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• Monday, double lecture in computer lab
– 13:30-15:00 & 15:15-16:45
• http://www.dynamicdemand.co.uk/grid.h
tm
Frequency and Synchronicity
UCTE =
Continental
Synchronous
Area
LS
On the very day of the reconnection, October 10 2004, the
key steps were the following:
– Preparation: all interconnecting overhead lines ready for
operational use and idle.
– The command to Bucurest to take over the frequency regulation in
2nd synchronous zone (Romania regulates the frequency,
Greece, Bulgaria and EKC only the exchange).
– The command to Budapest to discontinue the pluralistic
CENTREL regulation and to assume the regulation by itself.
– 9:34 after fulfilling conditions ΔU< 20kV; α< 10°; 0,03 Hz < fII –fI
< 0.05 Hz in Arad substation, Sandorfalva overhead line was
connected (RESYNCHRONIZATION was carried out).
– 9:41 Subotica overhead line connected to Sandorfalva substation.
– Command to all synchronous zone block 2 controllers to restore
the LFC regulation mode.
– 9:58 Podgorica overhead line connected to Trebinje substation;
• Prior to the resynchronization, this overhead line had the biggest
voltage difference (over 60 kV) which activated all compensation
equipment in Croatia, the operating compensation generator in
BIH was CHE Čapljina, and in Montenegro the aluminium factory
was put out of operation for a few minutes in order to raise
voltage.
– 10:07 Rosiori overhead line connected to Mukačevo substation.
– 10:20 Mladost overhead line connected to Ernestinovo substation.
– 10:58 220 kV Trebinje − Peručica, 220 kV Višegrad − Požega and
110 kV Trebinje − Herceg Novi overhead lines connected.
– 11:00 – Main coordinators announced the successful completion
of the reconnection.
• The sequence of connecting interconnection lines is
shown in Fig. 4.
• As no problems in system operation were observed by
TSOs involved in the process during the test run
commencing on October 31 2004, the test run, which was
not approved for commercial contracts between former 1st
and 2nd
UCTE synchronous zone, was rated successful.
• For the period between November 1 2004 and the end of
2004, UCTE issued the recommendation regarding the
gradual increase of trade volume directed from the former
2nd
UCTE zone towards the former 1st
UCTE zone (monthly
increase by 30% to complete NTC values).
http://www.wseas.us/e-
library/conferences/2009/cambridge/EE/EE64.pdf
UCTE =
Continental
Synchronous
Area
•Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Ukraine
•Armenia
•Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia
•Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan?
•Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
http://so-ups.ru/index.php?id=ees
03:26
All interconnectors are
automatically disconnected
Frequency and Synchronicity
Mini circuit breakers
Frequency and Synchronicity
High voltage circuit breakers
Frequency and Synchronicity
Why AC?
Easy & cheap transformation
1. Transmission lines limits
2. Dispatch
3. Frequency and synchronicity
4. Transmission shortage in the EU
03:26
Interconnectors very high loaded at night!
The future of the EU transmission network
Internal EU market induces increase
in cross-border trading
The future of the EU transmission network
Massive deployment of wind and solar energy
The future of the EU transmission network
European
Climate
Foundation
Increase
of almost
400%
The future of the EU transmission network
2050
Increase from
34 GW to 127
GW
How much does a
transmission line cost per
km?
• 2- 5 M$ / km (overhead)
• 8-25 M$ /km (underground)
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:01
“Cross-border
transmission lines”
“Interconnectors”
Tree
flashover!
1. Transmission lines limits
2. Dispatch
3. Frequency and synchronicity
4. Transmission shortage in the EU
September 28th
, 2003
Huge blackout cripples Italy!
Transmission
1. Transmission lines limits
2. Dispatch
• Meshed networks
3. Frequency and synchronicity
4. Transmission shortage in the EU
• Final Report of the Investigation
Committee on the 28 September 2003
Blackout in Italy
Final Report
• (https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upl
oad/_library/publications/ce/otherreports/2
0040427_UCTE_IC_Final_report.pdf)
Frequency and Synchronicity
Alternating
Current (AC)
50 Hertz
Frequency and Synchronicity
Direct Current (DC)
Alternating Current (AC)
Frequency and Synchronicity
Alternating
Current (AC)
50 Hertz
Out of phase possible?
Yes, loads can be inductive (mostly) or capacitive
• Inductive: lags current relative to voltage (shifts current leftwards)
• Capacitive: lags voltage relative to current (shifts voltage leftwards)
Need to restore this is called a need for reactive power.
• Can be done by generators or devices (often capcitators)
• The optimal generation mix - economics
Markets refresher
10
10
10
9
9
9
7
7
7
Consumer:
Maximum buying price
Producer:
Minimal selling price
9
7
2
9
6
6
2
20
0
0
9
3
3
3
Deriving a the equilibrium price
3 6 9 12
2
6
9
10
8
7
4
5
3
1
0
105421 7 8 11
11
Quantity of
diamonds
P
Demand
(function) 10
10
10
9
9
9
7
7
7
Consumer:
Maximum selling price
3
3
3
Deriving a the equilibrium price
3 6 9 12
2
6
9
10
8
7
4
5
3
1
0
105421 7 8 11
11
Quantity of
diamonds
P
Supply
(function)
9
7
2
9
6
6
2
20
0
0
9
Deriving a the equilibrium price
3 6 9 12
2
6
9
10
8
7
4
5
3
1
0
105421 7 8 11
11
Quantity of
diamonds
P
P*
Q*
Equilibrium
price
Equilibrium
quantity
Demand
(function)
Supply
(function)
10
10
10
9
9
9
7
7
7
Consumer:
Maximum buying price
Producer:
Minimal selling price
9
7
2
9
6
6
2
20
0
0
9
3
3
3
Free market mechanism imposes a rich structure
Looking at total welfare
3 6 9 12
2
6
9
10
8
7
4
5
3
1
0
105421 7 8 11
11
Quantity of
diamonds
P
P*
Q*
Equilibrium
price
Equilibrium
quantity
Demand
(function)
Supply
(function)
7 7 7
5 5 5
1 1
PS=38
3 3 3
2 2 2
CS=15
W= 53
• You always pair the strongest
buyer with the strongest seller.
• Until supply and demand
intersect
• Isn’t that unfair?
2
Other possible arrangements:
Communist “fair” dictator
Wine
3 6 9 12
2
6
9
10
8
7
4
5
3
1
0
105421 7 8 11
10
10
10
9
9
9
7
7
7
3
3
3
9
7
0
99
6
6
2
2
0
0
1 1 1
2
3 3
5 5 5
W= 35
W(Free market)=53
(difference =18)
Free market maximizes
W=CS+PS
3 3 3
Consumer Producer
Could this be more efficient?
Deriving a the equilibrium price
3 6 9 12
2
6
9
10
8
7
4
5
3
1
0
105421 7 8 11
11
Quantity of
diamonds
P
P*
Q*
Equilibrium
price
Equilibrium
quantity
Demand
(function)
Supply
(function)
7 7 7
5 5
-6
1 1
PS=38
3 3 3
2 2 2
CS=15
W= 53
Profit!
-6 -6
Trades with a
negative value
Prices in purely
competitive
markets (energy
only markets)
D S
$/MWH
Uniform price auction
Baseload plants
(MC=0)
Peaker plants
80
PROFITS!
D S
$/MWH
Uniform price auction
Baseload plants
(MC=0)
Peaker plants
80
D S
$/MWH
Uniform price auction
Baseload plants
(MC=0)
Peaker plants
80
D S
$/MWH
Uniform price auction
Baseload plants
(MC=0)
Peaker plants
80
60
D S
$/MWH
Uniform price auction
Baseload plants
(MC=0)
Peaker plants
80
60
Quasi-PROFITS!
Optimal Dispatch
Fixed cost Power
(MW)
years Days/
year
Hrs/
day
Hrs /
year
total
hours
FC/
MWh
1,300,000,000 500 30 365 24 8760 262800 9.9
5,000,000,000 500 30 365 24 8760 262800 38.1
≈40
≈10
Levelized costs of generation
Technology Costs Table
Multitude of generation types
• Trade-off:
– Economics of scale
– Flexibility
Baseload power plants
Midload power plants
Fixed cost
per MWh
Variable
cost per
MWh
Baseload 40 0
Midload 20 30
Peaker 10 50
Peaker power plants
Technology Costs Table
P
GW
Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage
0
20
30
50
67
The supply stack
(also called “merit order”)
Shively, p32.
Very
Low
Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage
Exceptionally
high
Very
highModerateLow
0
20
30
50
Load curve
00 05 07 10 13 15 18 24
Very Low
Low
Moderate
Very high
Exceptionally high
Hours
69
P
Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage
Exceptionally
high
Very
highModerateLow
Load curve
00 05 07 10 13 15 18 24
Very Low
Low
Moderate
Very high
Exceptionally high
Very
Low
P
0
20
30
50
P=0
P=20
P=30
P=50 P=CAP
Hours
70
• Monday, double lecture in computer lab
– 13:30-15:00 & 15:15-16:45

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Ee w03.2 w_ 1. the system (transmission) part 2 & electricity generation part 1 (economics and dispatch)

  • 1. • Monday, double lecture in computer lab – 13:30-15:00 & 15:15-16:45
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 7.
  • 8. On the very day of the reconnection, October 10 2004, the key steps were the following: – Preparation: all interconnecting overhead lines ready for operational use and idle. – The command to Bucurest to take over the frequency regulation in 2nd synchronous zone (Romania regulates the frequency, Greece, Bulgaria and EKC only the exchange). – The command to Budapest to discontinue the pluralistic CENTREL regulation and to assume the regulation by itself. – 9:34 after fulfilling conditions ΔU< 20kV; α< 10°; 0,03 Hz < fII –fI < 0.05 Hz in Arad substation, Sandorfalva overhead line was connected (RESYNCHRONIZATION was carried out). – 9:41 Subotica overhead line connected to Sandorfalva substation. – Command to all synchronous zone block 2 controllers to restore the LFC regulation mode. – 9:58 Podgorica overhead line connected to Trebinje substation; • Prior to the resynchronization, this overhead line had the biggest voltage difference (over 60 kV) which activated all compensation equipment in Croatia, the operating compensation generator in BIH was CHE Čapljina, and in Montenegro the aluminium factory was put out of operation for a few minutes in order to raise voltage. – 10:07 Rosiori overhead line connected to Mukačevo substation. – 10:20 Mladost overhead line connected to Ernestinovo substation. – 10:58 220 kV Trebinje − Peručica, 220 kV Višegrad − Požega and 110 kV Trebinje − Herceg Novi overhead lines connected. – 11:00 – Main coordinators announced the successful completion of the reconnection. • The sequence of connecting interconnection lines is shown in Fig. 4. • As no problems in system operation were observed by TSOs involved in the process during the test run commencing on October 31 2004, the test run, which was not approved for commercial contracts between former 1st and 2nd UCTE synchronous zone, was rated successful. • For the period between November 1 2004 and the end of 2004, UCTE issued the recommendation regarding the gradual increase of trade volume directed from the former 2nd UCTE zone towards the former 1st UCTE zone (monthly increase by 30% to complete NTC values). http://www.wseas.us/e- library/conferences/2009/cambridge/EE/EE64.pdf
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. •Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Ukraine •Armenia •Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia •Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan? •Uzbekistan, Tajikistan http://so-ups.ru/index.php?id=ees
  • 13. 03:26 All interconnectors are automatically disconnected Frequency and Synchronicity
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Mini circuit breakers Frequency and Synchronicity
  • 17. High voltage circuit breakers Frequency and Synchronicity
  • 19. Easy & cheap transformation
  • 20. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. Transmission shortage in the EU
  • 21. 03:26 Interconnectors very high loaded at night! The future of the EU transmission network
  • 22. Internal EU market induces increase in cross-border trading The future of the EU transmission network
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Massive deployment of wind and solar energy The future of the EU transmission network
  • 28. European Climate Foundation Increase of almost 400% The future of the EU transmission network 2050 Increase from 34 GW to 127 GW How much does a transmission line cost per km? • 2- 5 M$ / km (overhead) • 8-25 M$ /km (underground)
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 34. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. Transmission shortage in the EU
  • 35. September 28th , 2003 Huge blackout cripples Italy!
  • 37. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch • Meshed networks 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. Transmission shortage in the EU
  • 38. • Final Report of the Investigation Committee on the 28 September 2003 Blackout in Italy Final Report • (https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upl oad/_library/publications/ce/otherreports/2 0040427_UCTE_IC_Final_report.pdf)
  • 40. Frequency and Synchronicity Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC)
  • 42. Out of phase possible? Yes, loads can be inductive (mostly) or capacitive • Inductive: lags current relative to voltage (shifts current leftwards) • Capacitive: lags voltage relative to current (shifts voltage leftwards) Need to restore this is called a need for reactive power. • Can be done by generators or devices (often capcitators)
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. • The optimal generation mix - economics
  • 47. 10 10 10 9 9 9 7 7 7 Consumer: Maximum buying price Producer: Minimal selling price 9 7 2 9 6 6 2 20 0 0 9 3 3 3
  • 48. Deriving a the equilibrium price 3 6 9 12 2 6 9 10 8 7 4 5 3 1 0 105421 7 8 11 11 Quantity of diamonds P Demand (function) 10 10 10 9 9 9 7 7 7 Consumer: Maximum selling price 3 3 3
  • 49. Deriving a the equilibrium price 3 6 9 12 2 6 9 10 8 7 4 5 3 1 0 105421 7 8 11 11 Quantity of diamonds P Supply (function) 9 7 2 9 6 6 2 20 0 0 9
  • 50. Deriving a the equilibrium price 3 6 9 12 2 6 9 10 8 7 4 5 3 1 0 105421 7 8 11 11 Quantity of diamonds P P* Q* Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity Demand (function) Supply (function)
  • 51. 10 10 10 9 9 9 7 7 7 Consumer: Maximum buying price Producer: Minimal selling price 9 7 2 9 6 6 2 20 0 0 9 3 3 3 Free market mechanism imposes a rich structure
  • 52. Looking at total welfare 3 6 9 12 2 6 9 10 8 7 4 5 3 1 0 105421 7 8 11 11 Quantity of diamonds P P* Q* Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity Demand (function) Supply (function) 7 7 7 5 5 5 1 1 PS=38 3 3 3 2 2 2 CS=15 W= 53 • You always pair the strongest buyer with the strongest seller. • Until supply and demand intersect • Isn’t that unfair?
  • 53. 2 Other possible arrangements: Communist “fair” dictator Wine 3 6 9 12 2 6 9 10 8 7 4 5 3 1 0 105421 7 8 11 10 10 10 9 9 9 7 7 7 3 3 3 9 7 0 99 6 6 2 2 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 3 5 5 5 W= 35 W(Free market)=53 (difference =18) Free market maximizes W=CS+PS 3 3 3 Consumer Producer Could this be more efficient?
  • 54. Deriving a the equilibrium price 3 6 9 12 2 6 9 10 8 7 4 5 3 1 0 105421 7 8 11 11 Quantity of diamonds P P* Q* Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity Demand (function) Supply (function) 7 7 7 5 5 -6 1 1 PS=38 3 3 3 2 2 2 CS=15 W= 53 Profit! -6 -6 Trades with a negative value
  • 55. Prices in purely competitive markets (energy only markets)
  • 56. D S $/MWH Uniform price auction Baseload plants (MC=0) Peaker plants 80 PROFITS!
  • 57. D S $/MWH Uniform price auction Baseload plants (MC=0) Peaker plants 80
  • 58. D S $/MWH Uniform price auction Baseload plants (MC=0) Peaker plants 80
  • 59. D S $/MWH Uniform price auction Baseload plants (MC=0) Peaker plants 80 60
  • 60. D S $/MWH Uniform price auction Baseload plants (MC=0) Peaker plants 80 60 Quasi-PROFITS!
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Fixed cost Power (MW) years Days/ year Hrs/ day Hrs / year total hours FC/ MWh 1,300,000,000 500 30 365 24 8760 262800 9.9 5,000,000,000 500 30 365 24 8760 262800 38.1 ≈40 ≈10 Levelized costs of generation Technology Costs Table
  • 66. Multitude of generation types • Trade-off: – Economics of scale – Flexibility Baseload power plants Midload power plants Fixed cost per MWh Variable cost per MWh Baseload 40 0 Midload 20 30 Peaker 10 50 Peaker power plants Technology Costs Table
  • 67. P GW Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage 0 20 30 50 67 The supply stack (also called “merit order”)
  • 69. Very Low Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage Exceptionally high Very highModerateLow 0 20 30 50 Load curve 00 05 07 10 13 15 18 24 Very Low Low Moderate Very high Exceptionally high Hours 69 P
  • 70. Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage Exceptionally high Very highModerateLow Load curve 00 05 07 10 13 15 18 24 Very Low Low Moderate Very high Exceptionally high Very Low P 0 20 30 50 P=0 P=20 P=30 P=50 P=CAP Hours 70
  • 71. • Monday, double lecture in computer lab – 13:30-15:00 & 15:15-16:45

Editor's Notes

  1. UCTE- now CSA UK, same fr, other synchronisation Ir, other synch Scandinavia, other. Soviet grid IPS/UPS But, Jutland on CSA, Kodan area on NORDEL No connections? Yes, but must be DC. See the black lines. (not all here) Kodan therefore connected to G with DC, but to NORDEL with AC Jutland to NORDEL with DC, but to G with AC Finland, back-to-back DC connection to Russia Part of Ukr on UCTE. Note… Baltic countries still on Russian grid!!! Q: what about the previous communist countries? Synchr with Russia or with UCTE? (East G, CZ, SK, P) E-germany to be reconnected mid 95. Countries created CENTREL, and made astonishing preparation… end 95.
  2. UCPTE was joined by former YU in 1974. This work manner continued until the war in former Yugoslavia, when the outage of the 400 kV overhead line Ernestinovo – Mladost on September 26, 1991 caused the system to separate following the line through Bosnia and Herzegovina therefore creating a second synchronous system to which Romania and Bulgaria were also connected. The main reason for the UCPTE separation was the destruction of the TS Ernestinovo, the key 400/110 kV substation with accompanying lines, during the war aggression against the Republic of Croatia. The accompanying lines were: 400 kV TS Ernestinovo – TS Tumbri, TS Ernestinovo – TS Mladost and TS Ernestinovo – TS Ugljevik overhead lines. In 1992 during the war aggression against Bosnia and Herzegovina, 400/110 kV Mostar substation with accompanying lines was destroyed.
  3. http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2009/cambridge/EE/EE64.pdf
  4. Iberian island – synchronized yes. But virtually no trade Trying to built lines there for 20 years!!!
  5. High fixed cost Low variable costs Low fixed costs High variable costs