SlideShare a Scribd company logo
C
Edible Vaccine Production Through
Genetic Engineering
&
Blue Rose, Orange Petunia
Submitted by:
Sarath S
II M.Sc., (Agri.) Genetics and Plant breeding
Annamalai University
Genetic Engineering?
• Genetic engineering, often known as genetic modification, is a technique that
modifies an organism's DNA using technology developed in labs.
• This could entail altering a single base pair (A-T or C-G), erasing a section of DNA,
or incorporating new DNA.
• For instance, transferring a gene from one species to an organism from a different
species in genetic engineering may result in the desired characteristic.
• Genetic engineering has been used in research and business to produce cancer
treatments, brewing yeasts, genetically altered plants and animals, among other
things.
Why Genetic Engineering?
• More nutritious food : Golden Rice
• Tastier food
• Disease- and drought-resistant plants that require fewer environmental
resources (such as water and fertilizer) : Rice, Cotton, Wheat, Maize
• Less use of pesticides : Bt Cotton
• Increased supply of food with reduced cost and longer shelf life : Flavr Savr
• Faster growing plants and animals
• Food with more desirable traits, such as potatoes that produce less of a cancer-
causing substance when fried
• Medicinal foods that could be used as vaccines or other medicines
Why people against Genetic
Engineering?
• Creation of foods that can cause an allergic or toxic reaction.
• Unexpected or harmful genetic changes.
• Inadvertent transfer of genes from one GM plant or animal to another plant or
animal not intended for genetic modification
• Reason they say for the endangering of Monarch butterfly.
• Foods may be less nutritious.
• Designer babies.
These concerns have thus far been unfounded.
C
Edible Vaccine
1
Sarath S
Edible Vaccine!
• Edible vaccines are subunit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants
and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein.
• Foods under such application include :
• They are easy to administer, easy to store and readily acceptable delivery system for different
age group patients yet cost effective.
• Edible vaccines present exciting possibilities for significantly reducing various diseases such as
measles, hepatitis B, cholera, diarrhea, etc., mainly in developing countries.
• However, various technical and regulatory challenges need to overcome in the path of this
emerging vaccine technology to make edible vaccine more efficient and applicable.
• Edible vaccines can be very easily scaled up.
• For example, the entire population of China could be vaccinated by producing edible vaccines
in just 40 hectares of land.
• Potato,
• Corn,
• Soybean,
• Rice,
• Legumes
• Banana,
• Lettuce
Edible plant vaccines
• Plants started gaining focus as recombinant expression systems in the late 1980’s.
• Plants have a very important advantage over mammalian expression system:
• They require no external carbon source as they are fueled by photosynthesis.
• Another major advantage a plant system has on a mammalian system is the absence of
contamination by mammalian pathogens.
• These advantages specifically make the production of antigens, vaccines, and other eukaryotic
proteins in plants more interesting.
What makes a candidate plant?
• Candidate plants are those plants that are most suitable for edible vaccine
production. There are a number of factors that make a plant a good edible vaccine
candidate.
I. Must have long shelf life - Cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat
II. Must grow quickly - Tobacco and Tomato have fast growth time.
III.Easy transformation - Plants on which considerable research has been carried out
and transformation techniques optimized are very good candidate plants.
• Plants, unlike other expression systems can be scaled up to need, making it easily
available to the masses.
Plants commonly used as
candidates:
• Plants with the above-mentioned qualities are generally selected to be edible vaccines. Plants such as
tomato, tobacco, rice, and maize are widely used for this purpose.
I. Tobacco: Tobacco was a previously used model plant. It has many advantages such as fast growth,
large number of seeds per generation and it is perennial.
II. Potato: A large amount of data on generic manipulation is available, thus making optimized protocols
available. The one major disadvantage of using potato is that it requires cooking before consumption.
Cooking can denaturate the antigen.
III.Rice/maize: The main reason why rice and maize are attractive as candidate edible vaccines is
because they can be stored without refrigeration for a very long period of time. But the disadvantage
with cereals is that they take relatively long periods of time and require perfect conditions to grow.
IV.Tomato: It grows relatively quickly and tastes good, thus having a broader range of consumers. The
major disadvantage with tomato is that it spoils rapidly after ripening.
• To date, various plants have been used to express foreign antigens in their edible parts and then used
as edible vaccines.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Mediated Gene Transfer Method
• This bacterium is capable of transferring a particular DNA segment (T-DNA) of the
tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the nucleus of infected cells where it is subsequently
integrated into the host genome and transcribed.
• During the genetic manipulation, the Ti plasmid is engineered to carry the desired gene
for vaccine and the virulent genes that cause tumor growth in plants are deleted.
• The transgene is integrated, expressed, and inherited in mendelian fashion.
• The whole plant can be then regenerated from individual transformed plant cell.
• It has been studied that genes are successfully expressed in experimental model plants
and when given orally to animals, the extract of transgenic plant containing the antigen
induced serum antibodies, thus can be used to produce the edible vaccine.
• The application of Agrobacterium mediated transformation is at present possible to most
species of agronomic interest, including members of family Gramineae and
Leguminosae.
Biolistic Method
• The second approach for nuclear transformation is based on the microprojectile bombardment method, also known
as the gene gun or biolistic method.
• Selected DNA sequences are precipitated onto metal microparticles and bombarded with a particle gun at an
accelerated speed in a partial vacuum against the plant tissue placed within the acceleration path.
• Microparticles penetrate the walls and release the exogenous DNA inside the cell where it will be integrated in the
nuclear genome. Thus, this method effectively introduces DNA.
• The cells that take up the desired DNA, are identified through the use of a marker gene, and then cultured to
replicate the gene and possibly cloned.
• This method has various advantages including
(1) Thousands of particles are accelerated at the same time causing multiple hits resulting in transferring of
genes into many cells simultaneously,
(2) Since intact cells can be used, the difficulties encountered with the use of protoplast are automatically
circumvented
(3) The method is universal in its application so that cell type, size, and shape or the presence/absence of cell
wall do not significantly alter its effectiveness.
• Another important use of the gene gun involves the transformation of organelles such as chloroplasts, and yeast
mitochondria.
• The biolistic particle delivery system “shoots” adequately processed DNA particles, which penetrate into the
chloroplast and integrate with its genome.
Biolistic
Method
Chloroplast Transformation
• The chloroplast’s transformation is an interesting alternative to nuclear transformation which
has come up in recent past.
• All plant cells have chloroplasts that capture light energy from the sun to produce free energy
through a process called photosynthesis.
• In chloroplast genetic engineering, the recombinant DNA plasmid is bound to small gold
nanoparticles that are injected into the chloroplasts of the leaf using a gene gun as described
above.
• This device uses high pressure to insert the plasmid coated particles into the cells.
• These plasmids contain multiple genes of importance such as the therapeutic gene, a marker
gene (may or may not be for antibiotic resistance), a gene that enhances the translation of
therapeutic gene and two targeting sequences that flank the foreign gene.
• The foreign genes are inserted through homologous recombination via flanking sequences at
a precise and predetermined location in the organelle genome. The gene expression level in
plastids is predominately determined by promoter and 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR
elements) (Gruissem and Tonkyn 1993).
Cont..
• Therefore, suitable 5′-UTRs including a ribosomal binding site (RBS) are important
elements of plastid expression vectors (Eibl et al. 1999).
• In order to obtain high-level protein accumulation from expression of the
transgene, the first requirement is a strong promoter to ensure high levels of
mRNA.
• Most laboratories use the strong plastid rRNA operon (rrn) promoter (Prrn).
• Besides gene gun, PEG mediated transformation and Galistan Expansion Femto
Syringe microinjection techniques are also used for gene delivery in chloroplast.
• Some of the advantages of chloroplast transformation technology are its low cost,
natural gene containment, site specific insertion, very high level of stable
expression, generation of production lines with a competitive timeline, elimination
of gene silencing, and high accumulation of the recombinant protein.
Chloroplast
Transformation
Mechanism
of Action
Current
Status of
Edible
vaccine
Name of the vaccine Vector Pathological condition
Rabies virus Tobacco, spinach Rabies
Hepatitis B Potato, Tobacco, Banana Hepatitis B
HIV Tomato AIDS
Vibrio cholerae Potato Cholera
Cancer Wheat, Rice Cancer
Norwalk virus Tobacco, potato Hepatitis B
Rabbit hemorrhagic
disease virus
Potato Hemorrhage
Transmissible
gastroenteritis corona
virus
Tobacco Gastroenteritis
Alzheimer’s disease Tomato Alzheimer’s disease
Colon cancer Tobacco and potato Colon cancer
Paramyxovirus Banana, rice, lettuce Measles
Plasmodium falciparum Tobacco Malaria
Type-I Diabetes Potato Type-I diabetes
Advantages:
1. Edible means of administration.
2. No need of medical personnel and syringes.
3. Sterile injection conditions are no more required.
4. Economical in mass production by breeding compared
to an animal system.
5. Easy for administration and transportation.
6. Effective maintenance of vaccine activity by controlling
the temperature in plant cultivation.
7. Therapeutic proteins are free of pathogens and toxins.
8. Storage near the site of use.
9. Heat stable, thus eliminating the need of refrigeration.
10. Antigen protection through bioencapsulation.
11. Subunit vaccine (not attenuated vaccine) means
improved safety.
12. Seroconversion in the presence of maternal
antibodies.
13. Generation of systemic and mucosal immunity.
14. Enhanced compliance (especially in children).
15. Delivery of multiple antigens.
16. Integration with other vaccine approaches.
17. Plant-derived antigens assemble spontaneously into
oligomers and into virus like particles.
18. No serious side effect problems have been noticed
until now.
19. Reduced risk of anaphylactic side effects from edible
vaccine over injection system is one benefit reported
by the Bio-Medicine.org. They reported that the edible
vaccine carries only part of the allergen compared to
injection methods which reduce anaphylactic risk.
20. Administration of edible vaccines to mothers to
immunize the fetus-in utero by trans-placental
transfer of maternal antibodies or the infant through
breast milk. Edible vaccines have a potential role in
protecting infants against diseases like group-
B Streptococcus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),
etc., which is under investigation.
21. Edible vaccines would also be suitable against
neglected/less common diseases like dengue,
hookworm, rabies, etc. They may be integrated with
other vaccine approaches and multiple antigens may
also be delivered.
Limitations and Challenges
1.Consistency of dosage from fruit to fruit, plant to
plant, lot to lot, and generation to generation is not
similar.
2.Stability of vaccine in fruit is not known.
3.Evaluation of dosage requirement is tedious.
4.Selection of best plant is difficult.
5.Certain foods like potatoes are generally not eaten
raw and cooking the food might weaken the
medicine present in it.
6.Not convenient for infants as they might spit it, eat
a part or eat it all, and throw it up later.
Concentrating the vaccine into a teaspoon of baby
food may be more practical than administering it in
a whole fruit.
7.There is always possibility of side effects due to the
interaction between the vaccine and the vehicle.
8.People could ingest too much of the vaccine, which
could be toxic, or too little, which could lead to
disease outbreaks among populations believed to be
immune.
9.A concern with oral vaccines is the degradation of
protein components in the stomach due to low pH
and gastric enzymes. However, the degradation can
be compensated by repeating the exposure of the
antigen until immunological tolerance is
accomplished (Mason et al. 2002).
10.Potential risk of spreading the disease by edible
vaccine delivery is a concern of many. Potential
contamination of the oral delivery system is a
possible danger.
C
Blue Rose, Orange Petunia
2
Sarath S
Blue Rose
• Developed by Suntory and Florigene Ltd.
• Blue pigment called delphinidin
• There are many plants that produce blue flowers in nature.
• But blue roses doesn’t exist in the nature.
• The gene for the blue color production was isolated form the petunia flower which has been serving as the model
plant for the flower pigment and biosynthesis studies.
• Blue genes are cytochrome P450 type hydroxylase (enzymes involved in detoxification in the liver) genes.
- These genes work in petals but not in leaves.
- Blue genes work most actively when petals are opening.
- Gene loci on the chromosomes were known.
• But blue genes from petunia were not successful in rose but a success in blue Carnation.
• blue pigments started to be produced at last in roses by introducing blue genes isolated from a pansy.
• The first blue roses in the world were named "SUNTORY blue rose APPLAUSE"
Production of Blue Rose:
• To introduce genes into rose cells, we first need to induce undifferentiated cells (called "callus") whose functions or
morphology has not been determined yet.
• In other words, blue genes are introduced into calluses for which no determination has been made as to whether
they may become a part of a leaf or a stalk.
• We regenerate these cells to produce flowers.
• It takes as long as one year to produce calluses, so this experiment takes time and requires extreme patience.
• The researchers patiently devoted themselves to continue the work of introducing the blue genes of pansies into
calluses.
• This was a method originally developed by Suntory.
• This technique forms the basis of the development of blue roses because it enables the introduction of genes into
many rose varieties.
• Selection of transgenic lines of pure blue from them.
• Finally, the first blue roses in the world were born.
• Further, the produced blue roses can be propagating by grafting, and confirmed that roses of the same color were
produced stably and grown normally.
Blue Rose
Development
process
Orange Petunia (A1-DFR petunias)
• Orange petunias contain a gene encoding dihydroquercetin 4-reductase from
maize, named A1 or A1-DFR.
• This transgenic complementary DNA enables production of orange pelargonidin
pigment.
• One study of three commercially distributed orange petunia varieties found the A1
type 2 allele, which matches the modification made in the 1980s and thus suggests
a direct relationship between modern orange petunias and the 1987 experiment.
• Another study noted the presence of the nptII gene, a common marker of selective
gene transfer.
• While some of the initial orange petunia experiments used a DFR gene from plants
other than maize, genetic evidence suggests maize as the original source of the
DFR gene in present-day orange petunias.
• While the original orange petunias had poor horticultural properties, plant breeders
were able to introduce the genetic modification into hardier petunia varieties
through crossbreeding.
Conti…
1. Visual
• While petunias and similar plants do not normally produce orange or bright red flowers
because they are genetically unable to synthesize such pigments, genetically modified
orange petunias have orange flowers.
• Flower size and shade vary across different varieties.
• Some petunia varieties that produce red or purple flowers also carry the gene modification
that originally created orange petunias.
2. Interaction with other organisms
• Orange petunias are not pests and are not considered noxious weeds in the United States,
where they are not sexually compatible with any wild plants .
3. Varieties
• Orange petunia varieties carry commercial names including 'African Sunset', 'Cascadias
Indian Summer', and 'Bonnie Orange' as well as 'Salmon Ray', 'Viva Orange', and 'Electric
Orange'.
Petunia carnage of 2017
• The discovery of genetically modified orange petunias in Helsinki in 2015 led to a recall and
destruction campaign by regulatory agencies in Europe and the United States.
• The plants had been imported from Germany and the Netherlands and were not authorized as
genetically modified organisms by the European Union.
• As a result, they were required to be identified and destroyed.
• The United States Department of Agriculture also conducted screenings to search for genetically
modified varieties of petunias and released guidance for their disposal.
• The event was dubbed the “petunia carnage of 2017” and resulted in significant economic
losses.
C

More Related Content

Similar to Edible vaccine production through genetic engineering.pptx

Genetic enginnering introduction
Genetic enginnering introductionGenetic enginnering introduction
Genetic enginnering introduction
cbsua
 
Biotchnological approaches in insect pest control viki
Biotchnological approaches in insect pest control vikiBiotchnological approaches in insect pest control viki
Biotchnological approaches in insect pest control viki
Vaibhav Wadhwa
 
CHAPTER 12 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptx
CHAPTER 12  BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptxCHAPTER 12  BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptx
CHAPTER 12 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptx
Jyoti Gadge
 
Transgenic crops
Transgenic cropsTransgenic crops
Transgenic crops
Archana Vardhan
 
Introduction to basic biotechnology part b
Introduction to basic biotechnology  part bIntroduction to basic biotechnology  part b
Introduction to basic biotechnology part b
HORTIPEDIA INDIA
 
transgenic breeding
transgenic breedingtransgenic breeding
transgenic breeding
Chanda Kumari
 
agrobacterium transformation
agrobacterium transformationagrobacterium transformation
agrobacterium transformation
45013
 
Molecular genetics 2 win q
Molecular genetics 2 win qMolecular genetics 2 win q
Molecular genetics 2 win q
Xu Jia Xian
 
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptx
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptxTRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptx
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptx
Niyat1
 
GMF.pptx
GMF.pptxGMF.pptx
GMF.pptx
KishanKoyani2
 
Plant transformaation technology, all techniques
Plant transformaation technology, all techniquesPlant transformaation technology, all techniques
Plant transformaation technology, all techniques
KAUSHAL SAHU
 
Gene transfer technology.
Gene transfer technology. Gene transfer technology.
Gene transfer technology.
NAGALAKSHMI R
 
plantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdf
plantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdfplantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdf
plantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdf
ChijiokeNsofor
 
G.E pillai aswathy viswanath
G.E pillai aswathy viswanathG.E pillai aswathy viswanath
G.E pillai aswathy viswanath
PILLAI ASWATHY VISWANATH
 
Introduction to plant tissue culture...
Introduction to plant tissue culture...Introduction to plant tissue culture...
Introduction to plant tissue culture...
Pallavi Channakeshav
 
Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)
Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)
Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)
DHURKADEVIBASKAR
 
Vegetables as Edible Vaccines
Vegetables as Edible VaccinesVegetables as Edible Vaccines
Vegetables as Edible Vaccines
Sandeep Gunalan
 
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdf
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdfGENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdf
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdf
Abdur Rasheed
 
application of tissue culture in crop improvement
application of tissue culture in crop improvementapplication of tissue culture in crop improvement
application of tissue culture in crop improvement
WISDOM WEALTH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, TAMILNADU
 
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY  PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
ChiranjeeviSK
 

Similar to Edible vaccine production through genetic engineering.pptx (20)

Genetic enginnering introduction
Genetic enginnering introductionGenetic enginnering introduction
Genetic enginnering introduction
 
Biotchnological approaches in insect pest control viki
Biotchnological approaches in insect pest control vikiBiotchnological approaches in insect pest control viki
Biotchnological approaches in insect pest control viki
 
CHAPTER 12 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptx
CHAPTER 12  BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptxCHAPTER 12  BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptx
CHAPTER 12 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.pptx
 
Transgenic crops
Transgenic cropsTransgenic crops
Transgenic crops
 
Introduction to basic biotechnology part b
Introduction to basic biotechnology  part bIntroduction to basic biotechnology  part b
Introduction to basic biotechnology part b
 
transgenic breeding
transgenic breedingtransgenic breeding
transgenic breeding
 
agrobacterium transformation
agrobacterium transformationagrobacterium transformation
agrobacterium transformation
 
Molecular genetics 2 win q
Molecular genetics 2 win qMolecular genetics 2 win q
Molecular genetics 2 win q
 
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptx
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptxTRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptx
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION.pptx
 
GMF.pptx
GMF.pptxGMF.pptx
GMF.pptx
 
Plant transformaation technology, all techniques
Plant transformaation technology, all techniquesPlant transformaation technology, all techniques
Plant transformaation technology, all techniques
 
Gene transfer technology.
Gene transfer technology. Gene transfer technology.
Gene transfer technology.
 
plantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdf
plantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdfplantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdf
plantbiotechnologydrew-190124090457.pdf
 
G.E pillai aswathy viswanath
G.E pillai aswathy viswanathG.E pillai aswathy viswanath
G.E pillai aswathy viswanath
 
Introduction to plant tissue culture...
Introduction to plant tissue culture...Introduction to plant tissue culture...
Introduction to plant tissue culture...
 
Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)
Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)
Recombinant DNA technology( Transgenic plant and animal)
 
Vegetables as Edible Vaccines
Vegetables as Edible VaccinesVegetables as Edible Vaccines
Vegetables as Edible Vaccines
 
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdf
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdfGENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdf
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS(GMO,S).pdf
 
application of tissue culture in crop improvement
application of tissue culture in crop improvementapplication of tissue culture in crop improvement
application of tissue culture in crop improvement
 
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY  PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
 

Recently uploaded

mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốtmô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
HongcNguyn6
 
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
yqqaatn0
 
What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.
What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.
What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.
moosaasad1975
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
PRIYANKA PATEL
 
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyer
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyerNuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyer
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyer
pablovgd
 
Nucleophilic Addition of carbonyl compounds.pptx
Nucleophilic Addition of carbonyl  compounds.pptxNucleophilic Addition of carbonyl  compounds.pptx
Nucleophilic Addition of carbonyl compounds.pptx
SSR02
 
DMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdf
DMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdfDMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdf
DMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdf
fafyfskhan251kmf
 
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................pptbordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
kejapriya1
 
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobelaziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
İsa Badur
 
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
yqqaatn0
 
Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx
Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptxMedical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx
Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx
terusbelajar5
 
BREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptx
BREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptxBREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptx
BREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptx
RASHMI M G
 
Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...
Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...
Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...
University of Maribor
 
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdfUnveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Erdal Coalmaker
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
TinyAnderson
 
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
Sharon Liu
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
by6843629
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
MAGOTI ERNEST
 
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
Wasswaderrick3
 
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvementPhenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
IshaGoswami9
 

Recently uploaded (20)

mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốtmô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
 
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
 
What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.
What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.
What is greenhouse gasses and how many gasses are there to affect the Earth.
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
 
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyer
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyerNuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyer
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme overview flyer
 
Nucleophilic Addition of carbonyl compounds.pptx
Nucleophilic Addition of carbonyl  compounds.pptxNucleophilic Addition of carbonyl  compounds.pptx
Nucleophilic Addition of carbonyl compounds.pptx
 
DMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdf
DMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdfDMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdf
DMARDs Pharmacolgy Pharm D 5th Semester.pdf
 
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................pptbordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
 
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobelaziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
 
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
 
Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx
Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptxMedical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx
Medical Orthopedic PowerPoint Templates.pptx
 
BREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptx
BREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptxBREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptx
BREEDING METHODS FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE.pptx
 
Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...
Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...
Comparing Evolved Extractive Text Summary Scores of Bidirectional Encoder Rep...
 
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdfUnveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
 
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
 
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
 
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvementPhenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
 

Edible vaccine production through genetic engineering.pptx

  • 1. C Edible Vaccine Production Through Genetic Engineering & Blue Rose, Orange Petunia Submitted by: Sarath S II M.Sc., (Agri.) Genetics and Plant breeding Annamalai University
  • 2. Genetic Engineering? • Genetic engineering, often known as genetic modification, is a technique that modifies an organism's DNA using technology developed in labs. • This could entail altering a single base pair (A-T or C-G), erasing a section of DNA, or incorporating new DNA. • For instance, transferring a gene from one species to an organism from a different species in genetic engineering may result in the desired characteristic. • Genetic engineering has been used in research and business to produce cancer treatments, brewing yeasts, genetically altered plants and animals, among other things.
  • 3. Why Genetic Engineering? • More nutritious food : Golden Rice • Tastier food • Disease- and drought-resistant plants that require fewer environmental resources (such as water and fertilizer) : Rice, Cotton, Wheat, Maize • Less use of pesticides : Bt Cotton • Increased supply of food with reduced cost and longer shelf life : Flavr Savr • Faster growing plants and animals • Food with more desirable traits, such as potatoes that produce less of a cancer- causing substance when fried • Medicinal foods that could be used as vaccines or other medicines
  • 4. Why people against Genetic Engineering? • Creation of foods that can cause an allergic or toxic reaction. • Unexpected or harmful genetic changes. • Inadvertent transfer of genes from one GM plant or animal to another plant or animal not intended for genetic modification • Reason they say for the endangering of Monarch butterfly. • Foods may be less nutritious. • Designer babies. These concerns have thus far been unfounded.
  • 6. Edible Vaccine! • Edible vaccines are subunit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. • Foods under such application include : • They are easy to administer, easy to store and readily acceptable delivery system for different age group patients yet cost effective. • Edible vaccines present exciting possibilities for significantly reducing various diseases such as measles, hepatitis B, cholera, diarrhea, etc., mainly in developing countries. • However, various technical and regulatory challenges need to overcome in the path of this emerging vaccine technology to make edible vaccine more efficient and applicable. • Edible vaccines can be very easily scaled up. • For example, the entire population of China could be vaccinated by producing edible vaccines in just 40 hectares of land. • Potato, • Corn, • Soybean, • Rice, • Legumes • Banana, • Lettuce
  • 7. Edible plant vaccines • Plants started gaining focus as recombinant expression systems in the late 1980’s. • Plants have a very important advantage over mammalian expression system: • They require no external carbon source as they are fueled by photosynthesis. • Another major advantage a plant system has on a mammalian system is the absence of contamination by mammalian pathogens. • These advantages specifically make the production of antigens, vaccines, and other eukaryotic proteins in plants more interesting.
  • 8. What makes a candidate plant? • Candidate plants are those plants that are most suitable for edible vaccine production. There are a number of factors that make a plant a good edible vaccine candidate. I. Must have long shelf life - Cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat II. Must grow quickly - Tobacco and Tomato have fast growth time. III.Easy transformation - Plants on which considerable research has been carried out and transformation techniques optimized are very good candidate plants. • Plants, unlike other expression systems can be scaled up to need, making it easily available to the masses.
  • 9. Plants commonly used as candidates: • Plants with the above-mentioned qualities are generally selected to be edible vaccines. Plants such as tomato, tobacco, rice, and maize are widely used for this purpose. I. Tobacco: Tobacco was a previously used model plant. It has many advantages such as fast growth, large number of seeds per generation and it is perennial. II. Potato: A large amount of data on generic manipulation is available, thus making optimized protocols available. The one major disadvantage of using potato is that it requires cooking before consumption. Cooking can denaturate the antigen. III.Rice/maize: The main reason why rice and maize are attractive as candidate edible vaccines is because they can be stored without refrigeration for a very long period of time. But the disadvantage with cereals is that they take relatively long periods of time and require perfect conditions to grow. IV.Tomato: It grows relatively quickly and tastes good, thus having a broader range of consumers. The major disadvantage with tomato is that it spoils rapidly after ripening. • To date, various plants have been used to express foreign antigens in their edible parts and then used as edible vaccines.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Mediated Gene Transfer Method • This bacterium is capable of transferring a particular DNA segment (T-DNA) of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the nucleus of infected cells where it is subsequently integrated into the host genome and transcribed. • During the genetic manipulation, the Ti plasmid is engineered to carry the desired gene for vaccine and the virulent genes that cause tumor growth in plants are deleted. • The transgene is integrated, expressed, and inherited in mendelian fashion. • The whole plant can be then regenerated from individual transformed plant cell. • It has been studied that genes are successfully expressed in experimental model plants and when given orally to animals, the extract of transgenic plant containing the antigen induced serum antibodies, thus can be used to produce the edible vaccine. • The application of Agrobacterium mediated transformation is at present possible to most species of agronomic interest, including members of family Gramineae and Leguminosae.
  • 13.
  • 14. Biolistic Method • The second approach for nuclear transformation is based on the microprojectile bombardment method, also known as the gene gun or biolistic method. • Selected DNA sequences are precipitated onto metal microparticles and bombarded with a particle gun at an accelerated speed in a partial vacuum against the plant tissue placed within the acceleration path. • Microparticles penetrate the walls and release the exogenous DNA inside the cell where it will be integrated in the nuclear genome. Thus, this method effectively introduces DNA. • The cells that take up the desired DNA, are identified through the use of a marker gene, and then cultured to replicate the gene and possibly cloned. • This method has various advantages including (1) Thousands of particles are accelerated at the same time causing multiple hits resulting in transferring of genes into many cells simultaneously, (2) Since intact cells can be used, the difficulties encountered with the use of protoplast are automatically circumvented (3) The method is universal in its application so that cell type, size, and shape or the presence/absence of cell wall do not significantly alter its effectiveness. • Another important use of the gene gun involves the transformation of organelles such as chloroplasts, and yeast mitochondria. • The biolistic particle delivery system “shoots” adequately processed DNA particles, which penetrate into the chloroplast and integrate with its genome.
  • 16. Chloroplast Transformation • The chloroplast’s transformation is an interesting alternative to nuclear transformation which has come up in recent past. • All plant cells have chloroplasts that capture light energy from the sun to produce free energy through a process called photosynthesis. • In chloroplast genetic engineering, the recombinant DNA plasmid is bound to small gold nanoparticles that are injected into the chloroplasts of the leaf using a gene gun as described above. • This device uses high pressure to insert the plasmid coated particles into the cells. • These plasmids contain multiple genes of importance such as the therapeutic gene, a marker gene (may or may not be for antibiotic resistance), a gene that enhances the translation of therapeutic gene and two targeting sequences that flank the foreign gene. • The foreign genes are inserted through homologous recombination via flanking sequences at a precise and predetermined location in the organelle genome. The gene expression level in plastids is predominately determined by promoter and 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR elements) (Gruissem and Tonkyn 1993).
  • 17. Cont.. • Therefore, suitable 5′-UTRs including a ribosomal binding site (RBS) are important elements of plastid expression vectors (Eibl et al. 1999). • In order to obtain high-level protein accumulation from expression of the transgene, the first requirement is a strong promoter to ensure high levels of mRNA. • Most laboratories use the strong plastid rRNA operon (rrn) promoter (Prrn). • Besides gene gun, PEG mediated transformation and Galistan Expansion Femto Syringe microinjection techniques are also used for gene delivery in chloroplast. • Some of the advantages of chloroplast transformation technology are its low cost, natural gene containment, site specific insertion, very high level of stable expression, generation of production lines with a competitive timeline, elimination of gene silencing, and high accumulation of the recombinant protein.
  • 20. Current Status of Edible vaccine Name of the vaccine Vector Pathological condition Rabies virus Tobacco, spinach Rabies Hepatitis B Potato, Tobacco, Banana Hepatitis B HIV Tomato AIDS Vibrio cholerae Potato Cholera Cancer Wheat, Rice Cancer Norwalk virus Tobacco, potato Hepatitis B Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Potato Hemorrhage Transmissible gastroenteritis corona virus Tobacco Gastroenteritis Alzheimer’s disease Tomato Alzheimer’s disease Colon cancer Tobacco and potato Colon cancer Paramyxovirus Banana, rice, lettuce Measles Plasmodium falciparum Tobacco Malaria Type-I Diabetes Potato Type-I diabetes
  • 21. Advantages: 1. Edible means of administration. 2. No need of medical personnel and syringes. 3. Sterile injection conditions are no more required. 4. Economical in mass production by breeding compared to an animal system. 5. Easy for administration and transportation. 6. Effective maintenance of vaccine activity by controlling the temperature in plant cultivation. 7. Therapeutic proteins are free of pathogens and toxins. 8. Storage near the site of use. 9. Heat stable, thus eliminating the need of refrigeration. 10. Antigen protection through bioencapsulation. 11. Subunit vaccine (not attenuated vaccine) means improved safety. 12. Seroconversion in the presence of maternal antibodies. 13. Generation of systemic and mucosal immunity. 14. Enhanced compliance (especially in children). 15. Delivery of multiple antigens. 16. Integration with other vaccine approaches. 17. Plant-derived antigens assemble spontaneously into oligomers and into virus like particles. 18. No serious side effect problems have been noticed until now. 19. Reduced risk of anaphylactic side effects from edible vaccine over injection system is one benefit reported by the Bio-Medicine.org. They reported that the edible vaccine carries only part of the allergen compared to injection methods which reduce anaphylactic risk. 20. Administration of edible vaccines to mothers to immunize the fetus-in utero by trans-placental transfer of maternal antibodies or the infant through breast milk. Edible vaccines have a potential role in protecting infants against diseases like group- B Streptococcus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), etc., which is under investigation. 21. Edible vaccines would also be suitable against neglected/less common diseases like dengue, hookworm, rabies, etc. They may be integrated with other vaccine approaches and multiple antigens may also be delivered.
  • 22. Limitations and Challenges 1.Consistency of dosage from fruit to fruit, plant to plant, lot to lot, and generation to generation is not similar. 2.Stability of vaccine in fruit is not known. 3.Evaluation of dosage requirement is tedious. 4.Selection of best plant is difficult. 5.Certain foods like potatoes are generally not eaten raw and cooking the food might weaken the medicine present in it. 6.Not convenient for infants as they might spit it, eat a part or eat it all, and throw it up later. Concentrating the vaccine into a teaspoon of baby food may be more practical than administering it in a whole fruit. 7.There is always possibility of side effects due to the interaction between the vaccine and the vehicle. 8.People could ingest too much of the vaccine, which could be toxic, or too little, which could lead to disease outbreaks among populations believed to be immune. 9.A concern with oral vaccines is the degradation of protein components in the stomach due to low pH and gastric enzymes. However, the degradation can be compensated by repeating the exposure of the antigen until immunological tolerance is accomplished (Mason et al. 2002). 10.Potential risk of spreading the disease by edible vaccine delivery is a concern of many. Potential contamination of the oral delivery system is a possible danger.
  • 23. C Blue Rose, Orange Petunia 2 Sarath S
  • 24. Blue Rose • Developed by Suntory and Florigene Ltd. • Blue pigment called delphinidin • There are many plants that produce blue flowers in nature. • But blue roses doesn’t exist in the nature. • The gene for the blue color production was isolated form the petunia flower which has been serving as the model plant for the flower pigment and biosynthesis studies. • Blue genes are cytochrome P450 type hydroxylase (enzymes involved in detoxification in the liver) genes. - These genes work in petals but not in leaves. - Blue genes work most actively when petals are opening. - Gene loci on the chromosomes were known. • But blue genes from petunia were not successful in rose but a success in blue Carnation. • blue pigments started to be produced at last in roses by introducing blue genes isolated from a pansy. • The first blue roses in the world were named "SUNTORY blue rose APPLAUSE"
  • 25. Production of Blue Rose: • To introduce genes into rose cells, we first need to induce undifferentiated cells (called "callus") whose functions or morphology has not been determined yet. • In other words, blue genes are introduced into calluses for which no determination has been made as to whether they may become a part of a leaf or a stalk. • We regenerate these cells to produce flowers. • It takes as long as one year to produce calluses, so this experiment takes time and requires extreme patience. • The researchers patiently devoted themselves to continue the work of introducing the blue genes of pansies into calluses. • This was a method originally developed by Suntory. • This technique forms the basis of the development of blue roses because it enables the introduction of genes into many rose varieties. • Selection of transgenic lines of pure blue from them. • Finally, the first blue roses in the world were born. • Further, the produced blue roses can be propagating by grafting, and confirmed that roses of the same color were produced stably and grown normally.
  • 27. Orange Petunia (A1-DFR petunias) • Orange petunias contain a gene encoding dihydroquercetin 4-reductase from maize, named A1 or A1-DFR. • This transgenic complementary DNA enables production of orange pelargonidin pigment. • One study of three commercially distributed orange petunia varieties found the A1 type 2 allele, which matches the modification made in the 1980s and thus suggests a direct relationship between modern orange petunias and the 1987 experiment. • Another study noted the presence of the nptII gene, a common marker of selective gene transfer. • While some of the initial orange petunia experiments used a DFR gene from plants other than maize, genetic evidence suggests maize as the original source of the DFR gene in present-day orange petunias. • While the original orange petunias had poor horticultural properties, plant breeders were able to introduce the genetic modification into hardier petunia varieties through crossbreeding.
  • 28. Conti… 1. Visual • While petunias and similar plants do not normally produce orange or bright red flowers because they are genetically unable to synthesize such pigments, genetically modified orange petunias have orange flowers. • Flower size and shade vary across different varieties. • Some petunia varieties that produce red or purple flowers also carry the gene modification that originally created orange petunias. 2. Interaction with other organisms • Orange petunias are not pests and are not considered noxious weeds in the United States, where they are not sexually compatible with any wild plants . 3. Varieties • Orange petunia varieties carry commercial names including 'African Sunset', 'Cascadias Indian Summer', and 'Bonnie Orange' as well as 'Salmon Ray', 'Viva Orange', and 'Electric Orange'.
  • 29. Petunia carnage of 2017 • The discovery of genetically modified orange petunias in Helsinki in 2015 led to a recall and destruction campaign by regulatory agencies in Europe and the United States. • The plants had been imported from Germany and the Netherlands and were not authorized as genetically modified organisms by the European Union. • As a result, they were required to be identified and destroyed. • The United States Department of Agriculture also conducted screenings to search for genetically modified varieties of petunias and released guidance for their disposal. • The event was dubbed the “petunia carnage of 2017” and resulted in significant economic losses.
  • 30. C

Editor's Notes

  1. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or bacteria and other very small organisms. Genetic engineering allows scientists to move desired genes from one plant or animal into another. Genes can also be moved from an animal to a plant or vice versa. Another name for this is genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. The process to create GE foods is different than selective breeding. This involves selecting plants or animals with desired traits and breeding them. Over time, this results in offspring with those desired traits. One of the problems with selective breeding is that it can also result in traits that are not desired. Genetic engineering allows scientists to select one specific gene to implant. This avoids introducing other genes with undesirable traits. Genetic engineering also helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include:
  2. in Nature in June 1999, indicated that monarch butterflies under laboratory conditions might be harmed by eating pollen from Bt corn plants. That experiment used a small number of caterpillars and gave them no choice about avoiding eating leaves that had been treated with a thick layer of Bt corn pollen. It did not attempt to duplicate real world environmental conditions.
  3. 1. The plant or the edible part of the plant has to be stored for a long time without degradation 2. Fruits take long time to grow compared to vegetables
  4. Potatoes are tubers that are widely eaten all around the world and very affordable Rice and maize are cereals that are staples in many countries.