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UGC Status and Levels of Control
in Argentine, Colombian, Mexican,
Peruvian, Portuguese, Spanish,
US and Venezuelan Online
Newspapers
Austin, 2009
Elvira Garcia
de Torres
Lyudmyla
Yezers’ ka
Fernando
Zamith Nora Paul
Jorge BadilloMabel
Calderin
Miladys
Rojano
Silvia
Martinez
Martinez
Janet
Rodriguez
Martinez
Jose
Azevedo
Roberto
Igarza
Elvira Garcia
de Torres
Lyudmyla
Yezers’ ka
Fernando
Zamith Nora Paul
Jorge BadilloMabel
Calderin
Miladys
Rojano
Silvia
Martinez
Martinez
Janet
Rodriguez
Martinez
Jose
Azevedo
Roberto
Igarza
UGC - Journalism
Bowman and Willis (2004):a form of
participatory journalism
Hermida and Thurman (2008): a
process… opportunity to participate or contribute
De Keyser and Raeymaeckers
(2008): the sum of participatory and citizen
journalism
Wunsh/Vincent and Vickery (2007):
publication, creative effort (also adapting) and
outside of professional practices
UGC
Citizen Journalism
UGC (news reporting)
Participatory
Journalism (MSM)
Approach
In this context, we propose to
analyze participatory journalism
messages taking into consideration
the relationship between users and
producers as the relationship
provides a context in which
messages acquire meaning
Framework
Our approach is based in the
Interactional view, that looks into
verbal and non verbal messages to
find out the rules of the relationships
There can be, for example, a
pattern of authority/submission or
weakness/assistance
Messages
Also, tacit messages and explicit
messages on the relationship
acquire importance
We found them in the terms of use
and privacy policies, the more or
less control of the users’
participation, data on participation
and so on.
Purpose
In this preliminary approach we
seek to explore relational messages
in the user- producer relationship
regarding control and recognition of
UGC
Research Questions
Q1. Are there any patterns in messages
regarding UGC?
Q2. Do media give visibility to the users
contributions?
Q3. Is there a correlation between
control for comments on journalistic and
amateur content?
Q4. How far do media get involved in
producing a citizen reporter toolkit?
Method
Survey of 24 websites of Argentine,
Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Portugal,
Spain, US and Venezuela
Sample takes circulation in
consideration. It is based on circulation
audits data and other significant sources
when reliable figures are not easily
available
Argentine
Argentine
Argentine
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Peru
Peru
Peru
Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
Spain
Spain
Spain
United States
United States
United States
Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela
Parameters
The coding scheme is based partially in
Domingo et al (2008)
We put emphasis in
The rules
The mechanisms of control
Recognition of UGC
I.e. Send a picture
Send a picture
For example, for “Send a picture” in our
grid it is possible to code:
Moderator/ moderator on ocassion
Registration
Categories
Conceptualization: what news is
Tips: how to take a better picture
Undesirable material
Report Abuse
Displayed in other sections
Monetary compensation /on ocassion
Send a picture
Users have to pay
Photos can be shared
Post a comment
Editing tools
Specific rules / Read / Accept
General rules / Read /Accept
Grant license on rights
License for adaptations
Minimum age to participate
Minors are supposed to have permission
Has to be original work /consent by people
shown/ parents or guardians if minors
Right to reject the picture
CR Channel
Rules
Formats
What “news” is
Ethics
Control
Monetary compensation
Warning signals for sensitive material
Unwelcome content
Posibility to publish in other
sections/webs/media
Codebook
Reliability
Test of the codebook (two papers per
country) and final version
Test of reliability, as a prior step, before
entering the coding process
When the level of agreement was
considered sufficient, the analysis took
place
We decided that each paper would be
coded by two analists, in view of the
length and the attention it required
Communication
A wiki was created to facilitate the
coordination and communication
between the members of the group.
Challenges:
Working at different hours along the
day
Language barriers
Conclusion 1
Results reflect a duality regarding UGC
status: there is a wide implementation of
2.0 tools, but the most accepted are
those that allow users to work on the
content provided by the newspapers, but
not so much the tools to produce
content.
UGC STATUS AR CO ME PE PT ES VE US
TO
T
News Stories audience-driven
hierarchy 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 20
Stories/Blogs list audience-driven
hierarchy on the homepage 2 2 3 0 3 3 3 3 19
Reporter blogs 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 18
Polls, Live discussion, forum… on
the home page 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 18
Comments embedded in journalist
blogs 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 17
Comments embedded in journalist
stories 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 17
UGC on the frontpage 2 2 3 0 3 3 2 2 17
All blogs are open to comments 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 16
Social networking in the stories 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 3 15
Conclusion 2
At the same time, recognition of content
provided by users is high regarding both
the number of options given to them to
be contributors to the newspaper and
the publication of their contributions in
the front page.
Conclusion 3
The most significant pieces in the puzzle
of status is who retains the rights over
content and if monetary compensation
for contributions is given. This is where
the real recognition or the status is
established in terms of authorship and
both were found to provide little in the
way of protection or rights for the users’
contributions.
UGC RIGHTS ON
CONTENT ARG COL MEX PER PTR ES VE US TOT
Invitation to submit photos
0 0 3 1 2 2 2 2 12
Grant license on rights
0 0 1 0 0 2 1 2
6
(50%)
License for adaptations
0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2
5
(41.6%
)
Invitation to submit videos
0 0 2 0 0 2 1 2 7
Grant license on rights
0 0 1 0 0 2 0 2
5( 71.4
%)
License for adaptations
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
3
(42.8%
)
Citizen Reporter Channel
1 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 8
Grant license on rights
0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
4
(50%)
License for adaptations
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
6
(75%)
Conclusion 4
This is significant given that users were
generally not asked to explicitly accept
the legal terms, that is, the contract, as a
step prior to uploading or sending
contributions.
Read the
rules
Example for “Read the rules” (El Mundo,
(Spain)
Acceptance is
compulsory to
post a
comment
Example for “Accept the rules” ( Clarín,
Argentine)
Conclusion 5
Control of UGC is exerted though a
variety of tools. Some of them require a
very active stance by the newspapers,
such as moderation, especially when it
does not depend on the reporting of
abuse by the users. Other means of
control are based on more or less strong
directions and guidelines (rules,
recommendations or prohibitions).
Elvira
Conclusion 6
Newspapers present a high variance
with a majority of papers adopting
different strategies depending on the
tool offered.
Conclusion 7
Problems arising from participation and
attempts to solve them by mechanisms
of control based on human resources
and/or technology are well known, but
the coordination of the actions regarding
UGC in the websites requires further
examination.
Conclusion 8
The “citizen reporter channel,” the most
significant feature regarding UGC as
participation described here as doing the
job, was adopted by eight out of 24
papers of the sample. The study shows
that the citizen reporter toolkit is almost
empty of principles or concepts; we
have to explore the differences found by
countries.
Name Newspaper Country
Soy
Corresponsal
La Nación Argentine
Yo Público El Tiempo Colombia
Reportero
Ciudadano
El Universal Mexico
Yo lo vi Milenio Mexico
Cidadao
Repòrtero
Jornal de
Noticias
Portugal
Correio do
Lector
Correio da
Manha
Portugal
Yo, Periodista
(El País)
El País Spain
Yo reportero El Nacional Venezuela
Code of
ethics
Tutorial;
tips to write
a good
story
Citizen reporter channel in La Nación
(Argentine)
Regarding Ethics (3 newspapers), principles mentioned in the
channels
were Truth (3), Accuracy (1), Freedom from bias (2), Fair Play (1)
and Sources should be identified (2).
Conclusion 9
Research on the users´ attitudes,
perceptions and activity regarding the
options given by the papers, their
knowledge of the legal terms affecting
participation and its consequences, as
well as privacy policies and rules will
contribute to greater understanding of
the structures in the user-producer
relationship.
UGC Status and Levels of Control
in Argentine, Colombian, Mexican,
Peruvian, Portuguese, Spanish,
US and Venezuelan Online
Newspapers
Austin, 2009

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Elvira

  • 1. UGC Status and Levels of Control in Argentine, Colombian, Mexican, Peruvian, Portuguese, Spanish, US and Venezuelan Online Newspapers Austin, 2009
  • 2. Elvira Garcia de Torres Lyudmyla Yezers’ ka Fernando Zamith Nora Paul Jorge BadilloMabel Calderin Miladys Rojano Silvia Martinez Martinez Janet Rodriguez Martinez Jose Azevedo Roberto Igarza
  • 3. Elvira Garcia de Torres Lyudmyla Yezers’ ka Fernando Zamith Nora Paul Jorge BadilloMabel Calderin Miladys Rojano Silvia Martinez Martinez Janet Rodriguez Martinez Jose Azevedo Roberto Igarza
  • 4. UGC - Journalism Bowman and Willis (2004):a form of participatory journalism Hermida and Thurman (2008): a process… opportunity to participate or contribute De Keyser and Raeymaeckers (2008): the sum of participatory and citizen journalism Wunsh/Vincent and Vickery (2007): publication, creative effort (also adapting) and outside of professional practices
  • 5. UGC Citizen Journalism UGC (news reporting) Participatory Journalism (MSM)
  • 6. Approach In this context, we propose to analyze participatory journalism messages taking into consideration the relationship between users and producers as the relationship provides a context in which messages acquire meaning
  • 7. Framework Our approach is based in the Interactional view, that looks into verbal and non verbal messages to find out the rules of the relationships There can be, for example, a pattern of authority/submission or weakness/assistance
  • 8. Messages Also, tacit messages and explicit messages on the relationship acquire importance We found them in the terms of use and privacy policies, the more or less control of the users’ participation, data on participation and so on.
  • 9. Purpose In this preliminary approach we seek to explore relational messages in the user- producer relationship regarding control and recognition of UGC
  • 10. Research Questions Q1. Are there any patterns in messages regarding UGC? Q2. Do media give visibility to the users contributions? Q3. Is there a correlation between control for comments on journalistic and amateur content? Q4. How far do media get involved in producing a citizen reporter toolkit?
  • 11. Method Survey of 24 websites of Argentine, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Spain, US and Venezuela Sample takes circulation in consideration. It is based on circulation audits data and other significant sources when reliable figures are not easily available
  • 21. Peru
  • 22. Peru
  • 23. Peru
  • 27. Spain
  • 28. Spain
  • 29. Spain
  • 36. Parameters The coding scheme is based partially in Domingo et al (2008) We put emphasis in The rules The mechanisms of control Recognition of UGC I.e. Send a picture
  • 37. Send a picture For example, for “Send a picture” in our grid it is possible to code: Moderator/ moderator on ocassion Registration Categories Conceptualization: what news is Tips: how to take a better picture Undesirable material Report Abuse Displayed in other sections Monetary compensation /on ocassion
  • 38. Send a picture Users have to pay Photos can be shared Post a comment Editing tools Specific rules / Read / Accept General rules / Read /Accept Grant license on rights License for adaptations Minimum age to participate Minors are supposed to have permission Has to be original work /consent by people shown/ parents or guardians if minors Right to reject the picture
  • 39. CR Channel Rules Formats What “news” is Ethics Control Monetary compensation Warning signals for sensitive material Unwelcome content Posibility to publish in other sections/webs/media
  • 41. Reliability Test of the codebook (two papers per country) and final version Test of reliability, as a prior step, before entering the coding process When the level of agreement was considered sufficient, the analysis took place We decided that each paper would be coded by two analists, in view of the length and the attention it required
  • 42. Communication A wiki was created to facilitate the coordination and communication between the members of the group. Challenges: Working at different hours along the day Language barriers
  • 43. Conclusion 1 Results reflect a duality regarding UGC status: there is a wide implementation of 2.0 tools, but the most accepted are those that allow users to work on the content provided by the newspapers, but not so much the tools to produce content.
  • 44. UGC STATUS AR CO ME PE PT ES VE US TO T News Stories audience-driven hierarchy 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 20 Stories/Blogs list audience-driven hierarchy on the homepage 2 2 3 0 3 3 3 3 19 Reporter blogs 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 18 Polls, Live discussion, forum… on the home page 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 18 Comments embedded in journalist blogs 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 17 Comments embedded in journalist stories 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 17 UGC on the frontpage 2 2 3 0 3 3 2 2 17 All blogs are open to comments 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 16 Social networking in the stories 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 3 15
  • 45. Conclusion 2 At the same time, recognition of content provided by users is high regarding both the number of options given to them to be contributors to the newspaper and the publication of their contributions in the front page.
  • 46. Conclusion 3 The most significant pieces in the puzzle of status is who retains the rights over content and if monetary compensation for contributions is given. This is where the real recognition or the status is established in terms of authorship and both were found to provide little in the way of protection or rights for the users’ contributions.
  • 47. UGC RIGHTS ON CONTENT ARG COL MEX PER PTR ES VE US TOT Invitation to submit photos 0 0 3 1 2 2 2 2 12 Grant license on rights 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 2 6 (50%) License for adaptations 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 5 (41.6% ) Invitation to submit videos 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 2 7 Grant license on rights 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 5( 71.4 %) License for adaptations 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 3 (42.8% ) Citizen Reporter Channel 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 8 Grant license on rights 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 4 (50%) License for adaptations 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 6 (75%)
  • 48. Conclusion 4 This is significant given that users were generally not asked to explicitly accept the legal terms, that is, the contract, as a step prior to uploading or sending contributions.
  • 49. Read the rules Example for “Read the rules” (El Mundo, (Spain)
  • 50. Acceptance is compulsory to post a comment Example for “Accept the rules” ( Clarín, Argentine)
  • 51. Conclusion 5 Control of UGC is exerted though a variety of tools. Some of them require a very active stance by the newspapers, such as moderation, especially when it does not depend on the reporting of abuse by the users. Other means of control are based on more or less strong directions and guidelines (rules, recommendations or prohibitions).
  • 53. Conclusion 6 Newspapers present a high variance with a majority of papers adopting different strategies depending on the tool offered.
  • 54. Conclusion 7 Problems arising from participation and attempts to solve them by mechanisms of control based on human resources and/or technology are well known, but the coordination of the actions regarding UGC in the websites requires further examination.
  • 55. Conclusion 8 The “citizen reporter channel,” the most significant feature regarding UGC as participation described here as doing the job, was adopted by eight out of 24 papers of the sample. The study shows that the citizen reporter toolkit is almost empty of principles or concepts; we have to explore the differences found by countries.
  • 56. Name Newspaper Country Soy Corresponsal La Nación Argentine Yo Público El Tiempo Colombia Reportero Ciudadano El Universal Mexico Yo lo vi Milenio Mexico Cidadao Repòrtero Jornal de Noticias Portugal Correio do Lector Correio da Manha Portugal Yo, Periodista (El País) El País Spain Yo reportero El Nacional Venezuela
  • 57. Code of ethics Tutorial; tips to write a good story Citizen reporter channel in La Nación (Argentine) Regarding Ethics (3 newspapers), principles mentioned in the channels were Truth (3), Accuracy (1), Freedom from bias (2), Fair Play (1) and Sources should be identified (2).
  • 58. Conclusion 9 Research on the users´ attitudes, perceptions and activity regarding the options given by the papers, their knowledge of the legal terms affecting participation and its consequences, as well as privacy policies and rules will contribute to greater understanding of the structures in the user-producer relationship.
  • 59. UGC Status and Levels of Control in Argentine, Colombian, Mexican, Peruvian, Portuguese, Spanish, US and Venezuelan Online Newspapers Austin, 2009