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Coping with IFC lists in the
ifcOWL ontology
Pieter Pauwels, Ghent University
Walter Terkaj, ITIA-CNR
Thomas Krijnen, Eindhoven University of Technology
Jakob Beetz, Eindhoven University of Technology
outline
background, context and purposes
possible conversion procedures
conclusion
thank you
2
example
3
BACKGROUND, CONTEXT AND
PURPOSES
4
http://www.bimforum.lv/communities/6/004/012/741/086//images/4611848847.jpg5
openBIM
6
Data exchange standard
buildingSMART specifications
7
Ifc2x_all_lf.exp
IFC2X2_ADD1.exp
IFC2X2_FINAL.exp
IFC2X2_PLATFORM.exp
IFC2X3_Final.exp
IFC2X3_TC1.exp
IFC4.exp
IFC4_ADD1.exp
not supported
not supported
not supported
not supported
IFC2X3_Final.owl / .ttl
IFC2X3_TC1.owl / .ttl
IFC4.owl / .ttl
IFC4_ADD1.owl / .ttl
http://www.linkedbuildingdata.net/resources/IFC2X3_Final.ttl
http://www.linkedbuildingdata.net/resources/IFC2X3_TC1.ttl
http://www.linkedbuildingdata.net/resources/IFC4.ttl
http://www.linkedbuildingdata.net/resources/IFC4_ADD1.ttl
EXPRESS to OWL conversion
IFC to RDF conversion
converting EXPRESS schema to OWL
IFC
Schema
Simple data type
Defined data type
Aggregation data type
SET data type --------
LIST & ARRAY data type --------
Constructed data type
SELECT data type --------
ENUMERATION data type --------
Entity data type
Attributes --------
Derive attr
WHERE rules
Functions
Rules
ifcOWL
Ontology
owl:class + owl:DatatypeProperty restriction
owl:class
owl:class
-------- owl:ObjectProperty restriction on
ifc:hasSet
-------- indirect subclass of ifc:List
owl:class
-------- owl:unionOf ( owl:classes )
-------- one of ( owl:NamedIndividuals )
owl:class
-------- object properties
-
-
-
-
P. Pauwels, D. Van Deursen, R. Verstraeten, J. De Roo, R. De Meyer, R. Van de Walle, J. Van Campenhout. A
semantic rule checking environment for building performance checking. Automation in Construction 20: 506-
518, 2011.
IFC as a graph (both Tbox and Abox)
SCOPE FOR THIS PRESENTATION
10
11
conversions done
first IFC graphs are there
12
Size multiplies with 10!!!!!!
file size is huge
triple count is too high
13
• 417.033 entity instances
• 45.085 are instances of IfcCartesianPoint (10,6%)
• Geometry typically occupies 70 to 80 percent of an IFC model
• The majority of geometric entities and properties is represented using LISTs
statistics for Book Tower sample model
1 ENTITY IfcCartesianPoint
2 SUBTYPE OF (IfcPoint);
3 Coordinates : LIST [1:3] OF IfcLengthMeasure;
4 DERIVE
5 Dim : IfcDimensionCount := HIINDEX(Coordinates);
6 WHERE
7 CP2Dor3D : HIINDEX(Coordinates) >= 2;
8 END_ENTITY;
14
IfcCartesianPoint defined in EXPRESS
1 #37=IFCCARTESIANPOINT((0.,0.,-350.));
15
IfcCartesianPoint in an IFC SPF
=> Near to impossible to be more efficient than this, in terms of file size
=> Impossible to be more efficient than this using RDF, in terms of file size
=> Let us please be as efficient as possible when aiming at benefits
associated with RDF graphs
:UMultiplicities.
:ColourIndex.
:ListPositions.
:KnotMultiplicities.
:VMultiplicities.
:RefLongitude.
:RefLatitude.
:WeightsData.
:DirectionRatios.
:MaterialLayers.
:Roles_of_IfcOrganization.
:Roles_of_IfcPersonAndOrganization.
:Roles_of_IfcPerson.
:Segments.
:Pixel.
:Vertices.
:DefinedValues.
:RowCells.
:EnumerationValues.
:ListValues_of_IfcIrregularTimeSeriesValue.
:EnumerationValues.
:DefiningValues.
:ListValues_of_IfcTimeSeriesValue.
:ListValues_of_IfcPropertyListValue.
:Polygon.
:Points.
:ControlPointsList_of_IfcBSplineCurve.
:UKnots.
:Knots.
:Coordinates_of_IfcTextureVertex.
:VKnots.
:ElectronicMailAddresses.
:AddressLines.
:SuffixTitles.
:FacsimileNumbers.
:PrefixTitles.
:MiddleNames.
:TelephoneNumbers.
:TexCoordsList.
:Normals.
:LuminousIntensity.
:BendingParameters_of_IfcReinforcingBarType.
:BendingParameters_of_IfcReinforcingMeshType.
:CostValues.
:Addresses_of_IfcOrganization.
:Addresses_of_IfcPerson.
:SecondaryPlaneAngle.
:OffsetDistances.
:Coordinates_of_IfcCartesianPoint.
:OffsetValues_of_IfcMaterialLayerWithOffsets.
:SurfaceReinforcement1.
:SurfaceReinforcement2.
:OffsetValues_of_IfcMaterialProfileWithOffsets.
:RelatedObjects_of_IfcRelNests.
:Representations.
:BaseCosts_of_IfcConstructionResource.
:Components.
:BaseCosts_of_IfcConstructionResourceType.
:Textures.
:Maps.
:DistributionData.
:CrossSections.
:RelatedPriorities.
:RelatingPriorities.
:EdgeList_of_IfcEdgeLoop.
:EdgeList_of_IfcPath.
:CrossSectionPositions.
:Rows.
:ControlPointsList_of_IfcBSplineSurface.
:WAxes.
:IntersectingAxes.
:UAxes.
:VAxes.
:TilingPattern.
:Values_of_IfcStructuralLoadConfiguration.
:ColourList.
:RepresentationMaps.
:Values_of_IfcRegularTimeSeries.
:Parameter_of_IfcTextureCoordinateGenerator.
:WeightsData.
:MessagingIDs.
:BenchmarkValues.
:ReinforcementSectionDefinitions.
:CoordList.
:Locations.
:MaterialProfiles.
:Columns.
:NormalIndex.
:TexCoordIndex.
:CoordIndex.
:SelfWeightCoefficients.
:PatternList.
:Values_of_IfcIrregularTimeSeries.
:ShapeRepresentations.
:FontFamily.
:ReferenceTokens.
:Parameter_of_IfcSurfaceTexture.
:CostQuantities.
:TimePeriods.
:Materials.
16
DIVERSE CONVERSION
PROCEDURES
17
1. Conversion to the regular rdf:List concept natively available
in RDF
2. Conversion to general purpose list concepts
3. Conversion to customised concepts
4. Conversion to customised concepts referring to portions of
Well-Known Text (WKT)
18
conversion procedures
1 @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
2 @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
3 @prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
4 @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
5 @prefix ifcowl1: <http://www.buildingsmart-tech.org/ifcOWL1#> .
6 @prefix ifcowl2: <http://www.buildingsmart-tech.org/ifcOWL2#> .
7 @prefix ifcowl3: <http://www.buildingsmart-tech.org/ifcOWL3#> .
8 @prefix ifcowl4: <http://www.buildingsmart-tech.org/ifcOWL4#> .
9 @prefix ifcowl5: <http://www.buildingsmart-tech.org/ifcOWL5#> .
10 @prefix ifcinst: <http://www.lbd.net/20150504_ListInstances#> .
19
namespaces & prefixes used
1 ifcinst:IfcCartesianPoint_37
2 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcCartesianPoint ;
3 ifcowl1:Coordinates_of_IfcCartesianPoint
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_371 .
4 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_371
5 rdf:type rdf:List ;
6 rdf:first ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst ;
7 rdf:rest ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_372 .
8 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst
9 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcLengthMeasure ;
10 ifcowl1:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
11 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_372
12 rdf:type rdf:List ;
13 rdf:first ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst ;
14 rdf:rest ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_373 .
15 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst
16 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcLengthMeasure ;
17 ifcowl1:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
18 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_373
19 rdf:type rdf:List ;
20 rdf:first ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst;
21 rdf:rest rdf:nil .
22 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst
23 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcLengthMeasure ;
24 ifcowl1:has_double “-350.0”^^xsd:double .
20
procedure 1: usage of regular rdf:List concept
+ rdf:List is standard.
- Not intuitive when using SPARQL or inference
engines
- Verbose in RDF/XML
21
procedure 1: pros and cons
1 ifcinst:IfcCartesianPoint_37
2 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcCartesianPoint ;
3 ifcowl1:Coordinates_of_IfcCartesianPoint
(ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst).
4 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst
5 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcLengthMeasure ;
6 ifcowl1:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
7 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst
8 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcLengthMeasure ;
9 ifcowl1:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
10 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst
11 rdf:type ifcowl1:IfcLengthMeasure ;
12 ifcowl1:has_double “-350.0”^^xsd:double .
22
side-remark: not so verbose in N3
1 ifcinst:IfcCartesianPoint_37
2 rdf:type ifcowl2:IfcCartesianPoint ;
3 ifcowl2:Coordinates_of_IfcCartesianPoint
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_371 .
4 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_371
5 rdf:type ifcowl2:List ;
6 ifcowl2:hasListContent inst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst ;
7 ifcowl2:hasNext inst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_372 .
8 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst
9 rdf:type ifcowl2:IfcLengthMeasure ;
10 ifcowl2:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double.
11 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_372
12 rdf:type ifcowl2:List ;
13 ifcowl2:hasListContent ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst ;
14 ifcowl2:hasNext ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_373 .
15 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst
16 rdf:type ifcowl2:IfcLengthMeasure ;
17 ifcowl2:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
18 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_List_373
19 rdf:type ifcowl2:List ;
20 ifcowl2:hasListContent ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst;
21 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst
22 rdf:type ifcowl2:IfcLengthMeasure ;
23 ifcowl2:has_double “-350.0”^^xsd:double .
23
procedure 2: general purpose list concepts
• the OWLList by Drummond et al. (2006)
• the Ordered List Ontology (OLO) by Abdallah and
Ferris (2010)
• the approach followed in OntoSTEP by Krima et
al. (2009) and Barbau et al. (2012)
• the approach proposed in the ifcOWL ontology by
Pauwels and Terkaj (2015a, 2015b)
• the approach proposed in the ifcOWL ontology by
Seppo Törmä and Nam Vu Hoang (Aalto Univ.)
24
example implementations of procedure 2
+ regular RDF
- Not standard
- Not intuitive when using SPARQL or inference
engines
- Verbose in RDF/XML
25
procedure 2: pros and cons
1 ifcinst:IfcCartesianPoint_37
2 rdf:type ifcowl3:IfcCartesianPoint ;
3 ifcowl3:xCoordinate_of_IfcCartesianPoint
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst ;
4 ifcowl3:yCoordinate_of_IfcCartesianPoint
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst ;
5 ifcowl3:zCoordinate_of_IfcCartesianPoint
ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst .
6 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_371inst
7 rdf:type ifcowl3:IfcLengthMeasure ;
8 ifcowl3:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
9 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_372inst
10 rdf:type ifcowl3:IfcLengthMeasure ;
11 ifcowl3:has_double “0.0”^^xsd:double .
12 ifcinst:IfcLengthMeasure_373inst
13 rdf:type ifcowl3:IfcLengthMeasure ;
14 ifcowl3:has_double “-350.0”^^xsd:double .
26
procedure 3a: custom concepts
1 ifcinst:IfcCartesianPoint_37
2 rdf:type ifcowl:IfcCartesianPoint ;
3 ifcowl4:xCoordinate_of_IfcCartesianPoint
“0.0”^^ifcowl4:IfcLengthMeasure ;
4 ifcowl4:yCoordinate_of_IfcCartesianPoint
“0.0”^^ifcowl4:IfcLengthMeasure ;
5 ifcowl4:zCoordinate_of_IfcCartesianPoint
“-350.0”^^ifcowl4:IfcLengthMeasure.
27
procedure 3b: custom concepts
+ intuitive when using SPARQL or inference
engines
+ semantically more explicit (better formal
model)
+ significantly less verbose
- Not within the current IFC standard -> need to
rewrite and convert
28
procedure 3: pros and cons
1 ifcinst:IfcCartesianPoint_37
2 rdf:type ifcowl5:IfcCartesianPoint ;
3 ifcowl5:Coordinates_of_IfcCartesianPoint
“POINTZ(0.0 0.0 -350.0)”^^ifcowl5:wktLiteral
29
procedure 4: custom concepts referring to
portions of Well-Known Text (WKT)
+ intuitive when using SPARQL or inference
engines
+ significantly less verbose
- Semantically less explicit than current IFC and
ifcOWL
- Need to stick to agreements (WKT needs to
remain WK and agreed)
30
procedure 4: pros and cons
CONCLUSION
31
Number of triples and individuals needed to represent a 3-item list like in the
case of Cartesian coordinates.
32
comparison of procedures
Procedure #triples #individuals
#triples per
list item
#individuals
per list item
RDFlist 1 17 (21) 4 5 (6) 1
ifcOWL_1 2 16 (23) 7 6 (7) 2
XYZ_1 3a 10 (14) 4 3 (4) 1
XYZ_2 3b 4 (5) 1 1 0
WKT 4 2 (3) 1 1/3 0
In (brackets) the number of triples if each individual is explicitly typed as
owl:NamedIndividual
• trade-off needs to be made between semantic precision and
computational efficiency.
• The procedures that result in the semantically most precise
representations (Procedure 1 and 2) also result in lengthy and
overly complex representations, yet they are the closest equivalents
to the original EXPRESS schema.
• The procedures that result in computationally more efficient
representations (Procedure 3a, 3b, and 4), on the other hand, could
result in sloppier data representations, which could in turn result in
errors, flaws and mistakes in the applications relying on that data.
• Yet, as many have concluded in the geospatial domain, this might
be the only option to make the use of RDF graphs and OWL
ontologies feasible for the architectural design and construction
industry.
33
conclusion
Thank you
Pieter Pauwels
pipauwel.pauwels@ugent.be
Walter Terkaj
walter.terkaj@itia.cnr.it
Thomas Krijnen
T.F.Krijnen@tue.nl
Jakob Beetz
j.Beetz@tue.nl
34

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