said, "Make witr as the last prayer of your night prayer:' said, of (MtsHKATI (MISHKAT) o o o o o 21 21
  • 22. Chspter t Chapter J AZAN AZAN ..... IQAMAT IQAMAT As you know, in alf MuslimcountriesAian is calledaloud As you know, in all Muslim countries Aian is called aloud fivetimesa day andyou musthave it. you wondered five times a day and you must have heard it. Have you ever wondered heard Have ever how it started? how stafted? sroRY n2nr*r 0F STORY OF AZAN whenthe Muslims migrated from Makkah Madinah A long time ago when the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madinah longtimeago to they usedto agree abouta fixedtime for the congregational prayer. they used to agree about a fixed time for the congregational prayer. They found difficultt0 remember time fixed for the prayer They found it difficult to remember the time fixed for the prayer the sometimes, especially when they were busy doing their work. One sometimesrespecially they were busy doingtheir work. One when (S.A.W.) and the Muslims day Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ and the Muslims discussed the day ProphetMuhammad discused the the people the congregational prayerat the matter of calling the people for the congregational prayer at the matter of calling for exacttime. Some the believers exact time. Some of the believers suggested the use of something like of suggested useof something the like the bell of the Christians, others suggested the use of a horn like that the bell the Christians, othes suggested uss a hornlike that the of the Jews, Umar but (R.A.) of the Jews, but Umar (R.A.) suggested sending someone to announce suggested sending somsone announce t0 prayer.Then Allah's Messenger (S.AW.)appointed the prayer. Then Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) appointfd Bital to the Bilal t0 call the people prayer. call the people to prayer. But it seems through the study of ahadith t0 But seems through study ahadith the that the methodwas not satisfactory. Then Prophet that the method was not satisfactory. Then Prophet Muhammad Muhammad (S.A.W.} agreed usea Naqoose eonch), to (a (S.A.WJ agreed to use a NaQoose (a oooch), something like the bell something the bell like of Christians but he was not happy to use it because of its similarity of Christians he wc not happyto use because itssimilarity but with the Christians. with the Christians. AfterProphet (S.A.W.) ordered bellto bemade had After Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ had ordered a bell to be made Muhammad a so that couldbe struckto gather people prayer; that so that it could be struck to gather the people to prayer; on that the to on bin Abdullah Zaidbin Abd Rabbihirsaid, same day a companion, Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rabbihi"said, "1 same day a companion, "l was sleeDing when I saw a man carrying a naqoose in his hands, and sleeping when a vrras 'Servant sawa mancarrying nagoose his hands, in and said, Allah,will you selfthis to me?'When cked I said, 'Servant of Allah, will you sell this to me?' When he asked he what woufddo with it?l replied,that would use to callthe what I would do with it?t replied, that we would use it to call the we peopfe prayer. said, Shalf not guide to somsthing t0 He you people to prayer. He said, 'Shall I not guide you to something better better than that?' repliedr'Certainly', tnld me t0 sav, so he than that?' I replied/Certainly', so he told me to sav. 'Allehu Akbar, AllEhu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Altdhu 'AI/ahu Akbar, A/llJhu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, AI/shu AkMr, ,Ash lE ildha illal lEh, xh hdu Akbar,. Ash hadu an Ii ilaha illal lah, ash hadu an la ilaha li il6ha illal lEh, Ash iI/allah, Ash hadu an-na Mul)ammadar resulu/·/iJh, Ash hadu an-ru, Mufiammadar resitut4en, Ash an-na MuQammadAr rafilullEh, 'al4 galEh, an-na Mul)ammadilr rasulul-llJh, I)ayya 'a/Sf $a/ah, payya 'alq galdh bayya 'alal-falEh bayya 'alal falal), Qayya 'alaI-fa Ilh Allahu 'alSf ~aISh, payya 'alaI fa6h, fuayya fuayya ' AllEhu Akbar, AI/ahu Akbar, La ilaha iI/allah. ' Aktur, AllEhu Aktur, G ilffia illal lilh.'l · 22 22
  • 23. After the Aian the stranger kept quietfor a while and then After the Aian the stranger kept quiet for a while and then said, {lhen thecongregationrea~y youshould said, When the congregation is readyyou should say:- Allihu Akbar, is say:- Allahu Akbar, Allfihu Akbar, Ash hadu an Iii lilaha illallah,fuh hadu an'naMuham- All6huAkbar.Ashhaduan li lilahaiIIallah, 'alalhaduan·na [luham- Ash 'alaqsalah, bayya madarrasOlul-lah, hayya 'ala, galih,bayya 'alai fal-ah, qEma madar ras0lul-lifr, ~ayya fala~, qad qama tis qad tis ~Iah, qad qama tis salah, AII3hu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, la ilatll illal satah,qad q6matii iaieh,A[l6huAkbar,All6huAkbar,li ilihillal lah. Hh. When II told Allah'sMessenger (S'A.W.) the morning When told Allah's Mesenger (S.A.W.) in the morning what what said, 'lt had seen1he said, is true vision, insha'Allah,getup along II hadseenrhe 'It isa truevision, insha·Allah, so get up along with so with Bilal,andwhenyou havetaught him whatyou have Bilal, and when you have taughthim what you have seen him use seen let him use let the prayer, for he has stronger voicethanyou it in making call to prayer, he hasstronger making the call for voice than you have'. have'. So I got up alongwith Bilaland begnn teachit to him, and So I got up along with Bilal and began to teach him, and heused in making callto grayer.. he used it making the call praver. the Umarbin al-Khattab heard this' when he was in his house, and Umar bin al-Khattab heardthis whenhe wu in hishouse, and he came out trailing his cloak andsaid, 'Mesenger Allah (S.A.W.), he came trailing cloak said,'Messenger of Allah(S.A.W.), out his and by Him who has sent you with the truth, I have seen same by Him who hassentyou with the truth, I have seen the same kind the kind oi thin~ as has been revealed", To this Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) of thing as hasbeenrevealed'' this Allah'sMesenger To (S.A,WJ replied, 'Praise to Allah!"' replied, ' 'Praise be Allah!'" be (Darmi, (Oarmi, Ntmad,Ibn Maiah, Khuzahah, Ahmad, lbn Majah, lbn, KhuzaicDah, Tirmizi) Ibn, Tirmizi) So from that day0n t0 the present Aian is saidto gather So from that day on to the present day Aian is said day gather people thecongregational prayer. people for the congregational for prayer. THE mun2iru THE MUAizlN A person who calls people for the congregational prayer is called person who callspeople the congregational for is Frayer called saying Aian he should facing a Muaziin Before saying the Aian he should stand facing Ka'bah a Mua2iin Before the stand Ka'bah in Makkah. shouldraisehis hands his ean puttingthe tips in Makkah. He should raise his hands to his ears putting the tips He to of forefingers his earsand call in a loud voice. Whenhe says of forefingers into his ears and call in a loud voice. When he says into Havva'alC Saldh should turn his faceto the rightandwhenhe ~ayya 'al~ ~alah he should turn his face to the right and when he he says ~ayya 'alai Fala~ he should turn his face to the left. $yi'flayya"aialFalElr should he turn hisfaceto the left. TEXT OF THE AlAN TEXT OFTHE A'NT.I f.-5{ Ji i -.;3 $et -";3 fti'i'*-::;l,'}A glfif {tfr::t ',ri,!r'^ll9e1;41 ,,"iif rt^t JFui'#&)'rjsAil, jr,IJ#fsJa, St"offi 'rF"i ';*V b;~~~ J"i~J::s..:r " rji*rt l -e9^1-rr ~-r~~::# lr ~~l~~ og{.dt&G va$5t'e% J~~T~; ,'i5fu"t ~ ,'r{Si,Aii (i, l7 j 'o'"i'r 9yUfX 23 23
  • 24. Allihu Akbar Allihu Akbar Allahis the greatest Allah is the greatest AllEhu Akbar AlliJhu Akbar Allahis the greatest Allah is the greatest Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Allahis the greatest Allah is the greatest Allihu Akbar AlliJhu Akbar Allahis the greatesr Allah is the greatest Ash hadu an lE il6ha illal l1h Ash hadu an la i!§ha iI/allah I bear I bear witness that thp.re is no deity but Allah. witnes thatthere no deitybut Allah. is Ash hadu an ld it1ha iilat LEh Ash hadu an la ilaha illal Lah II bear witness that there is no deity but Allah. bear witnes that there no deitybut Allah. is Ash hadu an~na Muhammadar rasululliJh Ash hadu an-na Muhammadar rasulul Eh bear witnes thatMuhammad (S.A.W.I the messengerAllah. I bear witness that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah. ls of Ash an-na Mul"tammadar rasulul lEh Ash hadu an-na Muhammadar rasululliJh II bear witness that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah. bear witness Muhammad that tS.A.tiJ.)the messengerAllah. is of Hayyalalag galah l;Iayya~/a~ ~alah tiometo prayer (;ome to prayer Hayya'alag sal1h 1;Iayya 'ala1 salah Come Prayer. Come to Prayer. to Hayya'alal falah /;/ayya 'alaI falal) Come yourGood Come to your Good to Hayya'alal falah I;!ayya 'alaI falalJ Come yourGodA. Come to your Good. to Alldhu Akbar Allihu Akbar Allah is the greatest Allah is the greatest Allahu Akbar Allihu Akbar Allahis the greatest Allah is the greatest LlI iliha illal lah LE ildha Lah There is no deity but Allah. There no deitybut Allah. is ainru FoR AZAN FOR FA"IB FAJR An additional phrase included the Aian for the Fajr prayer An additional phrase is included in the Aian for the Fajr prayer is in 'alal afterthe second ~ayya Fal~~ after the second thyya 'alai Fal6h !:'j,lrr'+:+'!it>iat e+Att;Hr)-iit ~hayrum minan nawm - A~ ~al5tu Kh-ayrumminan nawm . prayer better Prayer is better thansleep. is than sleep. 4tr+1lfl! As. prayer better sleep. ~ ~aliJtu Khayrumminannarvm- ralatu Khayrum minan nawm- Prayer is better thansleep. is than TISTEIIIilG THEA2Ail LISTENING TO THE A!AN TO ll whenthe beliaren 1) When the believers hearthe Aian theyshourd hear the Aian they should risten ir in listen to it in to 24 24
  • 25. and silence repeat each phrase the Aian in silence immedi' silence and repeat eachphrase of the Aian in silence immedi· ately afterthe Muaiiin has ately after the Muaiiin has finished saying the phrase. finished sayingthe phrase. 2l When the Muaziin says:- t:tayya 'al4 ~alah and I:tavya 'alat 2) When the Muaiiin says:-tlayya'al~ salEh Havya'alal- and fal'ah :. thQ.ljstener fal-ah should say in reply:-- Lahawla Walaquw' . the listener shouldsay in reply:--Lahawla Wala quw- wata Bil-hh. wata rllaBil-lah. Ina d+V,Ei-id;JF! 3) When Aian hasbeen 3) When the Aian has been completed, listener the the completed, the listener andthe the and Muaziin Muaiiin recite Dariid unto Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.} recite Oariid unto ProphetMuhammad (S.A.W.) followed by the Du'a. follomif by the Du f;. OARUO AFTER AZAN OARiiDAFTER THEAiAN THE J3 3t hi3 +fu,J I'gG,; ;f.e- ULJljfrti |*1ai,+G1 g.a't'*i fu:irb'++P?;i,"f 4r' th.l ''i+V,1,# -JI:$ W Jt F i $t!. JL1tV "*l dt *4'q# U'L-i;+tJ:. )t &i 'ald "Allah humma ¥l1·li 'ala Mul)ammadin wa 'ali ali Muf1am· "AlEh Eal-li hlE Mufiammadin wa 1li Muftam- 'ald ali Ibraheema madin kama ~/-Iayta 'ali Ibraheema wa 'ala ili lbrEhema kamE qal-layta'alE lbr1hffima wa innaka lJameedum majeed. " fiamedum maied." "0h Allah, let your peace comeupon Muhammad (S.A.W.) "Oh Allah, let your peace come upon Muhammad (S.A.W.) and and the family of Muhammad (S.A.W.} you havesent peace the family of Muhammad (S.A.W-l as you have sent peace upon as upon lbrahim tA.S.) and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy Ibrahim (A.S.) and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy and and gloriouJ~" glorioug:" 'alE 6li Multam- !!ilEh ~'Allah ffirik 'alE Mulammadin wa humma barik 'ala Mul}ammadin wa 'ala ali Mu/;Jam- 'alE Eli lbrEheema 'ali Ibraheema wa 'aliJ ali Ibraheema madin kama blJtakta 'alll lbrhheema wa kamd bitakta innaka I}ameedum majeed. " innaka hamedum maied." "0h, Alah,bles Muhammad (S.A.W.) the family Muhammad "Oh, Allah, bless Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the family of Mlihammad and of (S.A.W.) you hare blessed as lbrahim(A.S.)and his family.Truly (S.A.W.) as you have blessed Ibrahim (A.S.) and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy and glorious." you arepraiseworthy glorious." and OF DU'A A2AN OU'A OF AZAN H,':.L33),:il,i-*{6r-tff:tr{+L:7iur:t
  • 26. 't|*.-*3,tA'"r;3'2,i#;'rlJi?,'ttv'ei3iyi o'nJJUb$ty "AllEh "Allah humma rabbarabba Hazhi hid da~wa tit Hathi da'wa tit tdm was sald tam mati was sala til Qa imati iJii tit Oi imati hii Mufiammada ni I waseelata Muhammada nil waseelata 'ath-hu waf Far;Jeelata wab ~ath-hu wal Fa{eelata wab maqimam mahmhda maqamam mahmuda nil lazee wa ad tahfi." taiee wa ad tahu." "0h Allah! Lord of this complete prayer oun. By the blesing "Gh Allah! Lord of this complete prayer of ours. By the blessing of of it, give Muhammad (S.A.W.) eternal of it, give Muhammad (S.A.W.) his eternal rights of intercession, his rightsof intercesion, distinction and highest class(in paradise). raise distinction and highest class (in paradise). And raise him to the And him t0 the promised youhave rank promised promised rank you have promised him. him. Jabir(R.A.)reported Allah's Mesenger (S.A.W.) sayin$"lf Jabir (R.A.) reported Alla~'s Messenger (S.A.W.) as saying, "If as anyone says whenhe hears Aian '0 God,Lordof thisperfect anyone says when he hears the Aian ,. '0 God, Lord of this perfect the callandof the prayer whichis established time, forall grant call and of the prayer which is established for all time, grant Muham- Muham' rmad(S.A.W.) Wasila excellency, raise up in a praise- the Imad (S.A.W.) the Wasila and excellency, and raise him up in a praise- and and him worthy position which you havepromised', will h asuredof worthy position which you have promised', he will be assured of he my intercession." my intercession." (Bukhari) (Bukhari) IOAMAT IQAMAT lqamat the second to prayer is uttered is Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before call and immediately before the beginning the obligatory of prayeroffered the beginning of the obligatory prayer offered with congregation. with congregtion. TEXTTOF IOAMAT T T E X O FI O A M A o'@N 54';i i,ltl ly:,iYt'J'rIal c,,arr 'r;:Ltt Sag tCi: cAY.aSt r,;*:e,:t& e Jt,s 6'-qrt l*ii3 i'e!&tl5't3ii I.r i. :rlr* y:r{'1.,'i$fi;{'i3 %i Allahu Akbar Akbar Allahis thegreatest Allah is the greatest Allahu Akhar Akbar Allahis thegreate$t Allah is the greatest 26 26