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INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS
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1
UniversidadedeBrasília,FaculdadedeCiênciadaInformação,ProgramadePós-GraduaçãoemCiênciadaInformação.CampusUniversitárioDarcyRibeiro,
AsaNorte,70919-970,Brasília,DF,Brasil.E-mail:<kelleycristinegasque@hotmail.com>.
Received in 6/16/2014and approved in 1/5/2016.
Information literacy for inquiry-based
learning
Letramentoinformacional:em direção
aométododeprojetos
KelleyCristineGonçalvesDiasGASQUE1
Abstract
Given theimportanceof focuson globalized curriculum,thisstudypresentsareview of theliteratureon issuesrelated to the
natureoflearning contentsand curriculum,especiallythedevelopment ofcurriculum based ontheresearchprocess-inquiry-
based learning -in termsof information literacy.Somehypotheseswereformulated to explain thelackof studieson thistopic,
suchasthelevelofdevelopment ofinformationliteracyprograms,pedagogicaltrainingoflibrarians,andeducationalinstitutions’
perceptionsof theimportanceof information literacy.Recommendationsfor further research on thetopicweremade.It was
concluded that inquiry-based learning allow better integration of information literacy content providing more meaningful
learning byencouraging reflection,student protagonism,and learning how to learn among others.
Keywords:Curriculum.Information literacy.Learning contents.Projectsmethod.
Resumo
Aoconsiderar a importânciadosenfoquesglobalizadorescurricularesopresenteartigoapresentarevisãodeliteraturasobreques-
tõesrelacionadasà natureza dosconteúdosdeaprendizagem eao currículo, em especial, à elaboração curricular por meio do
processodepesquisa- métododeprojetosnocontextodoletramentoinformacional.Levantahipótesesparaexplicaraescassezde
artigossobreoassunto,quaissejam,grau dematuridadedosprogramasdeletramentoinformacional,formaçãopedagógica dos
bibliotecáriosea percepção dasinstituiçõeseducacionaissobrea importância do letramento informacional.Recomenda investir
em maispesquisassobreo assunto. Conclui queo método deprojetospermitemelhor inserção dosconteúdosdeletramento
informacional,propiciandoaprendizagem maissignificativaporfavorecerareflexão,oprotagonismo doestudanteeoaprendera
aprender.
Palavras-chave:Currículo.Letramentoinformacional.Conteúdosdeaprendizagem.Métododeprojetos.
Introduction
Informational Literacy (IL) can be understood as
the teaching-learning process needed to develop
competencesin order to seek for and use information
effectively and efficiently (Gasque, 2012). This requires
theintegrationandorganizationofILintotheeducational
curriculum,which can bestructured in different ways.
In the study “Curriculum and imagination”,
McKernan (2009) identified six models of curriculum
design:development ofdisciplinesandsubject-centered
K.C.G.D.GASQUE
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curriculum, development of interdisciplinary topics,
development ofastudent-orchild-centeredcurriculum,
development of acore curriculum,development of an
integrated curriculum, development of a process-
centered curriculum, development of a humanistic
curriculum.
Themost traditional curriculum development is
based on the concept that knowledge is divided into
fragmented subjects organized by disciplines, for
example, mathematics, science, and physics. The
approach to curriculum development based on
knowledge or fields of knowledge includes related
disciplines organized in the same field. For example,
social studies is a field of study that includes history,
geography,economics,andsociology.TheILcontent can
beorganized into two different waysin thesetwo types
of curriculum.Thefirst isbased on the thecreation of a
newdisciplinewithinthecurriculum.Thesecondisbased
on thedistribution of ILcontentsinto thedisciplinesor
subjects. In addition, IL contents can be taught in
extracurricular activitiesthat arecomplementaryto the
existing curriculum.Another curriculum structureisthe
learner-centered curriculum.Inthiscase,theILcontents
should beorganized according to thelearner’sinterests
and needs.Thecurriculum can haveacorestructure,in
which the core is the set of common knowledge and
courses that are considered essential for learning.This
type of curriculum is adopted in many countries and
includesthenationalknowledgecoreforbasiceducation,
which,in thiscase,should also includeILcontents.
Anothertypeincludestheintegrated curriculum
organized around a theme, which allow teachers of
different disciplinesto teach the same subject unifying
concepts,accordingtotheliteratureortextbooksofeach
branch of study. In this curriculum model, the themes
shouldbetaught combinedwithoneormoreILcontents,
forexample: “publichealthinformationsearchprocedures”.
On the other hand,the humanistic curriculum isbased
on values,customs,and theexistential question of how
toliveone’slife.Thistypeofcurriculumshouldemphasize
moreattitudinalaspectsofIL.Andfinally,thedevelopment
of process-centered curriculum is based on the
proceduresbywhichstudentscancarryout investigations
focusing more on learning how to learn than on the
discipline content.In addition to the modelsidentified
by McKernan (2009),acurriculum model can integrate
featuresof oneor moremodels.
Theinformationalliteracycontentsareorganized
according to the educational institution context,
teaching-learning concepts,and human,structural and
financial resourcesamong others.It isworthnotingthat,
in recent decades, in general, learning or curriculum
contents have been distributed primarily based on
disciplinary parameters. This fact, according to Zabala
(2002),isrelatedtothescientificcontext inwhichscience
development processes led to the fragmentation of
knowledge. However, the author points out that the
purpose of education is different from that of science,
and therefore it is important to consider globalized
approaches, such as project-based work. In addition,
according to McKernan (2009,p.100),“the literature on
curriculum hasestablished theobjectivesmodel asthe
paradigm for curriculum planning,which hasbeen the
most widely used model”. This fact is related to the
significancegiventotechnicalrationalityandeducation,
which have been considered as science since the first
decadesof thetwentieth century.
According to the Australian and New Zealand
InstituteforInformationLiteracy(ANZIIL)inapublication
released in2004,themost effectivewayoflearning isby
the transversal2
integration of the IL contents into the
curriculumallowingstudentstointeract withinformation
and reflect on the practice.Haradaand Yoshina(2004);
Hmelo-Silver et al. (2007); Chu et al. (2011); McKinney
(2013), among others, argue that there is evidence
pointingtotheeffectivenessofpedagogicalapproaches
based on projects for the improvement of learning
outcomes.
Based on the educational literature on the
importanceofglobalizedapproaches,specially,interms
of inquiry-based learning asacurriculum development
model (Hernandez & Montserrat, 1998; Zabala, 2002;
McKernan,2009),thepresent studypresentsareview of
theliteratureon topicsrelated to thenatureof learning
content and curriculum, particularly the development
2
AccordingtotheParâmetrosCurricularesNacionais(PCN,National Curriculum Parameters),transversalityentailstheintegrationofdifferent areas,allowing
arelationship between systematized knowledgeand real lifesituations(Brasil,1997).
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of curriculum based on researchprocess-inquirybased
learning-identifyingstudiesthat addresstherelationship
between research-based projects and IL. The main
objectives of this study are to stimulate discussion
regarding the possibilities of integrating IL into the
curricula of basic education and contribute to the
literature in the field since the international literature
available regarding this topic is scant and practically
nonexistent in Brazil.
Information LiteracyLearning
contentsand curriculum
Learning content can be understood roughly as
the subjects, themes, or topics to be taught in the
learningprocess.Therefore,learningcontentsaredirectly
related to educational objectives.
Zabala(1998)arguesthat thecontentsrepresent
theeducational intentions,i.e.,theyarerelated to“what
to teach” and “what to learn” to achieve certain goals.
Additionally,thelearningcontentsarealsorelatedtothe
question “why teaching”. Contents can be techniques,
skills,attitudes,concepts,etc.Coll (1986) proposed the
following content classification:
a) Conceptual content: encompass facts,
concepts,and principles(what oneshould know);
b) Procedural content:techniquesand methods
(what oneshould know how to do);
c) Attitudinal content:include values, attitudes,
rules(how oneshould be).
According to Gasque (2012),ILcontentsshould
encompasstheconcepts,procedures,andattitudesthat
allow seeking for and using information effectively and
efficiently. In general, the IL standards include skills in
dealingwithinformation,suchassearchingskills;proper
use of information; and familiarity with information
technology; generic skills, such as problem solving,
collaborationandteamwork,communication,andcritical
thinking. Lastly, they include values and beliefs, i.e.,
information should be used wisely and ethically,
promoting social responsibility and community
participation (Australian and New Zealand Institute for
Information Literacy,2004).
The selection of teaching-learning contents
indicatethepurposeandimportanceattachedbypeople
and different countriestoeducation;thusit isadynamic
and, at the same time, ideological activity.The reasons
are that it is impossible to teach everything and there
areconstantlynewcontentstobetaught.Inmanycases,
theinclusionofnew contentsmayreplaceolderonesor
result inasurplusofnew contentsandmaterials(Zabala,
2002).Furthermore,thesecontentsshouldbeconsidered
in termsof learnability,i.e.,according to theschool level
and thetimeavailablefor learning.
It takes a lot more time to learn difficult topics
andsubjects.It isestimatedthat thechessgrandmasters
need 50to 100thousand hoursof practiceto reach the
level ofcompetence.Attemptstocovertoomanytopics
quicklymayhinderlearningandcanresult in:(a)learning
of isolated setsof factsthat are not connected and (b)
lack knowledge of content organizing principles
(Bransford et al.,2007).
Asfor the ILlearning contents,it isimportant to
rememberthat although theterm“information literacy”
first appearedinprint ina1974report byPaulZurkowski,
therehad been publicationsproviding guidanceon the
useof school and public librariessincethe1920sin the
United States. However, in 1988, the American
Association of School Librariansand theAssociation for
EducationalCommunicationsandTechnologypublished
“Information Power:building partnershipsfor Learning”,
expandingthefocustoencompasslifelonglearningand
social responsibility.
Generally,the ILlearning contentsare based on
competency standards, which include three basic
components,access,evaluation,and useofinformation.
These core goals are found in most of the standards
created by library associationsand information centers,
such as the American Association of School Libraries
(AASL),AssociationofCollege&ResearchLibraries(ACRL),
TheSocietyof College,National and UniversityLibraries
(Sconul),and theANZIILin among others(Lau,2006).
Curriculum planning based on competency
standards results from current education reforms, in
particular, from the 1980s onwards, whose standards
establishbenchmarksforwhat anystudent shouldknow
and be able to do. Competency-based education
requires clear and measurable norms. Accordingly,
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curriculum,assessment,and professional development
must bealignedtothecompetencystandards(Hamilton
etal.,2008). Therefore,thestandardsmust present goals,
support qualitativeand quantitativecriteria,norms,and
includestatementsexpressed in relativeterms,relating
performance to norms derived from a reference
population (Association of College&Research Libraries,
2012).
Several studies have investigated problems in
structuringcontentsbasedoncompetency.Thefirst line
of research concerns quality standard, which has not
always been well-structured and clear. The second
investigates how this type of education affects the
educational practice. Another issue is how to prevent
excessive assessment. Finally, some studies have
investigated student learning progressions associated
withtheuseofthisapproach.Recent researchhasshown
that therehasbeen progressin learning,but forreasons
that arenot yet clear (Hamilton et al.,2008).
Many information literacy models undergo
revisions to incorporate new perspectives. The model
proposed by Sconul, for example, wasrevised in 2011.
There are presently seven pillars based on two
perspectives-theoreticalandpractical.That is,thelearner
must understand theissuesof each pillarand beableto
apply the knowledge. It isa three-dimensional circular
model which indicates that the person is developing
continually and holistically within the seven pillars.
Information literacy is an umbrella term that
encompassesconceptssuchasdigital,visual,andmedia
literacies, information handling, information skills, and
datamanagement.
The Association of College & Research Libraries
(2000) IL model for higher education includes five
competency standards: (1) determine the extent of
information needed;(2)accesstheneeded information
effectively and efficiently; (3) evaluate information and
itssourcescritically;(4)incorporateselectedinformation
into one’s knowledge base; and (5) use information
effectivelytoaccomplishaspecificpurposeconsidering
ethical, legal, and economic aspects. The framework
published in 2000 hasbeen recently revised.The ACRL
hasrecognizedthat theoriginalstandardsdonot provide
enough guidance on visual and digital literacies, often
considered subsets of information literacy itself.
Furthermore,withthereview ofILobjectivesforbasicor
primary education, the original ACRL IL model do not
provide a continuum of learning for students moving
from primaryeducation to highereducation.
Accordingly, the new IL standards should be
simplified, allow greater flexibility, eliminate library
jargons,includeattitudinallearningoutcomes,inaddition
totheexclusivelycognitivefocusofthecurrent standards.
It shouldalsoincludealsoothertypesofliteracy,address
the role of the student as content creator and curator,
and providecontinuitywith theproposed standardsfor
basic education (Association of College & Research
Libraries,2012).
AccordingtotherecommendationsofAustralian
andNewZealandInstituteforInformationLiteracy(2004)
and Lau (2006), aspreviously mentioned, there should
be transversal integration of the IL contents into the
curriculum.Therefore,it isnecessarytounderstand how
transversality occurs and how transversal topics are
addressed. In educational reforms in many countries,
there isa need to include the development of human
values, such ascitizenship, ethics, and ecology among
others.Thesetopicsshould not replacethosepreviously
included in the classical academic disciplines,and they
should not bean“addendum”to theofficial curriculum,
but rather“dimensions”,which should form thebasisfor
thedevelopment of thecurriculum (YusRamos,1998).
Yus Ramos (1998) highlights that although
transversality refers to curricular complexity and
globalization, this practice has been interpreted
differently by curriculum developers: as a set of moral
normscombined with specific disciplines,for example,
philosophy/ethics;asnewdisciplineslinkedtotheclassic
disciplines but are scheduled separately; as separate
didacticunitsincorporated to theacademiccontent;as
topicsorsubjectsassociatedwithspecialsupplementary
issues (environment day and non-violence day); as
optionalsubjectstobeincludedinthedisciplinesornot;
as topics to be equally distributed into the disciplines,
promoting the integration between subjects and
disciplines; as a topic diluted in the curriculum and
isolated topics that are not related to each other. The
author pointsout that these interpretationsare wrong
and often lead to the trivialization of transversal topics
or haveapurelyaestheticeffect.
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Sancho(1998)emphasizesthat theneedtoteach
using transversal topics, without questioning the basic
teachingorganizationand themethodsofteachingand
without making any changes in school management
including them into the regular schedule, has
undermined themeaning oftransversalityasthecentral
axisofpedagogical experience.Therefore,it isnecessary
to determine thebest way to integrateILcontentsinto
the curriculum in order to achieve effective and
meaningful learning.
The word curriculum derivesfrom Latin currere,
literallymeaning“torunthecourse”.Curriculumhasbeen
studied by variousauthors,such asDewey (1902;1910;
2010); Stenhouse (1975); Hernandez and Montserrat
(1998); Zabala, (2002) and McKernan (2009). With
referencetoSaviani(2003),it canbebroadlyunderstood
as the selection, sequence, and organization of the
contentstobedevelopedinteaching-learningsituations.
It includesknowledge,ideas,habits,values,techniques,
resources,devices,procedures,and symbolsdepicted in
schoolsubjects/disciplines,indicatingactivities/experiences
forlearning consolidation and evaluation.
There is need for intensified research on IL and
curricular issuesin the field of information science.The
reasonisthat graspingtheconcept ofcurriculum,aswell
as the selection and sequence of contents, the
distribution of contents by grade level or age, the
limitationsof traditional approaches,and the feasibility
of alternativeproposals,arecrucial issuesto integrateIL
contentsinto school and academiccontents.
In Brazil, there are few articles available on this
topic, and they address how library science courses
integrate IL into their curricula (Lins, 2007; Sousa &
Nascimento,2010).Thismayshowthelevelofapplication
of this process in the educational context and the
difficultiesfacedbyresearchersandlibrariansconcerning
psycho-pedagogical aspectsof teaching and learning.
According to the literature, even in countries
where there is more research on IL, there are many
programsin an experimental stage and few have been
integrated in across-curricularmanner.Harris(2013),for
example,investigated theintegrationofILcontentsinto
the curriculum of Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) of
TheSouthernAssociationofCollegesandSchools(SACS),
between 2004and 2011.Theauthororganized 106QEP
proposalsintothreecategoriesbasedonthefocusgiven
to IL goals, outcomes, and assessment: IL-Focused
Proposals;IL-IntegratedProposals;IL-Optional Proposals.
In the first case,ILdevelopment wasthe stated goal of
the proposal. In this category, 18 proposals were
identified.In thesecond case,including 58proposals,IL
wasoneoftheprimarygoalsand/oroutcomesidentified
in the proposal. Finally, in the last category, IL was not
listed asastated goal of theplan although outcomesor
IL instruction are included as optional or incidental
componentsoftheQEP;thirtyproposalswereidentified
in thiscategory.Based on theresultsof theILproposals,
it wasobserved that the majority (37) included one or
more learning outcomes related to the evaluation of
information sources. The author concluded that the
teachingplansfocusedoncritical thinking,ontheuseof
information to accomplish a goal, and on the location
and effectiveand efficient selection of sources.
Thelittleflexibilityoftraditionalmodelsisafactor
that hinders the integration of IL contents into the
curriculum. McKernan (2009) arguesthat the technical
and rational curriculum model, the dominant model
sincethetwentiethcentury,emphasizestheends-means
rational planningbyinstructional-behavioral objectives.
Accordingly,severalauthorshavequestionedthe
traditional models showing the need to organize the
curriculum based on alternative approaches. Some
studies show that traditional curricula does not help
students“learn their wayaround”adiscipline.Theyonly
provide routine training without teaching them to
understand the whole picture; which does not ensure
the development of integrated knowledge structures
and applicability conditions. In other words, the
traditional curricula specify objectives, which are not
alwaysconsidered part of alarger network;yet it isthe
network, connections among objectives, that is
important (Bransford et al.,2007).
Zabala (2002) is one of the authors that has
questioned the traditional curriculum, identifying the
needforaglobalizingapproach.Theauthor’sjustification
isbased on research on human perception,associating
knowledgewithunderstanding situationsfrom aglobal
point of view due to the need to respond to tackle
problemsoraparticularsituation.Furthermore,in order
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for learning to be meaningful for students, it must be
motivating,that isit shouldbebasedonlearners’interest.
The problem of curriculum design is to lead
studentstoexperienceand understand thingsthat truly
matters in life (McKernan, 2009). Such an approach,
proposed by Dewey (1902; 1910; 2010), sets out two
principlesof theprogressiveorganization of curriculum
materials.Thefirst principleisthat theteaching content
should be based on common experiences of life. The
second refersto the relationship between the progress
of the content taught and students’ maturity level.
Among various educational recommendations, the
author argues that “learning should be based on the
internal conditions of an experience that leads to an
active search for information and new ideas” (Dewey,
2010,p.82).
Zabala (2002) presents several globalized
curriculummethods;however,accordingtotheauthor’s
opinion,dueto their historical and present importance,
the most relevant are the Decroly’s centers of interest,
theKilpatrick’sinquiry-based learning theMovimentodi
CooperazioneEducativa (MCE), and globalized project-
based work.Thedifferencebetween thesemethodslies
in the emphasisof students’effortsand production, as
well asin didacticsequences.
Among the aforementioned methods, inquiry-
based learning and global project-based workmethods
standout sincetheyarethemost commonlyresearched
and used methods for curriculum organization and IL
processdevelopment.
Information literacy projects
According to Dewey (1910;2010) projectsare a
method todevelop reflectivethinking.Projectsmust be
related to students’experiences.Theauthorargued that
sound educational experience involvescontinuity and
interaction between the learner and what is learned.
Therefore,theauthorcriticizedthetraditionalcurriculum
for its rigid organization and because it disregards the
capacitiesand interestsof learners.
Dewey’ (2010) proposal focused on teaching
through real life activities because isolated teaching,
disconnected from students’ experience, does not
preparestudentsforthereal world.Accordingly,schools
should work as a small community, with students
involved in real life activities,creating opportunitiesfor
contribution and responsibility. Thus, learning would
occur through problem solving, which involves the
scientific method.The scientific method facilitates the
formulation of conceptsand explanatorytheoriessince
it includestheobservation and datacollection to select
accurate facts.The reason isbecause it relieson several
processesthat tend to avoid hasty conclusionsand are
based on aproper understanding of meaning of things
ortopics.
In the study“Experience and education”(2010),
Dewey usesthe term“purpose”with asimilar meaning
to projects.Purposeiswhat you intend to achieve;thus
it involves foreseeing the consequences of an action,
which isan intellectual operation.Such action involves
observation, understanding the significance of what is
observed,judgment,and planning.
Teaching based on the learner’s interests and
experienceswasthe core value of progressive schools.
However, Dewey (2010) stated that some of them
misunderstood the concept since “projects” were not
always educational projects. To be considered
educational,they must fulfill four conditions.The first is
based on the interest of students.The second refersto
theintrinsicvalueof theproject,that is,it should please
and at thesametime“represent somethingthat isworth
for itself in life”(Dewey,1910,p.217).Thethird condition
is to introduce problems which arouse curiosities and
requireinformationsearch.Lastly,theproject shouldlast
for a reasonable amount of time to allow proper
implementation. Moreover, the project should be an
ongoing processand not aseriesof disconnected facts.
Dewey’spedagogical beliefswerenot restricted
to the theoretical field. In 1896, Dewey opened the
UniversityofChicago’sLaboratorySchool,anexperimental
school, to put his pedagogical ideas into practice.
According to Westbrook (1993) at the center of the
curriculum of the School waswhat Dewey termed the
“occupation”,that is,amodeofactivityonthepart ofthe
child whichreproduces,orrunsparallel to,someofwork
carried on in social life. However, this school was not
designed for the social reproduction, but rather to
develop cooperative critical citizens for a democratic
society.Studentslearned to do:to cook,to sew,to work
withwoodandtools.Alongwiththeseactivities,writing,
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reading, geography and arithmetic contents, among
others, were developed, that is, when students
recognized their usefulness to solve problems that
confrontedthemintheiroccupationalactivities.Students
sharedintheplanningoftheirprojects,andtheexecution
of these projectswasmarked by acooperative division
oflabor,inwhichleadershiproleswerefrequentlyrotated.
Providing children with first-hand experience with
problematicsituationsisthekeyto Dewey’spedagogy.
Kilpatrick is recognized for structuring and
disseminatingtheinquiry-basedlearningmethod,but it
wasJohn Deweywho first applied it in an experimental
school of the University of Chicago.The projects were
characterized by functionality,influence of Stanley Hall
evolutionism, the theory of Thorndike’s constructivist
learning theory,and Dewey’ssocialist theories(Zabala,
2002).
Morerecently,theprojectshavetaken on anew
configuration and name: global project-based work.
SomeauthorsseethemasaprogressionofProjectWorks,
aiming at the globalization of school content (Zabala,
2002).Hernandezand Montserrat (1998)“rediscovered”
the projects and reported their experience with
curriculum development through projects at the
Universitat PompeuFabra,Barcelona,Spain.The authors
concluded that learning how to learn wasthe focusof
theexperience,but cultural,personal,and idiosyncratic
issuescannot behiddenundertheeyesof studentsand
teachers’ affection. They added that, despite the
insistenceonteaching-learning processes,thereshould
beconcern with theoutcomes,based on reflection and
not only in the measures.Their study hasbeen cited in
several articlesand research in Brazil,perhapsfor being
the first study to describe in detail the implementation
of projects in a basic education school. This can help
readers to envision a scenario with several important
elements: actors, didactic and pedagogical issues,
difficulties,and benefitsamong others.
In short,John Dewey’spedagogy requiresmore
committedteachers,whohavetheabilitytounderstand
how studentsthinkand what theyknow;thosethat can
plan their actionswith flexibilityand focus.Thisrequires
considerable changes,not only in the classroom but in
theentireschool,whichisnot alwayseasy.It alsorequires
a flexible curriculum design, focused on the student’s
everydayproblems.ThisexplainswhyDeweyemphasized
the fact that the path towards new education is more
resistant and difficult.
There are few studies on IL and inquiry-based
learning in the field of information science. Reed and
Straveva(2006)arguethat ILteachingwithout areflective
thinking approach makesit a mere set of abilities.This
statement was corroborated by Gasque (2006; 2008;
2012),whoshowedtheimportanceofreflectivethinking
in the ILteaching through the use of research projects.
Thisauthorseesprojectsasresearchprocessesaimed at
solving problems.Within this perspective, they can be
understood asateaching-learning proposal focused on
content globalization,i.e.,thecontentsareaddressed by
topicsandinvestigatedintheclassroom,wherestudents
areresponsiblefortheirown learning.
Theinquiry-based learningoriginated from John
Dewey studies, and more recently, the project-based
work, understood as a reinterpretation of Dewey’s
proposal,are equivalent to research projects,based on
the scientific method to solve problems. Both projects
include,ingeneral,identificationofproblems,hypothesis,
objectives,justifications,informationsearch,methodology,
datacollection,analysis,and conclusions.It isimportant
to understand that in a research/investigation, the
reflectionontheelementsandrelationshipsestablished
in the process should be emphasized so that they are
fullyunderstood.Moreover,theresearchtopicshouldnot
be the focus of the investigation, neglecting the
understanding of information useand search processes
(Gasque,2012).
Hepworth and Walton (2009) argue that the IL
contents should be integrated into the curriculum
through problem solving since it allows thorough
reflection, promoting a more meaningful learning and
didactictransposition to othercontexts.
Although there is evidence of learning
improvement throughinquiry-basedlearning, according
to Chu et al. (2011), there are very few studies on IL
investigating the use of these strategies. For example,
whensearchingontheCoordenaçãodeAperfeiçoamento
dePessoal deNível Superior (Capes,Coordination for the
Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) web
3
Availablefrom:<www.periodicos.capes.gov.br/>.Cited:Mar.17,2016.
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portal3
only few articles were found using the terms
“projectsandinformationliteracy”;“ILandDewey”;“ILand
Kilpatrick”;“IL and research-based learning”. One of the
few articlesidentifiedwaswrittenbyYuetal.(2011),who
recognizesthepotentialoftheuseofprojectstointegrate
IL. Their results show that teachers perceive IL as
competencies of Information and Communication
Technology(ICT)andthat theydonot teachthecontents
ofILduringproject supervisions.Moreover,onlythebasic
contentsof ILwereintegrated into theprojects.
Harada and Yoshina (2004) emphasize the
importance of inquiry-based learning. The authors
identifiedeight important aspectsofthistypeoflearning,
according to variousarticles: (1) learning experience is
based on inquiry; (2) students help to negotiate the
direction of what will belearned learning;(3)learning is
social andinteractive;(4)problemsolvingisintegral part
of the process; (5) students learn by doing; (6) results
show the use of transfer of learning; (7) assessment is
continuous,and (8)learning isauthentic.
Theyalsorecommendedthat librariescontribute
to the research processby: (1) helping studentswiden
the initial research sources; (2) helping students raise
more complex research questions using web search
techniques;(3)helpingstudentswithresearchstrategies
using keywords and discussing the different types of
resources used in research; (4) teaching effective
note-taking strategies; (5) helping students synthesize
contentsthroughconceptualmaps,flowcharts,etc.;and
(6) helping teacher and studentsdevelop indicatorsto
assess student performance throughout the research
processand evaluatetheprocessoutcomes.
Three articles addressing the assessment of IL
integrationthroughresearchprojectswereidentified.The
article by Gehring and Eastman (2008),carried out in a
biologycourseat theConnecticut College,evaluatedthe
resultsofimplementingILthroughprojects.Thestudents
were given an IL tutorial and carried out tasks using
primary literature analysis integrated with laboratory
research projects. The results show that the students
increased their ability to identify and use adequate
sources of information. In addition, standards used by
studentsto seek and use information wereidentified.
Self-assessment responses indicated that students
recognized the impact of IL on their information skills
and weremoreconfident for futurebiologycourses.
Another study, conducted by Chu et al. (2011),
investigated theeffect of thecombination between the
collaborativeteaching approachwiththeinquiry-based
learning forthedevelopment ofinformationliteracyand
information technology skills in primary school. The
resultsindicate that theprogram had apositive impact
on the development of different dimensions of IL and
information technologyskillsof theparticipants.
Finally,thestudybyMcKinney(2013)reportedthe
evaluation of development projects undertaken at a
United Kingdom university focusing on IL and on the
development of ILcapabilitiesto support learning.The
results showed that students developed individual IL
capabilities and learned how to effectively use library
resources.Thestudentsalsorecognized theimportance
of IL for their personal and professional life. Moreover,
the resultsalso showed the importance of considering
thedevelopment of ILin thecontext of projects.Within
thisperspective,librariansand ILexpertsshould actively
participateintheproject development.Theauthorpoints
out that the inquiry-based learning focused on the
development of IL need to contextualize subjectsthat
aremeaningful to students.Teachersneed to explain to
thestudentsthat ILdevelopment isthefocusof specific
activitiesand discusstheconcept of ILwith them.
Although there are many studies on the
importance of the project-based pedagogy in the area
of education,therearestill few initiativesthat relatethis
approachtothedevelopment ofILprocess.Additionally,
the(few)studiesidentifiedintheliteraturereviewaddress
projectscarried out in adiscipline;theydo not focuson
acurriculum changein order to globalizethecontents.
Furthermore, the three articles that assessed the
implementation of projectsintegrated with ILcontent,
did not evaluated the learning content.Ideally, project
resultsshould show improvement in the performance
of search activitiesand useof information,aswell asthe
disciplinecontentsortopicscovered.
As previously explained, some hypotheses to
explain thelackof research in thisareaarerelated to the
fact that only recently hasthistopic been investigated
and to the often inadequate pedagogical training of
librarians. Another hypothesisconcernsthe discussion
ofhowtheeducationalinstitutionsandteachersperceive
the importance of the IL process and how much they
INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS
261
TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001
arewillingtoinvest init.Thisisreflected inthesequence
andorganizationofILcontentsintothecurriculum,which
arerelatedtotheteaching-learningconcepts.Therefore,
investing in research on this topic is of extreme
importance.
Conclusion
The implementation of IL programsislinked to
the sequencing and organization of content into the
curriculum, which are related to the pedagogical
concept. Although there are recommendations in the
literatureaddressing theimportanceof integration of IL
contents in a cross-curricular manner, it was observed
that therethisconcept hasbeenmisunderstood.Dueto
their potential, the research/project methods enable
better integration of IL contents into the curriculum,
providing students with more meaningful learning by
encouraging reflection, student protagonism, and
learning how to learn among others.Yet, there is little
research on Information Science and Education. Some
hypotheses formulated to explain such situation are
related to the level of development of ILprograms,the
pedagogical training of librarians, and to educational
institutions’perceptionsof the importanceof IL.Finally,
based on the aforementioned discussions, it is
recommended to stimulate and support research on
curriculum and IL,in particular,inquiry-based learning.
Aknowledgements
Theauthorsaregrateful to Dr.Isabel CristinaMichelan
deAzevedoforhercarefulreadingandsuggestionsthat greatly
improved thismanuscript.
References
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Em direção aos projetos

  • 1. INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS 253 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 1 UniversidadedeBrasília,FaculdadedeCiênciadaInformação,ProgramadePós-GraduaçãoemCiênciadaInformação.CampusUniversitárioDarcyRibeiro, AsaNorte,70919-970,Brasília,DF,Brasil.E-mail:<kelleycristinegasque@hotmail.com>. Received in 6/16/2014and approved in 1/5/2016. Information literacy for inquiry-based learning Letramentoinformacional:em direção aométododeprojetos KelleyCristineGonçalvesDiasGASQUE1 Abstract Given theimportanceof focuson globalized curriculum,thisstudypresentsareview of theliteratureon issuesrelated to the natureoflearning contentsand curriculum,especiallythedevelopment ofcurriculum based ontheresearchprocess-inquiry- based learning -in termsof information literacy.Somehypotheseswereformulated to explain thelackof studieson thistopic, suchasthelevelofdevelopment ofinformationliteracyprograms,pedagogicaltrainingoflibrarians,andeducationalinstitutions’ perceptionsof theimportanceof information literacy.Recommendationsfor further research on thetopicweremade.It was concluded that inquiry-based learning allow better integration of information literacy content providing more meaningful learning byencouraging reflection,student protagonism,and learning how to learn among others. Keywords:Curriculum.Information literacy.Learning contents.Projectsmethod. Resumo Aoconsiderar a importânciadosenfoquesglobalizadorescurricularesopresenteartigoapresentarevisãodeliteraturasobreques- tõesrelacionadasà natureza dosconteúdosdeaprendizagem eao currículo, em especial, à elaboração curricular por meio do processodepesquisa- métododeprojetosnocontextodoletramentoinformacional.Levantahipótesesparaexplicaraescassezde artigossobreoassunto,quaissejam,grau dematuridadedosprogramasdeletramentoinformacional,formaçãopedagógica dos bibliotecáriosea percepção dasinstituiçõeseducacionaissobrea importância do letramento informacional.Recomenda investir em maispesquisassobreo assunto. Conclui queo método deprojetospermitemelhor inserção dosconteúdosdeletramento informacional,propiciandoaprendizagem maissignificativaporfavorecerareflexão,oprotagonismo doestudanteeoaprendera aprender. Palavras-chave:Currículo.Letramentoinformacional.Conteúdosdeaprendizagem.Métododeprojetos. Introduction Informational Literacy (IL) can be understood as the teaching-learning process needed to develop competencesin order to seek for and use information effectively and efficiently (Gasque, 2012). This requires theintegrationandorganizationofILintotheeducational curriculum,which can bestructured in different ways. In the study “Curriculum and imagination”, McKernan (2009) identified six models of curriculum design:development ofdisciplinesandsubject-centered
  • 2. K.C.G.D.GASQUE 254 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 curriculum, development of interdisciplinary topics, development ofastudent-orchild-centeredcurriculum, development of acore curriculum,development of an integrated curriculum, development of a process- centered curriculum, development of a humanistic curriculum. Themost traditional curriculum development is based on the concept that knowledge is divided into fragmented subjects organized by disciplines, for example, mathematics, science, and physics. The approach to curriculum development based on knowledge or fields of knowledge includes related disciplines organized in the same field. For example, social studies is a field of study that includes history, geography,economics,andsociology.TheILcontent can beorganized into two different waysin thesetwo types of curriculum.Thefirst isbased on the thecreation of a newdisciplinewithinthecurriculum.Thesecondisbased on thedistribution of ILcontentsinto thedisciplinesor subjects. In addition, IL contents can be taught in extracurricular activitiesthat arecomplementaryto the existing curriculum.Another curriculum structureisthe learner-centered curriculum.Inthiscase,theILcontents should beorganized according to thelearner’sinterests and needs.Thecurriculum can haveacorestructure,in which the core is the set of common knowledge and courses that are considered essential for learning.This type of curriculum is adopted in many countries and includesthenationalknowledgecoreforbasiceducation, which,in thiscase,should also includeILcontents. Anothertypeincludestheintegrated curriculum organized around a theme, which allow teachers of different disciplinesto teach the same subject unifying concepts,accordingtotheliteratureortextbooksofeach branch of study. In this curriculum model, the themes shouldbetaught combinedwithoneormoreILcontents, forexample: “publichealthinformationsearchprocedures”. On the other hand,the humanistic curriculum isbased on values,customs,and theexistential question of how toliveone’slife.Thistypeofcurriculumshouldemphasize moreattitudinalaspectsofIL.Andfinally,thedevelopment of process-centered curriculum is based on the proceduresbywhichstudentscancarryout investigations focusing more on learning how to learn than on the discipline content.In addition to the modelsidentified by McKernan (2009),acurriculum model can integrate featuresof oneor moremodels. Theinformationalliteracycontentsareorganized according to the educational institution context, teaching-learning concepts,and human,structural and financial resourcesamong others.It isworthnotingthat, in recent decades, in general, learning or curriculum contents have been distributed primarily based on disciplinary parameters. This fact, according to Zabala (2002),isrelatedtothescientificcontext inwhichscience development processes led to the fragmentation of knowledge. However, the author points out that the purpose of education is different from that of science, and therefore it is important to consider globalized approaches, such as project-based work. In addition, according to McKernan (2009,p.100),“the literature on curriculum hasestablished theobjectivesmodel asthe paradigm for curriculum planning,which hasbeen the most widely used model”. This fact is related to the significancegiventotechnicalrationalityandeducation, which have been considered as science since the first decadesof thetwentieth century. According to the Australian and New Zealand InstituteforInformationLiteracy(ANZIIL)inapublication released in2004,themost effectivewayoflearning isby the transversal2 integration of the IL contents into the curriculumallowingstudentstointeract withinformation and reflect on the practice.Haradaand Yoshina(2004); Hmelo-Silver et al. (2007); Chu et al. (2011); McKinney (2013), among others, argue that there is evidence pointingtotheeffectivenessofpedagogicalapproaches based on projects for the improvement of learning outcomes. Based on the educational literature on the importanceofglobalizedapproaches,specially,interms of inquiry-based learning asacurriculum development model (Hernandez & Montserrat, 1998; Zabala, 2002; McKernan,2009),thepresent studypresentsareview of theliteratureon topicsrelated to thenatureof learning content and curriculum, particularly the development 2 AccordingtotheParâmetrosCurricularesNacionais(PCN,National Curriculum Parameters),transversalityentailstheintegrationofdifferent areas,allowing arelationship between systematized knowledgeand real lifesituations(Brasil,1997).
  • 3. INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS 255 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 of curriculum based on researchprocess-inquirybased learning-identifyingstudiesthat addresstherelationship between research-based projects and IL. The main objectives of this study are to stimulate discussion regarding the possibilities of integrating IL into the curricula of basic education and contribute to the literature in the field since the international literature available regarding this topic is scant and practically nonexistent in Brazil. Information LiteracyLearning contentsand curriculum Learning content can be understood roughly as the subjects, themes, or topics to be taught in the learningprocess.Therefore,learningcontentsaredirectly related to educational objectives. Zabala(1998)arguesthat thecontentsrepresent theeducational intentions,i.e.,theyarerelated to“what to teach” and “what to learn” to achieve certain goals. Additionally,thelearningcontentsarealsorelatedtothe question “why teaching”. Contents can be techniques, skills,attitudes,concepts,etc.Coll (1986) proposed the following content classification: a) Conceptual content: encompass facts, concepts,and principles(what oneshould know); b) Procedural content:techniquesand methods (what oneshould know how to do); c) Attitudinal content:include values, attitudes, rules(how oneshould be). According to Gasque (2012),ILcontentsshould encompasstheconcepts,procedures,andattitudesthat allow seeking for and using information effectively and efficiently. In general, the IL standards include skills in dealingwithinformation,suchassearchingskills;proper use of information; and familiarity with information technology; generic skills, such as problem solving, collaborationandteamwork,communication,andcritical thinking. Lastly, they include values and beliefs, i.e., information should be used wisely and ethically, promoting social responsibility and community participation (Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy,2004). The selection of teaching-learning contents indicatethepurposeandimportanceattachedbypeople and different countriestoeducation;thusit isadynamic and, at the same time, ideological activity.The reasons are that it is impossible to teach everything and there areconstantlynewcontentstobetaught.Inmanycases, theinclusionofnew contentsmayreplaceolderonesor result inasurplusofnew contentsandmaterials(Zabala, 2002).Furthermore,thesecontentsshouldbeconsidered in termsof learnability,i.e.,according to theschool level and thetimeavailablefor learning. It takes a lot more time to learn difficult topics andsubjects.It isestimatedthat thechessgrandmasters need 50to 100thousand hoursof practiceto reach the level ofcompetence.Attemptstocovertoomanytopics quicklymayhinderlearningandcanresult in:(a)learning of isolated setsof factsthat are not connected and (b) lack knowledge of content organizing principles (Bransford et al.,2007). Asfor the ILlearning contents,it isimportant to rememberthat although theterm“information literacy” first appearedinprint ina1974report byPaulZurkowski, therehad been publicationsproviding guidanceon the useof school and public librariessincethe1920sin the United States. However, in 1988, the American Association of School Librariansand theAssociation for EducationalCommunicationsandTechnologypublished “Information Power:building partnershipsfor Learning”, expandingthefocustoencompasslifelonglearningand social responsibility. Generally,the ILlearning contentsare based on competency standards, which include three basic components,access,evaluation,and useofinformation. These core goals are found in most of the standards created by library associationsand information centers, such as the American Association of School Libraries (AASL),AssociationofCollege&ResearchLibraries(ACRL), TheSocietyof College,National and UniversityLibraries (Sconul),and theANZIILin among others(Lau,2006). Curriculum planning based on competency standards results from current education reforms, in particular, from the 1980s onwards, whose standards establishbenchmarksforwhat anystudent shouldknow and be able to do. Competency-based education requires clear and measurable norms. Accordingly,
  • 4. K.C.G.D.GASQUE 256 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 curriculum,assessment,and professional development must bealignedtothecompetencystandards(Hamilton etal.,2008). Therefore,thestandardsmust present goals, support qualitativeand quantitativecriteria,norms,and includestatementsexpressed in relativeterms,relating performance to norms derived from a reference population (Association of College&Research Libraries, 2012). Several studies have investigated problems in structuringcontentsbasedoncompetency.Thefirst line of research concerns quality standard, which has not always been well-structured and clear. The second investigates how this type of education affects the educational practice. Another issue is how to prevent excessive assessment. Finally, some studies have investigated student learning progressions associated withtheuseofthisapproach.Recent researchhasshown that therehasbeen progressin learning,but forreasons that arenot yet clear (Hamilton et al.,2008). Many information literacy models undergo revisions to incorporate new perspectives. The model proposed by Sconul, for example, wasrevised in 2011. There are presently seven pillars based on two perspectives-theoreticalandpractical.That is,thelearner must understand theissuesof each pillarand beableto apply the knowledge. It isa three-dimensional circular model which indicates that the person is developing continually and holistically within the seven pillars. Information literacy is an umbrella term that encompassesconceptssuchasdigital,visual,andmedia literacies, information handling, information skills, and datamanagement. The Association of College & Research Libraries (2000) IL model for higher education includes five competency standards: (1) determine the extent of information needed;(2)accesstheneeded information effectively and efficiently; (3) evaluate information and itssourcescritically;(4)incorporateselectedinformation into one’s knowledge base; and (5) use information effectivelytoaccomplishaspecificpurposeconsidering ethical, legal, and economic aspects. The framework published in 2000 hasbeen recently revised.The ACRL hasrecognizedthat theoriginalstandardsdonot provide enough guidance on visual and digital literacies, often considered subsets of information literacy itself. Furthermore,withthereview ofILobjectivesforbasicor primary education, the original ACRL IL model do not provide a continuum of learning for students moving from primaryeducation to highereducation. Accordingly, the new IL standards should be simplified, allow greater flexibility, eliminate library jargons,includeattitudinallearningoutcomes,inaddition totheexclusivelycognitivefocusofthecurrent standards. It shouldalsoincludealsoothertypesofliteracy,address the role of the student as content creator and curator, and providecontinuitywith theproposed standardsfor basic education (Association of College & Research Libraries,2012). AccordingtotherecommendationsofAustralian andNewZealandInstituteforInformationLiteracy(2004) and Lau (2006), aspreviously mentioned, there should be transversal integration of the IL contents into the curriculum.Therefore,it isnecessarytounderstand how transversality occurs and how transversal topics are addressed. In educational reforms in many countries, there isa need to include the development of human values, such ascitizenship, ethics, and ecology among others.Thesetopicsshould not replacethosepreviously included in the classical academic disciplines,and they should not bean“addendum”to theofficial curriculum, but rather“dimensions”,which should form thebasisfor thedevelopment of thecurriculum (YusRamos,1998). Yus Ramos (1998) highlights that although transversality refers to curricular complexity and globalization, this practice has been interpreted differently by curriculum developers: as a set of moral normscombined with specific disciplines,for example, philosophy/ethics;asnewdisciplineslinkedtotheclassic disciplines but are scheduled separately; as separate didacticunitsincorporated to theacademiccontent;as topicsorsubjectsassociatedwithspecialsupplementary issues (environment day and non-violence day); as optionalsubjectstobeincludedinthedisciplinesornot; as topics to be equally distributed into the disciplines, promoting the integration between subjects and disciplines; as a topic diluted in the curriculum and isolated topics that are not related to each other. The author pointsout that these interpretationsare wrong and often lead to the trivialization of transversal topics or haveapurelyaestheticeffect.
  • 5. INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS 257 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 Sancho(1998)emphasizesthat theneedtoteach using transversal topics, without questioning the basic teachingorganizationand themethodsofteachingand without making any changes in school management including them into the regular schedule, has undermined themeaning oftransversalityasthecentral axisofpedagogical experience.Therefore,it isnecessary to determine thebest way to integrateILcontentsinto the curriculum in order to achieve effective and meaningful learning. The word curriculum derivesfrom Latin currere, literallymeaning“torunthecourse”.Curriculumhasbeen studied by variousauthors,such asDewey (1902;1910; 2010); Stenhouse (1975); Hernandez and Montserrat (1998); Zabala, (2002) and McKernan (2009). With referencetoSaviani(2003),it canbebroadlyunderstood as the selection, sequence, and organization of the contentstobedevelopedinteaching-learningsituations. It includesknowledge,ideas,habits,values,techniques, resources,devices,procedures,and symbolsdepicted in schoolsubjects/disciplines,indicatingactivities/experiences forlearning consolidation and evaluation. There is need for intensified research on IL and curricular issuesin the field of information science.The reasonisthat graspingtheconcept ofcurriculum,aswell as the selection and sequence of contents, the distribution of contents by grade level or age, the limitationsof traditional approaches,and the feasibility of alternativeproposals,arecrucial issuesto integrateIL contentsinto school and academiccontents. In Brazil, there are few articles available on this topic, and they address how library science courses integrate IL into their curricula (Lins, 2007; Sousa & Nascimento,2010).Thismayshowthelevelofapplication of this process in the educational context and the difficultiesfacedbyresearchersandlibrariansconcerning psycho-pedagogical aspectsof teaching and learning. According to the literature, even in countries where there is more research on IL, there are many programsin an experimental stage and few have been integrated in across-curricularmanner.Harris(2013),for example,investigated theintegrationofILcontentsinto the curriculum of Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) of TheSouthernAssociationofCollegesandSchools(SACS), between 2004and 2011.Theauthororganized 106QEP proposalsintothreecategoriesbasedonthefocusgiven to IL goals, outcomes, and assessment: IL-Focused Proposals;IL-IntegratedProposals;IL-Optional Proposals. In the first case,ILdevelopment wasthe stated goal of the proposal. In this category, 18 proposals were identified.In thesecond case,including 58proposals,IL wasoneoftheprimarygoalsand/oroutcomesidentified in the proposal. Finally, in the last category, IL was not listed asastated goal of theplan although outcomesor IL instruction are included as optional or incidental componentsoftheQEP;thirtyproposalswereidentified in thiscategory.Based on theresultsof theILproposals, it wasobserved that the majority (37) included one or more learning outcomes related to the evaluation of information sources. The author concluded that the teachingplansfocusedoncritical thinking,ontheuseof information to accomplish a goal, and on the location and effectiveand efficient selection of sources. Thelittleflexibilityoftraditionalmodelsisafactor that hinders the integration of IL contents into the curriculum. McKernan (2009) arguesthat the technical and rational curriculum model, the dominant model sincethetwentiethcentury,emphasizestheends-means rational planningbyinstructional-behavioral objectives. Accordingly,severalauthorshavequestionedthe traditional models showing the need to organize the curriculum based on alternative approaches. Some studies show that traditional curricula does not help students“learn their wayaround”adiscipline.Theyonly provide routine training without teaching them to understand the whole picture; which does not ensure the development of integrated knowledge structures and applicability conditions. In other words, the traditional curricula specify objectives, which are not alwaysconsidered part of alarger network;yet it isthe network, connections among objectives, that is important (Bransford et al.,2007). Zabala (2002) is one of the authors that has questioned the traditional curriculum, identifying the needforaglobalizingapproach.Theauthor’sjustification isbased on research on human perception,associating knowledgewithunderstanding situationsfrom aglobal point of view due to the need to respond to tackle problemsoraparticularsituation.Furthermore,in order
  • 6. K.C.G.D.GASQUE 258 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 for learning to be meaningful for students, it must be motivating,that isit shouldbebasedonlearners’interest. The problem of curriculum design is to lead studentstoexperienceand understand thingsthat truly matters in life (McKernan, 2009). Such an approach, proposed by Dewey (1902; 1910; 2010), sets out two principlesof theprogressiveorganization of curriculum materials.Thefirst principleisthat theteaching content should be based on common experiences of life. The second refersto the relationship between the progress of the content taught and students’ maturity level. Among various educational recommendations, the author argues that “learning should be based on the internal conditions of an experience that leads to an active search for information and new ideas” (Dewey, 2010,p.82). Zabala (2002) presents several globalized curriculummethods;however,accordingtotheauthor’s opinion,dueto their historical and present importance, the most relevant are the Decroly’s centers of interest, theKilpatrick’sinquiry-based learning theMovimentodi CooperazioneEducativa (MCE), and globalized project- based work.Thedifferencebetween thesemethodslies in the emphasisof students’effortsand production, as well asin didacticsequences. Among the aforementioned methods, inquiry- based learning and global project-based workmethods standout sincetheyarethemost commonlyresearched and used methods for curriculum organization and IL processdevelopment. Information literacy projects According to Dewey (1910;2010) projectsare a method todevelop reflectivethinking.Projectsmust be related to students’experiences.Theauthorargued that sound educational experience involvescontinuity and interaction between the learner and what is learned. Therefore,theauthorcriticizedthetraditionalcurriculum for its rigid organization and because it disregards the capacitiesand interestsof learners. Dewey’ (2010) proposal focused on teaching through real life activities because isolated teaching, disconnected from students’ experience, does not preparestudentsforthereal world.Accordingly,schools should work as a small community, with students involved in real life activities,creating opportunitiesfor contribution and responsibility. Thus, learning would occur through problem solving, which involves the scientific method.The scientific method facilitates the formulation of conceptsand explanatorytheoriessince it includestheobservation and datacollection to select accurate facts.The reason isbecause it relieson several processesthat tend to avoid hasty conclusionsand are based on aproper understanding of meaning of things ortopics. In the study“Experience and education”(2010), Dewey usesthe term“purpose”with asimilar meaning to projects.Purposeiswhat you intend to achieve;thus it involves foreseeing the consequences of an action, which isan intellectual operation.Such action involves observation, understanding the significance of what is observed,judgment,and planning. Teaching based on the learner’s interests and experienceswasthe core value of progressive schools. However, Dewey (2010) stated that some of them misunderstood the concept since “projects” were not always educational projects. To be considered educational,they must fulfill four conditions.The first is based on the interest of students.The second refersto theintrinsicvalueof theproject,that is,it should please and at thesametime“represent somethingthat isworth for itself in life”(Dewey,1910,p.217).Thethird condition is to introduce problems which arouse curiosities and requireinformationsearch.Lastly,theproject shouldlast for a reasonable amount of time to allow proper implementation. Moreover, the project should be an ongoing processand not aseriesof disconnected facts. Dewey’spedagogical beliefswerenot restricted to the theoretical field. In 1896, Dewey opened the UniversityofChicago’sLaboratorySchool,anexperimental school, to put his pedagogical ideas into practice. According to Westbrook (1993) at the center of the curriculum of the School waswhat Dewey termed the “occupation”,that is,amodeofactivityonthepart ofthe child whichreproduces,orrunsparallel to,someofwork carried on in social life. However, this school was not designed for the social reproduction, but rather to develop cooperative critical citizens for a democratic society.Studentslearned to do:to cook,to sew,to work withwoodandtools.Alongwiththeseactivities,writing,
  • 7. INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS 259 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 reading, geography and arithmetic contents, among others, were developed, that is, when students recognized their usefulness to solve problems that confrontedthemintheiroccupationalactivities.Students sharedintheplanningoftheirprojects,andtheexecution of these projectswasmarked by acooperative division oflabor,inwhichleadershiproleswerefrequentlyrotated. Providing children with first-hand experience with problematicsituationsisthekeyto Dewey’spedagogy. Kilpatrick is recognized for structuring and disseminatingtheinquiry-basedlearningmethod,but it wasJohn Deweywho first applied it in an experimental school of the University of Chicago.The projects were characterized by functionality,influence of Stanley Hall evolutionism, the theory of Thorndike’s constructivist learning theory,and Dewey’ssocialist theories(Zabala, 2002). Morerecently,theprojectshavetaken on anew configuration and name: global project-based work. SomeauthorsseethemasaprogressionofProjectWorks, aiming at the globalization of school content (Zabala, 2002).Hernandezand Montserrat (1998)“rediscovered” the projects and reported their experience with curriculum development through projects at the Universitat PompeuFabra,Barcelona,Spain.The authors concluded that learning how to learn wasthe focusof theexperience,but cultural,personal,and idiosyncratic issuescannot behiddenundertheeyesof studentsand teachers’ affection. They added that, despite the insistenceonteaching-learning processes,thereshould beconcern with theoutcomes,based on reflection and not only in the measures.Their study hasbeen cited in several articlesand research in Brazil,perhapsfor being the first study to describe in detail the implementation of projects in a basic education school. This can help readers to envision a scenario with several important elements: actors, didactic and pedagogical issues, difficulties,and benefitsamong others. In short,John Dewey’spedagogy requiresmore committedteachers,whohavetheabilitytounderstand how studentsthinkand what theyknow;thosethat can plan their actionswith flexibilityand focus.Thisrequires considerable changes,not only in the classroom but in theentireschool,whichisnot alwayseasy.It alsorequires a flexible curriculum design, focused on the student’s everydayproblems.ThisexplainswhyDeweyemphasized the fact that the path towards new education is more resistant and difficult. There are few studies on IL and inquiry-based learning in the field of information science. Reed and Straveva(2006)arguethat ILteachingwithout areflective thinking approach makesit a mere set of abilities.This statement was corroborated by Gasque (2006; 2008; 2012),whoshowedtheimportanceofreflectivethinking in the ILteaching through the use of research projects. Thisauthorseesprojectsasresearchprocessesaimed at solving problems.Within this perspective, they can be understood asateaching-learning proposal focused on content globalization,i.e.,thecontentsareaddressed by topicsandinvestigatedintheclassroom,wherestudents areresponsiblefortheirown learning. Theinquiry-based learningoriginated from John Dewey studies, and more recently, the project-based work, understood as a reinterpretation of Dewey’s proposal,are equivalent to research projects,based on the scientific method to solve problems. Both projects include,ingeneral,identificationofproblems,hypothesis, objectives,justifications,informationsearch,methodology, datacollection,analysis,and conclusions.It isimportant to understand that in a research/investigation, the reflectionontheelementsandrelationshipsestablished in the process should be emphasized so that they are fullyunderstood.Moreover,theresearchtopicshouldnot be the focus of the investigation, neglecting the understanding of information useand search processes (Gasque,2012). Hepworth and Walton (2009) argue that the IL contents should be integrated into the curriculum through problem solving since it allows thorough reflection, promoting a more meaningful learning and didactictransposition to othercontexts. Although there is evidence of learning improvement throughinquiry-basedlearning, according to Chu et al. (2011), there are very few studies on IL investigating the use of these strategies. For example, whensearchingontheCoordenaçãodeAperfeiçoamento dePessoal deNível Superior (Capes,Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) web 3 Availablefrom:<www.periodicos.capes.gov.br/>.Cited:Mar.17,2016.
  • 8. K.C.G.D.GASQUE 260 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 portal3 only few articles were found using the terms “projectsandinformationliteracy”;“ILandDewey”;“ILand Kilpatrick”;“IL and research-based learning”. One of the few articlesidentifiedwaswrittenbyYuetal.(2011),who recognizesthepotentialoftheuseofprojectstointegrate IL. Their results show that teachers perceive IL as competencies of Information and Communication Technology(ICT)andthat theydonot teachthecontents ofILduringproject supervisions.Moreover,onlythebasic contentsof ILwereintegrated into theprojects. Harada and Yoshina (2004) emphasize the importance of inquiry-based learning. The authors identifiedeight important aspectsofthistypeoflearning, according to variousarticles: (1) learning experience is based on inquiry; (2) students help to negotiate the direction of what will belearned learning;(3)learning is social andinteractive;(4)problemsolvingisintegral part of the process; (5) students learn by doing; (6) results show the use of transfer of learning; (7) assessment is continuous,and (8)learning isauthentic. Theyalsorecommendedthat librariescontribute to the research processby: (1) helping studentswiden the initial research sources; (2) helping students raise more complex research questions using web search techniques;(3)helpingstudentswithresearchstrategies using keywords and discussing the different types of resources used in research; (4) teaching effective note-taking strategies; (5) helping students synthesize contentsthroughconceptualmaps,flowcharts,etc.;and (6) helping teacher and studentsdevelop indicatorsto assess student performance throughout the research processand evaluatetheprocessoutcomes. Three articles addressing the assessment of IL integrationthroughresearchprojectswereidentified.The article by Gehring and Eastman (2008),carried out in a biologycourseat theConnecticut College,evaluatedthe resultsofimplementingILthroughprojects.Thestudents were given an IL tutorial and carried out tasks using primary literature analysis integrated with laboratory research projects. The results show that the students increased their ability to identify and use adequate sources of information. In addition, standards used by studentsto seek and use information wereidentified. Self-assessment responses indicated that students recognized the impact of IL on their information skills and weremoreconfident for futurebiologycourses. Another study, conducted by Chu et al. (2011), investigated theeffect of thecombination between the collaborativeteaching approachwiththeinquiry-based learning forthedevelopment ofinformationliteracyand information technology skills in primary school. The resultsindicate that theprogram had apositive impact on the development of different dimensions of IL and information technologyskillsof theparticipants. Finally,thestudybyMcKinney(2013)reportedthe evaluation of development projects undertaken at a United Kingdom university focusing on IL and on the development of ILcapabilitiesto support learning.The results showed that students developed individual IL capabilities and learned how to effectively use library resources.Thestudentsalsorecognized theimportance of IL for their personal and professional life. Moreover, the resultsalso showed the importance of considering thedevelopment of ILin thecontext of projects.Within thisperspective,librariansand ILexpertsshould actively participateintheproject development.Theauthorpoints out that the inquiry-based learning focused on the development of IL need to contextualize subjectsthat aremeaningful to students.Teachersneed to explain to thestudentsthat ILdevelopment isthefocusof specific activitiesand discusstheconcept of ILwith them. Although there are many studies on the importance of the project-based pedagogy in the area of education,therearestill few initiativesthat relatethis approachtothedevelopment ofILprocess.Additionally, the(few)studiesidentifiedintheliteraturereviewaddress projectscarried out in adiscipline;theydo not focuson acurriculum changein order to globalizethecontents. Furthermore, the three articles that assessed the implementation of projectsintegrated with ILcontent, did not evaluated the learning content.Ideally, project resultsshould show improvement in the performance of search activitiesand useof information,aswell asthe disciplinecontentsortopicscovered. As previously explained, some hypotheses to explain thelackof research in thisareaarerelated to the fact that only recently hasthistopic been investigated and to the often inadequate pedagogical training of librarians. Another hypothesisconcernsthe discussion ofhowtheeducationalinstitutionsandteachersperceive the importance of the IL process and how much they
  • 9. INFORMATIONLITERACYANDPROJECTS 261 TransInformação,Campinas,28(3):253-262,set./dez.,2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2318-08892016000300001 arewillingtoinvest init.Thisisreflected inthesequence andorganizationofILcontentsintothecurriculum,which arerelatedtotheteaching-learningconcepts.Therefore, investing in research on this topic is of extreme importance. Conclusion The implementation of IL programsislinked to the sequencing and organization of content into the curriculum, which are related to the pedagogical concept. Although there are recommendations in the literatureaddressing theimportanceof integration of IL contents in a cross-curricular manner, it was observed that therethisconcept hasbeenmisunderstood.Dueto their potential, the research/project methods enable better integration of IL contents into the curriculum, providing students with more meaningful learning by encouraging reflection, student protagonism, and learning how to learn among others.Yet, there is little research on Information Science and Education. Some hypotheses formulated to explain such situation are related to the level of development of ILprograms,the pedagogical training of librarians, and to educational institutions’perceptionsof the importanceof IL.Finally, based on the aforementioned discussions, it is recommended to stimulate and support research on curriculum and IL,in particular,inquiry-based learning. Aknowledgements Theauthorsaregrateful to Dr.Isabel CristinaMichelan deAzevedoforhercarefulreadingandsuggestionsthat greatly improved thismanuscript. References AssociationofCollege&ResearchLibraries.InformationLiteracy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Chicago (IL): American Library Association, 2000. Available from: <http:// www.ala.org/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency #stan>.Cited:Mar.12,2014. Association of College&Research Libraries.ACRLInformation LiteracyCompetencyStandardsReviewTaskForce.Chicago(IL): American Library Association, 2012. Available from: <http:// www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/standards/ ils_recomm.pdf>.Cited:Apr.16,2014. AustralianandNewZealandInstituteforInformationLiteracy. Australian and New Zealand information literacy framework. 2nd .Adelaide(SA):UniSALibrary,2004.Availablefrom:<http:// www.library.unisa.edu.au/learn/infolit/infolit-2nd-edition. pdf>.Cited:Apr.18,2014. Bransford,J.D.;Brown,A.L.;Cocking,R.R.(Org.).Comoaspessoas aprendem.São Paulo:Senac,2007. Brasil. Secretaria de Educação Fundamental. Parâmetros curricularesnacionais:introduçãoaosparâmetroscurriculares nacionais. Brasília: Mec/SEF, 1997. Disponível em: <http:// portal.mec.gov.br/seb/arquivos/pdf/livro01.pdf>.Acessoem: 23 abr.2014. Chu, S.; Tse, S. Chow, K. Using collaborative teaching and inquiryproject-basedlearningtohelpprimaryschoolstudents develop literacy and information skills. Library&Information ScienceResearch,v.32,n.2,p.132-143,2011. Coll, C. Marc curricular per a l’ensenyament obligatori. Barce- lona:Paidós,1986. Dewey,J.Thechildandthecurriculum.Chicago:London:The University of Chicago Press, 1902. Available from: <http:// www.gutenberg.org/files/29259/29259-h/29259-h.htm>. Cited:May 2,2014. Dewey, J. How we think. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1910. Available from: <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/ 37423/37423-h/37423-h.htm>.Cited:May 1,2014. Dewey,J.Experiênciaeeducação.Petrópolis:Vozes,2010. Gasque,K.C.G.D.Opensamento reflexivo nabuscae no uso dainformação.In:Encontro Nacional dePesquisaem Ciência da Informação, 7., 2006, Marília. Anais... Marília: Unesp, 2006. p.432-440. Gasque,K.C.G.D.Opensamentoreflexivonabuscaenousoda informação na comunicação científica. Tese (Doutorado em CiênciadaInformação)-FaculdadedeCiênciadaInformação, UniversidadedeBrasília,Brasília,2008.Disponível em:<http:// bdtd.bce.unb.br/tedesimplificado/tde_busca/arquivo.php? codArquivo=3564>.Acesso em:2 abr.2014. Gasque,K.C.G.D.Letramentoinformacional:pesquisa,reflexão e aprendizagem.Brasília:UnB,2012.Disponível em:<http:// repositorio.unb.br/bitstream/10482/13025/1/LIVRO_ Letramento_ Informacional.pdf>.Acesso em:30abr.2014. Gehring, K.M.; Eastman, D. The information fluency for UndergraduateBiologymajors:Applicationsofinquiry-based learninginaDevelopmentalBiologycourse.CBE-LifeSciences Education,v.7,n.1,p.54-63,2008. Hamilton,L.S.,Stecher,B.M.,Yuan,K.Standards-Based Reform in the United States:History,research,and future directions. [S.I.]: RANO Education, 2008. Available from: <http:// www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2009/ RAND_RP1384.pdf>.Cited:Apr.17,2014.
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