SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 9
ELECTROPHORESIS
Electrophoresis
• Electrophoresis is defined as the migration of charged ions in an electric
field.
PRINCIPLE
When charged molecules are placed in an electric field, they migrate
toward either the positive or negative pole according to their charge. In
contrast to proteins, which can have either a net positive or net negative
charge, nucleic acids have a consistent negative charge imparted by their
phosphate backbone, and migrate toward the anode.
• An ion placed in such an electric field will experience a force:
• Where,
• F = electrophoretic force
• K = a constant
• q = net charge on the protein (atomic charges/protein molecule)
Paper electrophoresis
• This technique is useful for the separation of small
charged molecules such as amino acids and small
proteins.
• A strip of filter paper is moistened with buffer and
the ends of the strip are immersed into buffer
reservoirs containing the electrodes.
Gel electrophoresis
• Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate
DNA fragments (or other macromolecules, such as
RNA and proteins) based on their size and charge.
• Electrophoresis involves running a current through
a gel containing the molecules of interest.
Polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis
• Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique
widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics,
molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological
macromolecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, according
to their electrophoretic mobility.
• Electrophoretic mobility is a function of the length,
conformation and charge of the molecule. Polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool used to analyze RNA
samples.
• When polyacrylamide gel is denatured after electrophoresis,
it provides information on the sample composition of the
RNA species.
Agarose gel electrophoresis
• Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of choice for
large molecule separation over 1 million Da.
Acrylamide cannot be used for this purpose, because
it remains liquid at the concentration required for the
appropriate separation of high-molecular-weight
analytes.
• The movement of molecules through an agarose gel
is dependent on the size and charge of separated
particles, as well as the pore size present in the gel.
The observed migration is also affected by the type of
electrophoresis buffer, especially its ionic strength.
Protein electrophoresis
• Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the
proteins in a fluid or an extract.
• The electrophoresis may be performed with a small
volume of sample in a number of alternative ways
with or without a supporting medium: SDS
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (in short: gel
electrophoresis, PAGE, or SDS-electrophoresis), free-
flow electrophoresis, electrofocusing,
isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis,
immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and
capillary electrophoresis.
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Electro phoresis sud mpharm pdf
Electro phoresis sud mpharm  pdfElectro phoresis sud mpharm  pdf
Electro phoresis sud mpharm pdf
 
Electrophoresis , principles and application
Electrophoresis , principles and applicationElectrophoresis , principles and application
Electrophoresis , principles and application
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresispresentation
Electrophoresispresentation Electrophoresispresentation
Electrophoresispresentation
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Paper electrophoresis
Paper electrophoresisPaper electrophoresis
Paper electrophoresis
 
Basics of electrophoresis
Basics of electrophoresisBasics of electrophoresis
Basics of electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis, principle and types
Electrophoresis, principle and typesElectrophoresis, principle and types
Electrophoresis, principle and types
 
Capillary electrophoresis principles and applications
Capillary electrophoresis principles and applications   Capillary electrophoresis principles and applications
Capillary electrophoresis principles and applications
 
Elecrophoresis
ElecrophoresisElecrophoresis
Elecrophoresis
 
capillary electrophorosis techniques
capillary electrophorosis techniquescapillary electrophorosis techniques
capillary electrophorosis techniques
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis and factors affecting electrophoresis
Electrophoresis and factors affecting electrophoresisElectrophoresis and factors affecting electrophoresis
Electrophoresis and factors affecting electrophoresis
 
Electophorosis
ElectophorosisElectophorosis
Electophorosis
 
Pratikshaaa
PratikshaaaPratikshaaa
Pratikshaaa
 
Electrophoresis presentation
Electrophoresis presentationElectrophoresis presentation
Electrophoresis presentation
 

Similar to Electrophoresis wps office

electrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptx
electrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptxelectrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptx
electrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptxanujachopra2
 
Gel electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresisGel electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresisFizza Khan
 
Electrophoresis.pptx
Electrophoresis.pptxElectrophoresis.pptx
Electrophoresis.pptxReteshPaul
 
ELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptx
ELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptxELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptx
ELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptxMohdkaifkhan18
 
Electrophoresis and it's working principles
Electrophoresis and it's working principlesElectrophoresis and it's working principles
Electrophoresis and it's working principlesnishanthnish4444
 
electrophoresis.pptx
electrophoresis.pptxelectrophoresis.pptx
electrophoresis.pptxsaraso888
 
Electrophoresis, Types of electrophoresis
Electrophoresis, Types of electrophoresisElectrophoresis, Types of electrophoresis
Electrophoresis, Types of electrophoresisAMIR HASSAN
 
electrophorosis (1).pptx
electrophorosis (1).pptxelectrophorosis (1).pptx
electrophorosis (1).pptxANKITRAJ370351
 
Paper and gel electrophoresis.pdf
Paper and gel electrophoresis.pdfPaper and gel electrophoresis.pdf
Paper and gel electrophoresis.pdfPriyaTalekar
 
Gel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptx
Gel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptxGel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptx
Gel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptxDiwakar Mishra
 
MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx
 MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx
MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptxRoshan Yadav
 
[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing
[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing
[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusingRena Faith Baradero
 
Eectrophoresis.ppt
Eectrophoresis.pptEectrophoresis.ppt
Eectrophoresis.pptTilak Saha
 

Similar to Electrophoresis wps office (20)

Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
electrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptx
electrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptxelectrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptx
electrophoresis-170820132815-converted.pptx
 
Gel electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresisGel electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis.pptx
Electrophoresis.pptxElectrophoresis.pptx
Electrophoresis.pptx
 
ELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptx
ELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptxELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptx
ELECTROPHORESIS kaif.pptx
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis and it's working principles
Electrophoresis and it's working principlesElectrophoresis and it's working principles
Electrophoresis and it's working principles
 
electrophoresis.pptx
electrophoresis.pptxelectrophoresis.pptx
electrophoresis.pptx
 
Analytical microbiology
Analytical microbiologyAnalytical microbiology
Analytical microbiology
 
Electrophoresis, Types of electrophoresis
Electrophoresis, Types of electrophoresisElectrophoresis, Types of electrophoresis
Electrophoresis, Types of electrophoresis
 
electrophorosis (1).pptx
electrophorosis (1).pptxelectrophorosis (1).pptx
electrophorosis (1).pptx
 
Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Electrophoresis by Hina Ialsm Chishty
Electrophoresis  by Hina Ialsm Chishty Electrophoresis  by Hina Ialsm Chishty
Electrophoresis by Hina Ialsm Chishty
 
Paper and gel electrophoresis.pdf
Paper and gel electrophoresis.pdfPaper and gel electrophoresis.pdf
Paper and gel electrophoresis.pdf
 
Gel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptx
Gel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptxGel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptx
Gel electrophpresis M PHARM pharmaceutical chemistry.pptx
 
MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx
 MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx
MOVING BOUNDARY ELECTROPHORESIS . pptx
 
[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing
[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing
[Group 5] electrochemistry, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing
 
Eectrophoresis.ppt
Eectrophoresis.pptEectrophoresis.ppt
Eectrophoresis.ppt
 
Electrophoresis Ppt
Electrophoresis PptElectrophoresis Ppt
Electrophoresis Ppt
 

More from christanantony

More from christanantony (20)

Pcr molecular diagnosis
Pcr molecular diagnosisPcr molecular diagnosis
Pcr molecular diagnosis
 
Pcr and its application
Pcr and its applicationPcr and its application
Pcr and its application
 
Gene silencing amirtham
Gene silencing   amirthamGene silencing   amirtham
Gene silencing amirtham
 
Cloning pcr amirtham
Cloning pcr   amirthamCloning pcr   amirtham
Cloning pcr amirtham
 
C dna and genomic libraries amirtham
C dna and genomic libraries   amirthamC dna and genomic libraries   amirtham
C dna and genomic libraries amirtham
 
Spectroscopy amirtham
Spectroscopy   amirthamSpectroscopy   amirtham
Spectroscopy amirtham
 
Electrophoresis amirtham
Electrophoresis   amirthamElectrophoresis   amirtham
Electrophoresis amirtham
 
Crystallography amirtham
Crystallography   amirthamCrystallography   amirtham
Crystallography amirtham
 
Chromatography amirtham
Chromatography   amirthamChromatography   amirtham
Chromatography amirtham
 
Centrifugation amirtham
Centrifugation   amirthamCentrifugation   amirtham
Centrifugation amirtham
 
Calorimeter
CalorimeterCalorimeter
Calorimeter
 
C dna and genomic libraries copy
C dna and genomic libraries   copyC dna and genomic libraries   copy
C dna and genomic libraries copy
 
Daisy gene 123
Daisy gene  123Daisy gene  123
Daisy gene 123
 
Presentation
Presentation Presentation
Presentation
 
Cloning pcr
Cloning pcrCloning pcr
Cloning pcr
 
Labelling of dna
Labelling of dnaLabelling of dna
Labelling of dna
 
Spectroscopy
SpectroscopySpectroscopy
Spectroscopy
 
Crystallography
CrystallographyCrystallography
Crystallography
 
Centrifugation
Centrifugation Centrifugation
Centrifugation
 
Centrifugation by akasthiya
Centrifugation  by akasthiyaCentrifugation  by akasthiya
Centrifugation by akasthiya
 

Recently uploaded

Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptshraddhaparab530
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptxMillenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptxJanEmmanBrigoli
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTSGRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTSJoshuaGantuangco2
 
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docxTEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docxruthvilladarez
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...JojoEDelaCruz
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalssuser3e220a
 
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxPresentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxRosabel UA
 
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEDust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEaurabinda banchhor
 

Recently uploaded (20)

YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptxMillenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTSGRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
 
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docxTEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operational
 
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxPresentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
 
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEDust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
 

Electrophoresis wps office

  • 2. Electrophoresis • Electrophoresis is defined as the migration of charged ions in an electric field. PRINCIPLE When charged molecules are placed in an electric field, they migrate toward either the positive or negative pole according to their charge. In contrast to proteins, which can have either a net positive or net negative charge, nucleic acids have a consistent negative charge imparted by their phosphate backbone, and migrate toward the anode. • An ion placed in such an electric field will experience a force: • Where, • F = electrophoretic force • K = a constant • q = net charge on the protein (atomic charges/protein molecule)
  • 3.
  • 4. Paper electrophoresis • This technique is useful for the separation of small charged molecules such as amino acids and small proteins. • A strip of filter paper is moistened with buffer and the ends of the strip are immersed into buffer reservoirs containing the electrodes.
  • 5. Gel electrophoresis • Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate DNA fragments (or other macromolecules, such as RNA and proteins) based on their size and charge. • Electrophoresis involves running a current through a gel containing the molecules of interest.
  • 6. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological macromolecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, according to their electrophoretic mobility. • Electrophoretic mobility is a function of the length, conformation and charge of the molecule. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool used to analyze RNA samples. • When polyacrylamide gel is denatured after electrophoresis, it provides information on the sample composition of the RNA species.
  • 7. Agarose gel electrophoresis • Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of choice for large molecule separation over 1 million Da. Acrylamide cannot be used for this purpose, because it remains liquid at the concentration required for the appropriate separation of high-molecular-weight analytes. • The movement of molecules through an agarose gel is dependent on the size and charge of separated particles, as well as the pore size present in the gel. The observed migration is also affected by the type of electrophoresis buffer, especially its ionic strength.
  • 8. Protein electrophoresis • Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract. • The electrophoresis may be performed with a small volume of sample in a number of alternative ways with or without a supporting medium: SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (in short: gel electrophoresis, PAGE, or SDS-electrophoresis), free- flow electrophoresis, electrofocusing, isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis.