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THE
EGYPTIAN
IMPRINT IN
SPAIN
Abeer M. Abdel Salam Zahana
Faculty of Arts
Cairo University
29/02/2024
CONTENT
• INTRODUCTION
• ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN
• Ancient Egypt in the Spanish Museums
• Ancient Egyptians´ Imprint in Spanish Agriculture
• Ancient Egyptians´ Imprint in Spanish Navigation
• Papyrus in Spain
• Egyptian Fabrics in Spain
• Ancient Egypt in Spanish Literature
• Ancient Egypt in Spanish Documentaries
• EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB
PRESENCE
• Administrative Aspect
• Architectural Aspect
• Scientific Aspect
• Religious Aspect
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 2
INTRODUCTION
• In the past and present, the Mediterranean
has not been a sea of separation, but a path
that has held together and fostered very
fruitful relations between Egypt and the
Iberian Peninsula, two regions located at the
two ends of the same Mediterranean sea.
Francisco Franco Sánchez (2012)
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 3
INTRODUCTION
The Egyptian nation is for us, for the
Spanish, a reference of the Arab world,
a reference of life in the Mediterranean
and a reference as a bridge between
east and west.
J. Martos (2012)
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 4
Although both, Spain and Egypt, are mediterranean
countries, we still cannot talk about special and close
relations (economic, cultural, and diplomatic) between
them as those existing between each and other more
proximate countries.
Nevertheless, that is not an impediment to detect an
imprint of Egypt in Spain throughout our history and,
certainly at the present time.
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’
IMPRINT IN SPAIN
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 5
The contribution of Ancient Egyptians to the world and its impact in
the scientific, cultural and artistic fields, is unquestionable.
So, no it is not peculiar to find ceramics, jewels in the shape of
scarabs or even statuettes of Egyptian gods in many archaeological
sites of the Iberian Peninsula.
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’
IMPRINT IN SPAIN
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 6
In a study published in 2020, titled: The Egyptian Influence on the
Phoenician Expansion in Andalusia. The Case of Gadir And Its
Archaeological Findings, the researcher talks about the Phoenicians,
who occupied the Iberian Peninsula towards the middle of the 2nd
millennium BC., and the arrival of Egyptian objects to the different
Phoenician territories located on the Andalusian coasts.
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’
IMPRINT IN SPAIN
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 7
We must wait until the end of the 1st millennium BC. to detect
the abundance of Egyptian manufactured objects, i.e., scarabs,
amulets and alabaster vessels.
The abovementioned research differentiates between three
classifications of objects:
Egyptian: those that have certainly been manufactured in Egypt.
Egyptianized: those that are not Egyptians but manifest some
characteristic or influence of Egypt.
Pseudo-Egyptian: refers to Egyptian imitations, encompassing
the objects that their external morphology indicates they have
been manufactured in Egypt, but they are not.
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’
IMPRINT IN SPAIN
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 8
The research above refers to the existence of 206 objects in
Gadir (Cadiz), between Egyptians, Egyptianized and pseudo –
Egyptians.
The greatest exponent of Egyptian
culture in Spain is found in Madrid's
Plaza de España, in the hear t of
Parque del Oeste. Approximately
2,200 years old, its oldest core is
believed to have been erected under
the command of Pharaoh Ptolemy IV.
The Debod Temple was granted to Spain
in gratitude to the Spanish missions that
participated, among a UNESCO mission
to save the archaeological sites of Nubia,
flooded by the construction of the Aswan
dam.
The National
Archaeological
Museum in
Madrid, has
almost 15,000
pieces from both
Egypt and Nubia.
ANCIENT EGYPT
IN THE SPANISH
MUSEUMS
Montserrat Museum (Barcelona)
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 11
ANCIENT EGYPT
IN THE SPANISH
MUSEUMS
Víctor Balaguer Museum
(Barcelona), with 200 Egyptian
pieces.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 12
ANCIENT EGYPT IN
THE SPANISH
MUSEUMS
• Egyptian Museum in Barcelona.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 13
ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE
SPANISH MUSEUMS
• Archaeological and Historical Museum in
A Coruña.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 14
ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE SPANISH MUSEUMS
Egyptian Museum of Melilla, which opened in midst of the pandemic
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 15
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS´
IMPRINT IN SPANISH
AGRICULTURE
The technology of Egyptians was imported by the Andalusians in
various fields such as the irrigation system and use of the bucket
wheel.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 16
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS´ IMPRINT IN SPANISH NAVIGATION
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 17
During the Middle Kingdom,
technical improvements were
made to the Egyptian ships. A
single oar was placed at the stern,
used as a rudder, instead of the
two commonly used in the Old
Kingdom, and the double mast
also disappeared and was
replaced by a single mast.
An Egyptian rowing boat with stern-post rudder depicted
in the murals of the Tomb of Menna (c. 1422-1411 BC), and
a Catalan ship with stern –post rudder, 14th Century.
PAPYRUS IN SPAIN
• Originally, the Greek word bi‧blos
designated the soft pith of the
papyrus plant but was later used to
name the book itself. The singluar
bi‧blí‧on has as its plural the word
bi‧blí‧a, whose literal meaning is
"little books", from which the word
"Bible" is derived.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 18
PAPYRUS IN SPAIN
• In Spain, the known medieval papyri are
all from the papal chancellery and are
currently found in archives and institutions
located in Catalonia. There are a total of
10 papyri of the 25 known throughout
Europe
• Documents on papyrus support must
have existed and been received in all
Hispanic monasteries and dioceses from
the 3rd to the 10th centuries, since
papyrus was commonly used by the papal
chancellery during that time until it was
replaced by parchment.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 19
EGYPTIAN FABRICS IN SPAIN
• The most important trade between the
Levantine coasts and Egypt was that of Linen.
Imports were made through the port of Denia
that, according to the historian Ibn Hayyan, were
not interrupted even during the time of
confrontation between the Umayyad and Fatimid
caliphs, reaching later, during the Egyptian
Mamluk era, their greatest splendor.
• It is worth mentioning that the Phoenicians, the
most important merchants of the ancient world,
equipped their ships with tents and carpets made
of solid Egyptian linen.
Egyptian Linen Fabric 12th Century. Location:
Alhambra-museum-textile. Granada. Spain
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 20
ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH
LITERATURE
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 21
The influence of Egypt on
Spanish literature has been
manifested through the
presence of Egyptian themes,
myths and symbols in literary
works.
Some Spanish authors have
explored in their works the
fascination with ancient Egyptian
culture, incorporating references
to gods, pharaohs, pyramids
and the mysticism of the Nile.
ANCIENT EGYPT IN
SPANISH
LITERATURE
• In the Renaissance era, authors
have obtained inspiration from
themes and characters of Egyptian
origin, such as:
• the drama about the queen
Cleopatra in The Asps of
Cleopatra by Francisco de Rojas
Zorrilla,
• or the references to the "soldán"
(sultan) of Egypt in the work of
Alonso de Salazar, Lepolemo.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 22
ANCIENT EGYPT IN
SPANISH LITERATURE
• In the modern era, we can mention The Hidden
Pharaoh by Abraham Juárez, which includes
everything we need to know, a priori, about
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti.
• It won Edhasa Historical Narratives Prize in its
fifth edition (2022).
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 23
ANCIENT EGYPT IN
SPANISH LITERATURE
• Don't say it was a dream (1986)
by Terenci Moix would faithfully
inform us of the life of Queen
Cleopatra VII in Alexandria.
• A sentimental trip to Egypt is
another classic contribution of
Spanish literature to the
knowledge of the country of the
Nile, as well as a literary creation
of great magnitude.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 24
ANCIENT EGYPT IN
SPANISH LITERATURE
• Among the multiple works based on the life of
the child pharaoh, King Tutankhamun published
around the world during 2022, , in Spain an
important novel titled Tutankhamun's Dream by
Antonio Cabanas, was published, on the
occasion of the bicentennial of the discovery of
his tomb
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 25
ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH
DOCUMENTARIES
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 26
There are many Spanish documentaries about Egypt that
offer unique perspectives on Egyptian history, archeology and
culture.
Eternal Egypt in Search of the Lost Tombs, is a
documentary series that explores the fascinating
civilization of ancient Egypt, from the pyramids to the
temples and royal tombs. This documentary, produced
in collaboration with Spanish and international experts,
presents archaeological research and reveals little-
known aspects of life in ancient Egypt. It offers a close
look at the greatness and mystery of this ancient
civilization from a Spanish perspective.
EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN
DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 27
Egyptian presence in al – Andalus started from
the beginning of the 8th Century.
Egyptian soldiers among the Arab armies
ended up settling in Spanish cities, especially
Murcia, where they left an imprint of their
customs and way of living.
The Spanish Arabists affirm that the best
historical document on the entry of the Arabs
into Spain is of Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam (798-871),
an Egyptian historian and jurist from Fustat.
EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN
DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE:
ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECT
• In the administrative aspect,
according to what was said by the
11th century geographer al-Idrisi, the
territorial division into provinces, was
of Egyptian influence. Together with
the introduction of the following
figures:
• Sahib al-suq or chief of the market.
• Sahib al-shurta or chief of police.
• Sahib al-mazalim or cadi of appeals.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 28
EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT
IN SPAIN DURING THE
ARAB PRESENCE:
ARCHITECTURAL
ASPECT
• Al-Idrisi informs us of the use
the ashlars used in the
construction of houses, castles
and palaces, and the imitation
that occurred in Al-Andalus of
the architectural workmanship
of the Fatimid walls.
An example is: Salon of Abd al-
Rahman III (Caliph of Cordoba,
from 912 to 961) at Madinat al-
Zahra. Cordoba. Spain
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 29
EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING
THE ARAB PRESENCE: SCIENTIFIC
ASPECT
• Moving on to the scientific field, the interrelationships of
scholars and alfaquis interested in medicine, mathematics,
pharmacy or astronomy, were very intense and frequent,
particularly during the 9th-13th centuries. Through these
relationships, the Egyptian masters taught the Andalusian
scientists the secrets of inherited sciences of the Greeks.
Examples of Andalusian scientists who ended up living and dying
in Egypt:
• Ibn al - Haytham (10th century), the great innovator of optical
science
• Ibn Jubayr (12th Century) a geographer, traveler and poet.
• Al-Mursi Abu'l-'Abbas (13th century) was a Sufi saint from Al -
Andalus who moved to and died in Alexandria where his mosque
is an emblematic landmark.
• Abu Abdullah Al-Shatibi ( 12th Century). An Islamic jurist and
imam, born in the city of Shativa, eastern Andalusia; buried in Al-
Shatibi Neighborhood in Alexandria, In one of the endowment
buildings called Zawiyat Al-Shatby.
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 30
EGYPTIANS’
IMPRINT IN SPAIN
DURING THE
ARAB PRESENCE:
RELIGIOUS
ASPECT
• In the Middle Ages the port of Alexandria became the most frequent
gateway entry point for all pilgrims who arrived in Alexandria from Al-
Andalus and al - Maghreb. And in Cairo they were reorganized by the
sultan of Egypt and from there they left in a caravan in the direction of
Mecca.
• It is also worth mentioning that Andalusian Islam based its idiosyncrasy
and characteristics on the way it was applied and understood intellectually in
two cultural centers: Medina and Cairo
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 31
THANK YOU
Abeer Mohamed Abdel Salam Zahana
abeer.zahana@cu.edu.eg
FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 33

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EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer Zahana

  • 1. THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Abeer M. Abdel Salam Zahana Faculty of Arts Cairo University 29/02/2024
  • 2. CONTENT • INTRODUCTION • ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN • Ancient Egypt in the Spanish Museums • Ancient Egyptians´ Imprint in Spanish Agriculture • Ancient Egyptians´ Imprint in Spanish Navigation • Papyrus in Spain • Egyptian Fabrics in Spain • Ancient Egypt in Spanish Literature • Ancient Egypt in Spanish Documentaries • EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE • Administrative Aspect • Architectural Aspect • Scientific Aspect • Religious Aspect FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • In the past and present, the Mediterranean has not been a sea of separation, but a path that has held together and fostered very fruitful relations between Egypt and the Iberian Peninsula, two regions located at the two ends of the same Mediterranean sea. Francisco Franco Sánchez (2012) FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 3
  • 4. INTRODUCTION The Egyptian nation is for us, for the Spanish, a reference of the Arab world, a reference of life in the Mediterranean and a reference as a bridge between east and west. J. Martos (2012) FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 4 Although both, Spain and Egypt, are mediterranean countries, we still cannot talk about special and close relations (economic, cultural, and diplomatic) between them as those existing between each and other more proximate countries. Nevertheless, that is not an impediment to detect an imprint of Egypt in Spain throughout our history and, certainly at the present time.
  • 5. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 5 The contribution of Ancient Egyptians to the world and its impact in the scientific, cultural and artistic fields, is unquestionable. So, no it is not peculiar to find ceramics, jewels in the shape of scarabs or even statuettes of Egyptian gods in many archaeological sites of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • 6. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 6 In a study published in 2020, titled: The Egyptian Influence on the Phoenician Expansion in Andalusia. The Case of Gadir And Its Archaeological Findings, the researcher talks about the Phoenicians, who occupied the Iberian Peninsula towards the middle of the 2nd millennium BC., and the arrival of Egyptian objects to the different Phoenician territories located on the Andalusian coasts.
  • 7. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 7 We must wait until the end of the 1st millennium BC. to detect the abundance of Egyptian manufactured objects, i.e., scarabs, amulets and alabaster vessels. The abovementioned research differentiates between three classifications of objects: Egyptian: those that have certainly been manufactured in Egypt. Egyptianized: those that are not Egyptians but manifest some characteristic or influence of Egypt. Pseudo-Egyptian: refers to Egyptian imitations, encompassing the objects that their external morphology indicates they have been manufactured in Egypt, but they are not.
  • 8. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 8 The research above refers to the existence of 206 objects in Gadir (Cadiz), between Egyptians, Egyptianized and pseudo – Egyptians.
  • 9. The greatest exponent of Egyptian culture in Spain is found in Madrid's Plaza de España, in the hear t of Parque del Oeste. Approximately 2,200 years old, its oldest core is believed to have been erected under the command of Pharaoh Ptolemy IV. The Debod Temple was granted to Spain in gratitude to the Spanish missions that participated, among a UNESCO mission to save the archaeological sites of Nubia, flooded by the construction of the Aswan dam.
  • 10. The National Archaeological Museum in Madrid, has almost 15,000 pieces from both Egypt and Nubia.
  • 11. ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE SPANISH MUSEUMS Montserrat Museum (Barcelona) FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 11
  • 12. ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE SPANISH MUSEUMS Víctor Balaguer Museum (Barcelona), with 200 Egyptian pieces. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 12
  • 13. ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE SPANISH MUSEUMS • Egyptian Museum in Barcelona. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 13
  • 14. ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE SPANISH MUSEUMS • Archaeological and Historical Museum in A Coruña. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 14
  • 15. ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE SPANISH MUSEUMS Egyptian Museum of Melilla, which opened in midst of the pandemic FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 15
  • 16. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS´ IMPRINT IN SPANISH AGRICULTURE The technology of Egyptians was imported by the Andalusians in various fields such as the irrigation system and use of the bucket wheel. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 16
  • 17. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS´ IMPRINT IN SPANISH NAVIGATION FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 17 During the Middle Kingdom, technical improvements were made to the Egyptian ships. A single oar was placed at the stern, used as a rudder, instead of the two commonly used in the Old Kingdom, and the double mast also disappeared and was replaced by a single mast. An Egyptian rowing boat with stern-post rudder depicted in the murals of the Tomb of Menna (c. 1422-1411 BC), and a Catalan ship with stern –post rudder, 14th Century.
  • 18. PAPYRUS IN SPAIN • Originally, the Greek word bi‧blos designated the soft pith of the papyrus plant but was later used to name the book itself. The singluar bi‧blí‧on has as its plural the word bi‧blí‧a, whose literal meaning is "little books", from which the word "Bible" is derived. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 18
  • 19. PAPYRUS IN SPAIN • In Spain, the known medieval papyri are all from the papal chancellery and are currently found in archives and institutions located in Catalonia. There are a total of 10 papyri of the 25 known throughout Europe • Documents on papyrus support must have existed and been received in all Hispanic monasteries and dioceses from the 3rd to the 10th centuries, since papyrus was commonly used by the papal chancellery during that time until it was replaced by parchment. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 19
  • 20. EGYPTIAN FABRICS IN SPAIN • The most important trade between the Levantine coasts and Egypt was that of Linen. Imports were made through the port of Denia that, according to the historian Ibn Hayyan, were not interrupted even during the time of confrontation between the Umayyad and Fatimid caliphs, reaching later, during the Egyptian Mamluk era, their greatest splendor. • It is worth mentioning that the Phoenicians, the most important merchants of the ancient world, equipped their ships with tents and carpets made of solid Egyptian linen. Egyptian Linen Fabric 12th Century. Location: Alhambra-museum-textile. Granada. Spain FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 20
  • 21. ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH LITERATURE FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 21 The influence of Egypt on Spanish literature has been manifested through the presence of Egyptian themes, myths and symbols in literary works. Some Spanish authors have explored in their works the fascination with ancient Egyptian culture, incorporating references to gods, pharaohs, pyramids and the mysticism of the Nile.
  • 22. ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH LITERATURE • In the Renaissance era, authors have obtained inspiration from themes and characters of Egyptian origin, such as: • the drama about the queen Cleopatra in The Asps of Cleopatra by Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla, • or the references to the "soldán" (sultan) of Egypt in the work of Alonso de Salazar, Lepolemo. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 22
  • 23. ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH LITERATURE • In the modern era, we can mention The Hidden Pharaoh by Abraham Juárez, which includes everything we need to know, a priori, about Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. • It won Edhasa Historical Narratives Prize in its fifth edition (2022). FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 23
  • 24. ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH LITERATURE • Don't say it was a dream (1986) by Terenci Moix would faithfully inform us of the life of Queen Cleopatra VII in Alexandria. • A sentimental trip to Egypt is another classic contribution of Spanish literature to the knowledge of the country of the Nile, as well as a literary creation of great magnitude. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 24
  • 25. ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH LITERATURE • Among the multiple works based on the life of the child pharaoh, King Tutankhamun published around the world during 2022, , in Spain an important novel titled Tutankhamun's Dream by Antonio Cabanas, was published, on the occasion of the bicentennial of the discovery of his tomb FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 25
  • 26. ANCIENT EGYPT IN SPANISH DOCUMENTARIES FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 26 There are many Spanish documentaries about Egypt that offer unique perspectives on Egyptian history, archeology and culture. Eternal Egypt in Search of the Lost Tombs, is a documentary series that explores the fascinating civilization of ancient Egypt, from the pyramids to the temples and royal tombs. This documentary, produced in collaboration with Spanish and international experts, presents archaeological research and reveals little- known aspects of life in ancient Egypt. It offers a close look at the greatness and mystery of this ancient civilization from a Spanish perspective.
  • 27. EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 27 Egyptian presence in al – Andalus started from the beginning of the 8th Century. Egyptian soldiers among the Arab armies ended up settling in Spanish cities, especially Murcia, where they left an imprint of their customs and way of living. The Spanish Arabists affirm that the best historical document on the entry of the Arabs into Spain is of Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam (798-871), an Egyptian historian and jurist from Fustat.
  • 28. EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE: ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECT • In the administrative aspect, according to what was said by the 11th century geographer al-Idrisi, the territorial division into provinces, was of Egyptian influence. Together with the introduction of the following figures: • Sahib al-suq or chief of the market. • Sahib al-shurta or chief of police. • Sahib al-mazalim or cadi of appeals. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 28
  • 29. EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE: ARCHITECTURAL ASPECT • Al-Idrisi informs us of the use the ashlars used in the construction of houses, castles and palaces, and the imitation that occurred in Al-Andalus of the architectural workmanship of the Fatimid walls. An example is: Salon of Abd al- Rahman III (Caliph of Cordoba, from 912 to 961) at Madinat al- Zahra. Cordoba. Spain FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 29
  • 30. EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE: SCIENTIFIC ASPECT • Moving on to the scientific field, the interrelationships of scholars and alfaquis interested in medicine, mathematics, pharmacy or astronomy, were very intense and frequent, particularly during the 9th-13th centuries. Through these relationships, the Egyptian masters taught the Andalusian scientists the secrets of inherited sciences of the Greeks. Examples of Andalusian scientists who ended up living and dying in Egypt: • Ibn al - Haytham (10th century), the great innovator of optical science • Ibn Jubayr (12th Century) a geographer, traveler and poet. • Al-Mursi Abu'l-'Abbas (13th century) was a Sufi saint from Al - Andalus who moved to and died in Alexandria where his mosque is an emblematic landmark. • Abu Abdullah Al-Shatibi ( 12th Century). An Islamic jurist and imam, born in the city of Shativa, eastern Andalusia; buried in Al- Shatibi Neighborhood in Alexandria, In one of the endowment buildings called Zawiyat Al-Shatby. FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 30
  • 31. EGYPTIANS’ IMPRINT IN SPAIN DURING THE ARAB PRESENCE: RELIGIOUS ASPECT • In the Middle Ages the port of Alexandria became the most frequent gateway entry point for all pilgrims who arrived in Alexandria from Al- Andalus and al - Maghreb. And in Cairo they were reorganized by the sultan of Egypt and from there they left in a caravan in the direction of Mecca. • It is also worth mentioning that Andalusian Islam based its idiosyncrasy and characteristics on the way it was applied and understood intellectually in two cultural centers: Medina and Cairo FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 31
  • 32. THANK YOU Abeer Mohamed Abdel Salam Zahana abeer.zahana@cu.edu.eg FEBRUARY 2024 THE EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN 33