SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Change of Concepts in International Relations
Economic Sanctions
in International Relations
Professor: Dr. Ghorbani
Student: Alireza Sanei
Oct 2018(Aban 1397)
arsanei2@yahoo.com
Meaning or Definition of Sanction
 Meaning or definition of Sanction in Business
Dictionary:
1. General: Formal approval or authorization.
2. International relations: Punitive or restrictive measures
taken, usually by several countries in concert, to
pressure a country to change its certain policies.
(1) Economic sanctions ban trading with the offending
country, and (2) Diplomatic sanctions result in
withdrawal of relations and representations.
 In international relations, sanctions are a tool that
nations and nongovernmental agencies use to influence
or to punish other nations or non-state actors.
Meaning or Definition of Sanction
 In fact Economic Sanctions have many names:
blockades, boycotts, embargoes, sometimes
even described as quarantine or economic
coercion.” (Wallensteen, 1990: 1).
 The Council on Foreign Relations defines
sanctions as "a lower-cost, lower-risk, middle
course of action between diplomacy and war."
 Although sanctions have become a common
diplomatic tool for nations, especially in the
decades after the end of the Cold War.
Definition of Economic Sanctions
 Economic Sanctions Explained By David Aufhauser:
- When a country wishes to impose a penalty on another country for political or
social reasons, it may apply Economic Sanctions.
- Economic sanctions are used as a tool of foreign policy by many
governments.
- Economic sanctions may be applied in an attempt to persuade a nation to
alter its policy, or to achieve political gain
 They can be used as a coercive measure for achieving particular policy
goals related to trade or for humanitarian violations. Economic sanctions are
used as an alternative weapon instead of going to war to achieve desired
outcomes.
 Governments and multinational bodies impose economic sanctions to try to
alter the strategic decisions of state and non-state actors that threaten their
interests or violate international norms of behavior.
Definition of Economic Sanctions
 David M. Rowe:
Economic sanctions are a versatile instrument
of statecraft used by states to try to influence the
behavior of foreign actors by threatening or
restricting customary cross-border trade or
financial flows to an intended target. Examples
of economic sanctions are retaliatory tariffs
imposed in trade disputes and the complete
cessation of economic flows aimed at
undermining a certain regime.
Definition of Economic Sanctions
 David Aufhauser:
Economic sanctions may appear in the
form of trade restrictions or boycotts, an
investment barrier, or another form of
hindrance of commercial operations
between the two countries. Additionally,
assets may be frozen, money transfers
blocked, travel restrictions implemented,
or the supply of technology banned.
Three Types of Economic Sanctions
 Three types of economic sanctions can be identified:
export sanctions, Import Sanctions and financial
sanctions. The first two variant are an interruption of
trade relations, whereas financial sanctions are intended
to hamper access to capital.
 Basically, two strategic options can be identified for
imposing sanctions:
- firstly the quick imposition of incisive sanctions that
cause maximum economic disruption,
- Secondly there use as part of a gradualist approach.
Goals of Economic Sanctions
1- Deterrence
 As stated by Lorber 2015 “Sanctions to take non-military actions in
cases where military force, where the cost of using force is too high,
but strong response is required”. Thus, the international
community resorts to the application of economic pressure against
the target state as a tool of deterrence and punishment for their
deviant behavioure.The sender country’s objective is to penalize the
target-country and to discourage other states from future
wrongdoing.(Leyton-Brown 1987)
 There are times when sanction are imposed in order to deter other
states from unwanted behavioure, by demonstrating the probable
consequences or cost of misbehavioure.
 However, the deterrence strategy has faced criticism from the very
beginning. Some scholars, Lebow and Stein among them, have
denounced the effectiveness of the deterrence strategy and argued
that deterrence rarely succeeds.( Lebow 1989)
Goals of Economic Sanctions
 2- Compliance (Coercion)
 While using deterrence, the sender country’s goal is to
prevent undesirable actions, In contrast, the use of
coercion seeks a behavioural change from the target-
state or the cessation of carrying out certain actions that
are already in process.
 In addition, the “attractive” nature of coercive diplomacy
was noted by George(1971,91), who pointed out that
coercive diplomacy usually “achieves reasonable
objectives in a crisis with less cost, with much less, if
any, bloodshed; with fewer political and psychological
costs.
Goals of Economic Sanctions
 3- Destabilization:
 Destabilization of the target-state can still be considered
to be one prominent strategy of sanctions.Through
economic pressure, the leaders of the target-state could
be destabilized. The leaders who are under economic
pressure are more likely to lose their office, rather than
those who are not.
 Moreover, according to the research conducted by Mark
Kramer (2015), negative economic conditions force “the
vast majority of people in the target-country .... To blame
their own government for the hardships and possibly rise
up against it.” ( Chile, Allende 1970)
Goals of Economic Sanctions
 4- Signaling:
 Many policy makers argue that the imposition of economic sanctions could
be considered to be a message to the target-state indicating the capability
of the enforcing state. In other words, sender states prefer to use sanctions
over military force as a more useful strategy.
 In particular, US president Barak Obama stated in 2010: “ Today’s
sanctions are yet another signal that if ... The target state’s government
continues to undermine... The peace .... , then the target-state will find itself
more isolated, less prosperous and less secure.” Obviously , economic
sanctions, which are imposed by the international community or by a great
power, always demonstrate a threat of stronger actions against the target-
country in the future.
 The purpose of “signaling” is to persuade the target-state to accept the
sender’s will in order to change wayward behaviour before launching into
military actions. Furthermore, the implementation of economic sanctions
make the potential military threat more credible and demonstrates the
sender state’s capability to the opponent.
 As Iranian case indicates, the signaling value of sanctions is still a highly
controversial topic.
Goals of Economic Sanctions
 5- Symbolic tool:
 In most cases, sanctions are viewed as a measure of
punishment, rather than a symbolic tool of statecraft.
Thus, the symbolic Purpose of sanctions is not
considered to be one of the primary goals.
 However, this element is always behind the sanctions
policy. Some scholars, among them I.Eland (1993,31),
argue that: “ ... Symbolic goals are important and may
even be vital. Nations watch the behaviour of other
countries carefully for subtle clues about their intentions
and resolve”. Indeed, the symbolic message to the world
is an important objective that cannot be neglected amid
the primary purpose of the punishment that is usually
only associated with sanctions theory.
Examples or History of Sanctions
 The Embargo of 1807 involved a series of laws passed by the U.S.
Congress 1806–1808, during the second term of President Thomas
Jefferson. Britain and France were engaged in a major war; the U.S.
wanted to remain neutral and to trade with both sides, but neither
side wanted the other to import American supplies.American
national-interest policy aimed to use the new laws to avoid war and
to force that country to respect American rights.The embargo failed
to achieve its aims, and Jefferson repealed the embargo legislation
in March 1809.
 One of the most comprehensive attempts at an embargo occurred
during the Napoleonic Wars of 1803-1815. In an attempt to cripple
the United Kingdom economically, Napoleon in 1806 promulgated
the Continental System – which forbade European nations from
trading with the UK.
Examples or History of Sanctions
 The United States imposed an embargo on Cuba on March 14, 1958, during
the Fulgencio Batista regime. At first the embargo applied only to arms
sales, however it later expanded to include other imports, extending to
almost all trade on February 7, 1962.Referred to by Cuba as "el
bloqueo" (the blockade),the U.S. embargo on Cuba remains as of 2018 one
of the longest-standing embargoes.
 Cuba (United States embargo against Cuba), arms, consumer goods,
money, enacted 1958.
 North Korea
 international sanctions imposed on North Korea since the Korean War
of 1950–1953 eased under the Sunshine Policy of South Korean
President Kim Dae Jung and of U.S. President Bill Clinton. but tightened
again in 2010.
 by UN, USA, EU , luxury goods (and arms), enacted 2006.
 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718 (2006) – a reaction to
the DPRK's claim of a nuclear test.
Examples or History of Sanctions
 In 1973–1974, Arab nations imposed an oil embargo against the
United States and other industrialized nations which
supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War of October 1973.
 In effort to punish South Africa for its policies of apartheid,
the United Nations General Assembly adopted a voluntary
international oil-embargo against South Africa on November 20,
1987; that embargo had the support of 130 countries.
 Current sanctions.
 Burma – the European Union's sanctions against Burma (Myanmar),
based on lack of democracy and human rights infringements.
 China (by EU and US), arms embargo, enacted in response to
the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
 European Union arms embargo on the People's Republic of
China.
Examples or History of Sanctions
 Gaza Strip by Israel since 2001, under arms blockade since 2007
due to the large number of illicit arms traffic used to wage war,
(occupied officially from 1967 to 2005).
 Indonesia (by Australia), live cattle because of cruel slaughter
methods in Indonesia.
 Iran: by US and its allies, notably bar nuclear, missile and many
military exports to Iran and target investments in: oil, gas and
petrochemicals, exports of refined petroleum products, banks,
insurance, financial institutions, and shipping.Enacted 1979,
increased through the following years and reached its tightest point
in 2010.
 Japan,animal shipments due to lack of infrastructure and radiation
issue after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake aftermath.
Examples or History of Sanctions
 Qatar by surrounding countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab
Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt.
 Russia (by EU, US)
 Sudan by US since 1997.
 Syria (by EU, US), arms and imports of oil.
 Taiwan, enacted in response to United Nations General Assembly
Resolution 2758 and weapons of mass destruction program.
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, (by UN), consumer goods,
enacted 1975.
 International sanctions during the 2013–15 Ukrainian crisis
 Venezuela,(by EU, US),since 2017,arms embargo and selling of
assets banned due to human rights violations,high government
corruption,links with drug cartels and electoral rigging in the 2018
Venezuelan presidential elections.
Examples or History of Sanctions
 EU, US, Australia, Canada and Norway
(by Russia) since August 2014. On August
13, 2015, the embargo was expanded
to Albania, Montenegro, Iceland,
and Liechtenstein.
Some of the most common punitive financial measures
 Some of the most common punitive financial measures include:
 Tariffs: Surcharges on imported goods, often imposed to aid
domestic industries and markets.
 Quotas: Limits on the number of goods that may be imported or
exported.
 Embargoes: Restrictions on or cessation of trading with a nation or
bloc of nations. These can include limiting or banning travel by
individuals to and from nations.
 Non-tariff barriers: These are designed to make foreign goods
more expensive by complying with onerous regulatory requirements.
 Asset seizure/freeze: Capturing or holding the financial assets of
nations, citizens, or preventing the sale or moving of those assets.
Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions
 Researchers debate the effectiveness of economic sanctions in their
ability to achieve their stated purpose.
 Success of sanctions as a form of measuring effectiveness has also
been widely debated by scholars of economic sanctions.
 Critics say sanctions are often poorly conceived and rarely
successful in changing a target’s conduct, while supporters contend
they have become more effective in recent years and remain an
essential foreign policy tool.
 According to one landmark study, sanctions have only about a 30
percent chance of succeeding. And the longer sanctions are in
place, the less effective they become, as the targeted nations or
individuals learn how to work around them.
Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions
 One of the key questions in the field of intentional relations on the
issue of foreign policy tools is “Do economic sanctions work?” In
fact, this question is highly debated amongst scholars and
policymakers.
 When looking at whether economic sanctions work, the findings in
the field are that many economic sanctions do not work, and in
those cases that economic sanctions work, it often depends on the
situation, context, and specific country effects of the economic
sanctions. Plus, there are other risks to economic sanctions, such as
the effects on civilian lives.
 It is necessary to differentiate between Impact and effectiveness. An
assessment of the Utility of sanctions cannot be limited to their
effectiveness – the costs incurred by those states imposing
sanctions must also be borne in mind.
Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions
 Some policy analysts believe imposing trade restrictions only serves
to hurt ordinary people.
 Other criticize sanctions, saying they are most often felt by innocent
civilians and not the intended government officials. Sanctions
imposed against Iraq in the 1990s after its invasion of Kuwait, for
example, caused prices for basic commodities to spike, led to
extreme food shortages, and triggered outbreaks of disease and
famine.
 International sanctions can and do work sometimes, however.
One of the most famous examples is the near-total economic
isolation imposed on South Africa South Africa in the 1980s in
protest against that nation's policy of racial apartheid. The United
States and many other nations ceased trading and companies
divested their holdings, which in conjunction with strong domestic
resistance led to the end of South Africa's white-minority
government in 1994.
Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions
 David M. Rowe 2010:
 The importance of economic sanctions to policy makers has spawned a
substantial amount of scholarly work dominated by two questions:
whether sanctions “work” and whether states should use them. The
long-running scholarly debate about whether sanctions work is essentially a
dispute over how to classify cases. However, comparing cases of
success and failure is problematic, in part because the very notion of
what constitutes the successful use of sanctions is not clear and policy
makers rarely seek to influence a single target or pursue a single policy goal
when using sanctions.
 One of the most promising developments in the literature has been the
increasing use of game theory to analyze sanctions, but this approach
does not adequately determine the appropriateness of sanctions as a policy
instrument. Sanctions research should focus instead on the basic strategic
dynamics of the sanctions episode in order to identify those factors that
contribute most strongly to the effective use of sanctions and to enable
policy makers to understand more about the consequences of using
sanctions as an instrument of statecraft.
Economic Sanctions and the Impact on Civilians
 Along with criticisms about the effectiveness of economic sanctions
with regards to policy change, many have also suggested that
sanctions do little to hurt regimes, and do much more to impact
civilians in the population. For example, in a 1990 study entitled
Effect of the Gulf War on Infant and Child Mortality in Iraq, Ascherio
et. al. found “infant and child mortality increased more than threefold
in the period from January through August 1991, as compared with
the average rates during the previous six years.
What is the Sanctions process at the UN?
 As the UN’s principal crisis-management body, the security
Council may respond to global threats by cutting economic ties with
state and non-state groups. (Chapter 7)
 Sanctions resolutions must pass the fifteen-member Council by a
majority vote and without a veto from any of the five permanent
members: the United States, China, France, Russia, and the United
Kingdom.
 The most common types of UN sanctions, which are binding on all
member states, are asset freezes, travel bans, and arms
embargoes.
 UN sanctions regimes are typically managed by a special committee
and a monitoring group. The global police agency Interpol assists
some sanctions committees, particularly those concerning al-Qaeda
and the Taliban, but the UN has no independent means of
enforcement and relies on member states, many of which have
limited resources and little political incentive. Anecdotal evidence
suggests that enforcement is often weak.
UN’s Sanctions
 Prior to 1990, the Council imposed sanctions against just
two states: Southern Rhodesia (1966) and South Africa
(1977). However, since the end of the Cold War, the
body has used sanctions more than twenty times, most
often targeting parties to an intrastate conflict, as in
Somalia, Liberia, and Yugoslavia in the 1990s. But
despite this cooperation, sanctions are often divisive,
reflecting the competing interests of world powers. For
instance, since 2011, Russia and China have vetoed
several Security Council resolutions concerning the
conflict in Syria, some of which could have led to
sanctions against President Bashar al-Assad’s regime.
How did the 9/11 attacks change sanctions policy?
 In concert with its allies, the U.S. government launched an all-out
effort to disrupt the financial infrastructure supporting terrorists and
international criminals. This campaign focused on the gateways of
the global financial system—international banks—and relied on a
handful of new authorities granted to U.S. agents in the days after
the attacks.
 On September 23, President George W. Bush signed EO 13224 that
provided Treasury Department officials with far-reaching authority to
freeze the assets and financial transactions of individuals and other
entities suspected of supporting terrorism. Weeks later, Bush gave
the Treasury broad powers (under Section 311 of the USA Patriot
Act) to designate foreign jurisdictions and financial institutions as
“primary money laundering concerns.” (Notably, Treasury needs
only a reasonable suspicion—not necessarily any evidence—to
target entities under these laws.)
How did the 9/11 attacks change sanctions policy?
 Experts say that these measures fundamentally
reshaped the financial regulatory environment, greatly
raising the risks for banks and other institutions engaged
in suspicious activity, even unwittingly.
 The centrality of New York and the dollar to the global
financial system mean these U.S. policies are felt
globally.
 “This new approach worked by focusing squarely on the
behavior of financial institutions rather than on the
classic sanctions framework of the past,” wrote Juan
Zarate, a top Bush administration official involved in
counterterrorism efforts, in his book Treasury’s
War (2013).
US Economic Sanctions
What are Extraterritorial Sanctions?
 Primary & Secondary Economic Sanctions
 Traditionally, sanctions prohibit only a home country’s or
region’s corporations and citizens from doing business
with a blacklisted entity. (Unlike UN sanctions, which are
global by nature.) However, extraterritorial sanctions
(sometimes called secondary sanctions or a secondary
boycott) are designed to restrict the economic activity of
governments, businesses, and nationals of third
countries. As a result, many governments consider
these sanctions a violation of their sovereignty and
international law.
Penalties for Sanctions Violations
 Penalties for sanctions violations can be huge in terms of
fines, loss of business, and reputational damage.
Federal and state authorities have been particularly
rigorous in prosecuting banks in recent years, settling at
least fifteen cases with fines over $100 million since
2009.
 In a record settlement, France’s largest lender, BNP
Paribas, pleaded guilty in 2014 to processing billions of
dollars for blacklisted Cuban, Iranian, and Sudanese
entities. The bank was fined nearly $9 billion—by far the
largest such penalty in history—and lost the right
to convert foreign currency into dollars for certain types
of transactions for one year.
Major US Sanctions violations cases 2009-2016
Economic Sanctions & Globalization
 The emergence of globalization as a dominant world phenomenon
has turned sanctions into a premier tool of choice for policy makers.
As a result, the use of sanctions as a diplomatic tool of foreign policy
has increased over the last decade.
 Indeed, prior to 1990, sanctions were only used twice as a restrictive
measures by the UN, specifically against Southern Rhodesia in
1966 and South Africa in 1977. However, since then, the number of
sanctions imposed by UN has increased more than ten times.
 In addition, the EU has implemented sanction in 31 cases since
1992, while the US has used sanctions programs unilaterally as a
part of its policy a full 29 times since 2010. This shift towards the
popularity of restrictive measures could be explained by the
fact that world economic have become more interdependent
and, as a result, more vulnerable to the effect of sanctions.
Economic Sanctions & Globalization
 Moreover, the US and other wealthy countries
are able to use their advantage in the world
economy in order to “ exert hegemonic
influence” over targeted states for achieving
economic and non economic
goals.(Alexander,2009,40)
 Therefore, it is possible that the implementation
of restrictive measures may seriously undermine
the target-state’s economy , as well as cause
tension with important trading partner, thus
diverting investments away.
Economic Sanctions & Globalization
 International economic sanctions are contemporarily applied within a
wide range of situations, not only the ones concerning peace or
break of it. These situations are an expression of the changes taking
place in the international arena more recently, that involve political
consequences of circumstances of nation-building in ex-colonies,
usually rich in natural or strategic resources; these consequences
are expressed mainly in internal fighting, dictatorship and open
violation of human rights of the population, spread of terrorist
actions, the real cause of which has yet to be profoundly studied.
 Common events that result in the implementation of economic
sanctions include human rights violations, the development of
weapons of mass destruction, or unfair trading policies.
Sanction of Individuals
 The concept of “ Smart sanctions” – in particular financial and
travel sanctions directed at individuals- has been developed at the
international level since the 1990s.
 List of individuals sanctioned during the 2013–15 Ukrainian crisis
 There is a United Nations sanction imposed by UN Security Council
Resolution 1267 in 1999 against all Al-Qaida- and Taliban-
associated individuals. The cornerstone of the sanction is a
consolidated list of persons maintained by the Security Council. All
nations are obliged to freeze bank accounts and other financial
instruments controlled by or used for the benefit of anyone on the
list.
 Example: Iran & Russia,
Resources
 Economic Sanctions and International Security, David M. Rowe (
international Studies Association Oxford University Press . Mars 2010
 Economic Sanctions as political instrument in IR: The case of Russian
Federation, Lenina Pomeranz.2015.
 Sanctions in International Relations on the Current State of Reaserch, Peter
Rudolf, German Institute for International and security Affairs.
 Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy. council on foreign relations,
www.cfr.org/book
 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Volume 15,
International Sanctions in Theory & practice
 Northwestern University School of Law , 2010, The Moral and Legal Basis
for Sanctions, Anthony D'Amato.
 Tallinn University of Technology, The Power of Sanctions As a Tool of IR:
Fators that Define Its Success, Christine Lumen.
 Economic sanctions (wiki pedia)

‫فارسی‬ ‫منابع‬
-،‫مهدی‬ ،‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫اجرایی‬ ‫ضمانت‬ ‫یا‬ ‫ملی‬ ‫سیاست‬ ،‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫های‬ ‫تحریم‬ ،‫مهدی‬ ،‫حدادی‬‫اندیشه‬
‫تابستان‬ ‫و‬ ‫بهار‬ ،‫سوم‬ ‫شماره‬ ‫اول‬ ‫سال‬ ، ‫حقوقی‬ ‫های‬1382،
-‫تحر‬ ‫بر‬ ‫تاکید‬ ‫با‬ ،‫قدرت‬ ‫عوامل‬ ‫بر‬ ‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫های‬ ‫تحریم‬ ‫تاثیر‬ ،‫حسین‬ ،‫هشی‬ ‫مختاری‬‫های‬ ‫یم‬
‫ژئوپلتیک‬ ‫فصلنامه‬ ،‫ایران‬ ‫علیه‬ ‫ملل‬ ‫سازمان‬ ‫امنیت‬ ‫شورای‬-‫تاب‬ ،‫دوم‬ ‫شماره‬ ،‫یازدهم‬ ‫سال‬‫ستان‬
1394‫صص‬173-134
Thanks for Your Attention
‫عزیزان‬ ‫توجه‬ ‫از‬ ‫تشکر‬

More Related Content

What's hot

“THE NEW WORLD ORDER”
“THE NEW WORLD ORDER” “THE NEW WORLD ORDER”
“THE NEW WORLD ORDER”
jpsjournal
 
International monetary fund
International monetary fundInternational monetary fund
International monetary fund
Sana Hassan Afridi
 
International trade and development
International trade and development International trade and development
International trade and development
Vaibhav verma
 
RIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptx
RIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptxRIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptx
RIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptx
GeorgeKabongah2
 
Power, Capability and instruments of Foreign Policy
Power, Capability and instruments of Foreign PolicyPower, Capability and instruments of Foreign Policy
Power, Capability and instruments of Foreign Policy
FaryalMustaqeem
 
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Machiraju Presentations Pvt. Ltd.
 
Diplomacy defined
Diplomacy definedDiplomacy defined
Diplomacy defined
leadershipmgtservice
 
NATO
NATONATO
The bretton woods system
The bretton woods systemThe bretton woods system
The bretton woods system
zimbar
 
Types of diplomacy
Types of diplomacyTypes of diplomacy
Types of diplomacy
nazeerhussain23
 
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
Aditi Mahapadi
 
Exchange rate regimes
Exchange rate regimesExchange rate regimes
Exchange rate regimes
Sandrea Butcher
 
Introduction to international finance
Introduction to international financeIntroduction to international finance
Introduction to international finance
Dr. Md Mohan Uddin
 
Bretton woods system
Bretton woods systemBretton woods system
Bretton woods system
Ängel Rözi Rozi
 
DIPLOMACY
DIPLOMACYDIPLOMACY
DIPLOMACY
T R Chanchal
 
International trade notes
International trade notes International trade notes
International trade notes
Mrdasilvasjha
 
Protectionism.ppt. by hope
Protectionism.ppt. by hopeProtectionism.ppt. by hope
Protectionism.ppt. by hope
Nakib Khan
 
International Debt
International DebtInternational Debt
International Debt
brianbelen
 
International Trade
International TradeInternational Trade
International Trade
Ethel
 
The linkage between foreign policy and diplomacy
The linkage between foreign policy and diplomacyThe linkage between foreign policy and diplomacy
The linkage between foreign policy and diplomacy
University Of Gujrat
 

What's hot (20)

“THE NEW WORLD ORDER”
“THE NEW WORLD ORDER” “THE NEW WORLD ORDER”
“THE NEW WORLD ORDER”
 
International monetary fund
International monetary fundInternational monetary fund
International monetary fund
 
International trade and development
International trade and development International trade and development
International trade and development
 
RIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptx
RIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptxRIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptx
RIR 106 Introduction to International Political Economy course outline.pptx
 
Power, Capability and instruments of Foreign Policy
Power, Capability and instruments of Foreign PolicyPower, Capability and instruments of Foreign Policy
Power, Capability and instruments of Foreign Policy
 
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
 
Diplomacy defined
Diplomacy definedDiplomacy defined
Diplomacy defined
 
NATO
NATONATO
NATO
 
The bretton woods system
The bretton woods systemThe bretton woods system
The bretton woods system
 
Types of diplomacy
Types of diplomacyTypes of diplomacy
Types of diplomacy
 
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
 
Exchange rate regimes
Exchange rate regimesExchange rate regimes
Exchange rate regimes
 
Introduction to international finance
Introduction to international financeIntroduction to international finance
Introduction to international finance
 
Bretton woods system
Bretton woods systemBretton woods system
Bretton woods system
 
DIPLOMACY
DIPLOMACYDIPLOMACY
DIPLOMACY
 
International trade notes
International trade notes International trade notes
International trade notes
 
Protectionism.ppt. by hope
Protectionism.ppt. by hopeProtectionism.ppt. by hope
Protectionism.ppt. by hope
 
International Debt
International DebtInternational Debt
International Debt
 
International Trade
International TradeInternational Trade
International Trade
 
The linkage between foreign policy and diplomacy
The linkage between foreign policy and diplomacyThe linkage between foreign policy and diplomacy
The linkage between foreign policy and diplomacy
 

Similar to Economic Sanctions in International Relations

Bretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods ConferenceBretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods Conference
Gilroy ECA
 
Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...
Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...
Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...
uttamuditi
 
Green Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptx
Green Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptxGreen Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptx
Green Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptx
DanMarcBorja
 
A case study of irainian practice
A case study of irainian practiceA case study of irainian practice
A case study of irainian practice
Irfan iftekhar
 
Energy Sanctions Case Study
Energy Sanctions Case StudyEnergy Sanctions Case Study
Energy Sanctions Case Study
Patty Buckley
 
111 economic statecraft
111 economic statecraft111 economic statecraft
111 economic statecraft
Eliza Sulaimanova
 
Iran economic sanctions
Iran economic sanctionsIran economic sanctions
Iran economic sanctions
Irfan iftekhar
 
Economic Sanctions Russia -with notes
Economic Sanctions Russia -with notesEconomic Sanctions Russia -with notes
Economic Sanctions Russia -with notes
Marian Dent
 
The structures of globalization
The structures of globalizationThe structures of globalization
The structures of globalization
KeithCeremonia
 
Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38
Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38
Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38
Paulina Méndez
 
Direct and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. Malkawi
Direct and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. MalkawiDirect and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. Malkawi
Direct and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. Malkawi
Bashar H Malkawi
 
Financial transactiontax issue3
Financial transactiontax issue3Financial transactiontax issue3
Financial transactiontax issue3
ManfredNolte
 
Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...
Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...
Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...
YogeshIJTSRD
 
Political science part x
Political science part xPolitical science part x
Political science part x
Alona Salva
 
International finance
International financeInternational finance
International finance
elvism
 
Foreign policy
Foreign policyForeign policy
Foreign policy
Jordan Carter
 
Lecture 10 defeating terrorism
Lecture 10   defeating terrorismLecture 10   defeating terrorism
Lecture 10 defeating terrorism
James Feldkamp
 
Group 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptx
Group 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptxGroup 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptx
Group 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptx
CristyJulian
 
William Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docx
William Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docxWilliam Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docx
William Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docx
adolphoyonker
 
Chap. 3. international monetary system
Chap. 3. international monetary systemChap. 3. international monetary system
Chap. 3. international monetary system
Scarlett Voughn
 

Similar to Economic Sanctions in International Relations (20)

Bretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods ConferenceBretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods Conference
 
Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...
Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...
Sanctions and types of Sanctions in Ibnternational law along with its scope a...
 
Green Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptx
Green Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptxGreen Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptx
Green Illustrated Sustainable World Presentation.pptx
 
A case study of irainian practice
A case study of irainian practiceA case study of irainian practice
A case study of irainian practice
 
Energy Sanctions Case Study
Energy Sanctions Case StudyEnergy Sanctions Case Study
Energy Sanctions Case Study
 
111 economic statecraft
111 economic statecraft111 economic statecraft
111 economic statecraft
 
Iran economic sanctions
Iran economic sanctionsIran economic sanctions
Iran economic sanctions
 
Economic Sanctions Russia -with notes
Economic Sanctions Russia -with notesEconomic Sanctions Russia -with notes
Economic Sanctions Russia -with notes
 
The structures of globalization
The structures of globalizationThe structures of globalization
The structures of globalization
 
Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38
Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38
Coercive diplomacy, 26 11-2012 22h38
 
Direct and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. Malkawi
Direct and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. MalkawiDirect and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. Malkawi
Direct and indirect expropriation of FDI Supervised by Bashar H. Malkawi
 
Financial transactiontax issue3
Financial transactiontax issue3Financial transactiontax issue3
Financial transactiontax issue3
 
Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...
Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...
Chinese Yuan and American Dollar Influence in The World Financial Benefit Con...
 
Political science part x
Political science part xPolitical science part x
Political science part x
 
International finance
International financeInternational finance
International finance
 
Foreign policy
Foreign policyForeign policy
Foreign policy
 
Lecture 10 defeating terrorism
Lecture 10   defeating terrorismLecture 10   defeating terrorism
Lecture 10 defeating terrorism
 
Group 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptx
Group 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptxGroup 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptx
Group 2 ppt politics globalizatio.pptx
 
William Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docx
William Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docxWilliam Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docx
William Douglas- Idea 1 (pg. 199) The association of people .docx
 
Chap. 3. international monetary system
Chap. 3. international monetary systemChap. 3. international monetary system
Chap. 3. international monetary system
 

Recently uploaded

What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
Newman Leech
 
Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...
Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...
Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...
khannsohil539
 
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
ILC- UK
 
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
Yashwanth Rm
 
Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)
Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)
Vadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdf
Vadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdfVadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdf
Vadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdf
johnson100mee
 
Application Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of Money
Application Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of MoneyApplication Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of Money
Application Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of Money
vineetabhati1
 
Tiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docx
Tiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docxTiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docx
Tiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docx
lamluanvan.net Viết thuê luận văn
 
Accounting Information Systems (AIS).pptx
Accounting Information Systems (AIS).pptxAccounting Information Systems (AIS).pptx
Accounting Information Systems (AIS).pptx
TIZITAWMASRESHA
 
Money management lesson 1 all you want know
Money management lesson 1 all you want knowMoney management lesson 1 all you want know
Money management lesson 1 all you want know
LuigiProsperi1
 
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdfSeven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
FinTech Belgium
 
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
asukqco
 
Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7
Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7 Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7
Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7
shaankumar98663
 
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
brunasordi905
 
足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
tuppermarvin593
 
BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...
BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...
BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...
Neil Day
 
Enhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impact
Enhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impactEnhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impact
Enhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impact
Alexander Belyaev
 
CONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDAD
CONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDADCONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDAD
CONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDAD
godiperoficial
 
一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理
eeqcxun
 
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptxBudgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Godwin Emmanuel Oyedokun MBA MSc PhD FCA FCTI FCNA CFE FFAR
 

Recently uploaded (20)

What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
What Lessons Can New Investors Learn from Newman Leech’s Success?
 
Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...
Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...
Independent Call Girls Visakhapatnam 8800000000 Low Rate HIgh Profile Visakha...
 
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
13 Jun 24 ILC Retirement Income Summit - slides.pptx
 
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
The various stages, after the initial invitation has been made to the public ...
 
Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)
Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)
Economic trends from a business point of view (May 2024)
 
Vadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdf
Vadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdfVadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdf
Vadhavan Port Development _ What to Expect In and Beyond (1).pdf
 
Application Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of Money
Application Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of MoneyApplication Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of Money
Application Of mathematics in Finance- Time Value of Money
 
Tiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docx
Tiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docxTiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docx
Tiểu luận: PURPOSE OF BUDGETING IN SME.docx
 
Accounting Information Systems (AIS).pptx
Accounting Information Systems (AIS).pptxAccounting Information Systems (AIS).pptx
Accounting Information Systems (AIS).pptx
 
Money management lesson 1 all you want know
Money management lesson 1 all you want knowMoney management lesson 1 all you want know
Money management lesson 1 all you want know
 
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdfSeven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
Seven Camp April 2024 Cohort Booklet.pdf
 
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(cwu毕业证书)美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
 
Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7
Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7 Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7
Call Girls Bangalore 9024918724 Verified Service Available Near Me 24x7
 
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注买球-欧洲杯投注买球网|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
 
足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
足球博彩-足球博彩在哪个软件买球-足球博彩买球软件下载|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
 
BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...
BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...
BIHC Briefing June 2024 from Bank+Insurance Hybrid Capital in association wit...
 
Enhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impact
Enhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impactEnhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impact
Enhanced metrics to measure the Regulatory impact
 
CONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDAD
CONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDADCONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDAD
CONTABILIDAD FINANCIERA / ENSAYO DE CONTABILIDAD
 
一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(leeds学位证书)英国利兹大学毕业证如何办理
 
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptxBudgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
Budgeting as a Control Tool in Govt Accounting in Nigeria Prof Oyedokun.pptx
 

Economic Sanctions in International Relations

  • 1. Change of Concepts in International Relations Economic Sanctions in International Relations Professor: Dr. Ghorbani Student: Alireza Sanei Oct 2018(Aban 1397) arsanei2@yahoo.com
  • 2. Meaning or Definition of Sanction  Meaning or definition of Sanction in Business Dictionary: 1. General: Formal approval or authorization. 2. International relations: Punitive or restrictive measures taken, usually by several countries in concert, to pressure a country to change its certain policies. (1) Economic sanctions ban trading with the offending country, and (2) Diplomatic sanctions result in withdrawal of relations and representations.  In international relations, sanctions are a tool that nations and nongovernmental agencies use to influence or to punish other nations or non-state actors.
  • 3. Meaning or Definition of Sanction  In fact Economic Sanctions have many names: blockades, boycotts, embargoes, sometimes even described as quarantine or economic coercion.” (Wallensteen, 1990: 1).  The Council on Foreign Relations defines sanctions as "a lower-cost, lower-risk, middle course of action between diplomacy and war."  Although sanctions have become a common diplomatic tool for nations, especially in the decades after the end of the Cold War.
  • 4. Definition of Economic Sanctions  Economic Sanctions Explained By David Aufhauser: - When a country wishes to impose a penalty on another country for political or social reasons, it may apply Economic Sanctions. - Economic sanctions are used as a tool of foreign policy by many governments. - Economic sanctions may be applied in an attempt to persuade a nation to alter its policy, or to achieve political gain  They can be used as a coercive measure for achieving particular policy goals related to trade or for humanitarian violations. Economic sanctions are used as an alternative weapon instead of going to war to achieve desired outcomes.  Governments and multinational bodies impose economic sanctions to try to alter the strategic decisions of state and non-state actors that threaten their interests or violate international norms of behavior.
  • 5. Definition of Economic Sanctions  David M. Rowe: Economic sanctions are a versatile instrument of statecraft used by states to try to influence the behavior of foreign actors by threatening or restricting customary cross-border trade or financial flows to an intended target. Examples of economic sanctions are retaliatory tariffs imposed in trade disputes and the complete cessation of economic flows aimed at undermining a certain regime.
  • 6. Definition of Economic Sanctions  David Aufhauser: Economic sanctions may appear in the form of trade restrictions or boycotts, an investment barrier, or another form of hindrance of commercial operations between the two countries. Additionally, assets may be frozen, money transfers blocked, travel restrictions implemented, or the supply of technology banned.
  • 7. Three Types of Economic Sanctions  Three types of economic sanctions can be identified: export sanctions, Import Sanctions and financial sanctions. The first two variant are an interruption of trade relations, whereas financial sanctions are intended to hamper access to capital.  Basically, two strategic options can be identified for imposing sanctions: - firstly the quick imposition of incisive sanctions that cause maximum economic disruption, - Secondly there use as part of a gradualist approach.
  • 8. Goals of Economic Sanctions 1- Deterrence  As stated by Lorber 2015 “Sanctions to take non-military actions in cases where military force, where the cost of using force is too high, but strong response is required”. Thus, the international community resorts to the application of economic pressure against the target state as a tool of deterrence and punishment for their deviant behavioure.The sender country’s objective is to penalize the target-country and to discourage other states from future wrongdoing.(Leyton-Brown 1987)  There are times when sanction are imposed in order to deter other states from unwanted behavioure, by demonstrating the probable consequences or cost of misbehavioure.  However, the deterrence strategy has faced criticism from the very beginning. Some scholars, Lebow and Stein among them, have denounced the effectiveness of the deterrence strategy and argued that deterrence rarely succeeds.( Lebow 1989)
  • 9. Goals of Economic Sanctions  2- Compliance (Coercion)  While using deterrence, the sender country’s goal is to prevent undesirable actions, In contrast, the use of coercion seeks a behavioural change from the target- state or the cessation of carrying out certain actions that are already in process.  In addition, the “attractive” nature of coercive diplomacy was noted by George(1971,91), who pointed out that coercive diplomacy usually “achieves reasonable objectives in a crisis with less cost, with much less, if any, bloodshed; with fewer political and psychological costs.
  • 10. Goals of Economic Sanctions  3- Destabilization:  Destabilization of the target-state can still be considered to be one prominent strategy of sanctions.Through economic pressure, the leaders of the target-state could be destabilized. The leaders who are under economic pressure are more likely to lose their office, rather than those who are not.  Moreover, according to the research conducted by Mark Kramer (2015), negative economic conditions force “the vast majority of people in the target-country .... To blame their own government for the hardships and possibly rise up against it.” ( Chile, Allende 1970)
  • 11. Goals of Economic Sanctions  4- Signaling:  Many policy makers argue that the imposition of economic sanctions could be considered to be a message to the target-state indicating the capability of the enforcing state. In other words, sender states prefer to use sanctions over military force as a more useful strategy.  In particular, US president Barak Obama stated in 2010: “ Today’s sanctions are yet another signal that if ... The target state’s government continues to undermine... The peace .... , then the target-state will find itself more isolated, less prosperous and less secure.” Obviously , economic sanctions, which are imposed by the international community or by a great power, always demonstrate a threat of stronger actions against the target- country in the future.  The purpose of “signaling” is to persuade the target-state to accept the sender’s will in order to change wayward behaviour before launching into military actions. Furthermore, the implementation of economic sanctions make the potential military threat more credible and demonstrates the sender state’s capability to the opponent.  As Iranian case indicates, the signaling value of sanctions is still a highly controversial topic.
  • 12. Goals of Economic Sanctions  5- Symbolic tool:  In most cases, sanctions are viewed as a measure of punishment, rather than a symbolic tool of statecraft. Thus, the symbolic Purpose of sanctions is not considered to be one of the primary goals.  However, this element is always behind the sanctions policy. Some scholars, among them I.Eland (1993,31), argue that: “ ... Symbolic goals are important and may even be vital. Nations watch the behaviour of other countries carefully for subtle clues about their intentions and resolve”. Indeed, the symbolic message to the world is an important objective that cannot be neglected amid the primary purpose of the punishment that is usually only associated with sanctions theory.
  • 13. Examples or History of Sanctions  The Embargo of 1807 involved a series of laws passed by the U.S. Congress 1806–1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. Britain and France were engaged in a major war; the U.S. wanted to remain neutral and to trade with both sides, but neither side wanted the other to import American supplies.American national-interest policy aimed to use the new laws to avoid war and to force that country to respect American rights.The embargo failed to achieve its aims, and Jefferson repealed the embargo legislation in March 1809.  One of the most comprehensive attempts at an embargo occurred during the Napoleonic Wars of 1803-1815. In an attempt to cripple the United Kingdom economically, Napoleon in 1806 promulgated the Continental System – which forbade European nations from trading with the UK.
  • 14. Examples or History of Sanctions  The United States imposed an embargo on Cuba on March 14, 1958, during the Fulgencio Batista regime. At first the embargo applied only to arms sales, however it later expanded to include other imports, extending to almost all trade on February 7, 1962.Referred to by Cuba as "el bloqueo" (the blockade),the U.S. embargo on Cuba remains as of 2018 one of the longest-standing embargoes.  Cuba (United States embargo against Cuba), arms, consumer goods, money, enacted 1958.  North Korea  international sanctions imposed on North Korea since the Korean War of 1950–1953 eased under the Sunshine Policy of South Korean President Kim Dae Jung and of U.S. President Bill Clinton. but tightened again in 2010.  by UN, USA, EU , luxury goods (and arms), enacted 2006.  United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718 (2006) – a reaction to the DPRK's claim of a nuclear test.
  • 15. Examples or History of Sanctions  In 1973–1974, Arab nations imposed an oil embargo against the United States and other industrialized nations which supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War of October 1973.  In effort to punish South Africa for its policies of apartheid, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a voluntary international oil-embargo against South Africa on November 20, 1987; that embargo had the support of 130 countries.  Current sanctions.  Burma – the European Union's sanctions against Burma (Myanmar), based on lack of democracy and human rights infringements.  China (by EU and US), arms embargo, enacted in response to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.  European Union arms embargo on the People's Republic of China.
  • 16. Examples or History of Sanctions  Gaza Strip by Israel since 2001, under arms blockade since 2007 due to the large number of illicit arms traffic used to wage war, (occupied officially from 1967 to 2005).  Indonesia (by Australia), live cattle because of cruel slaughter methods in Indonesia.  Iran: by US and its allies, notably bar nuclear, missile and many military exports to Iran and target investments in: oil, gas and petrochemicals, exports of refined petroleum products, banks, insurance, financial institutions, and shipping.Enacted 1979, increased through the following years and reached its tightest point in 2010.  Japan,animal shipments due to lack of infrastructure and radiation issue after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake aftermath.
  • 17. Examples or History of Sanctions  Qatar by surrounding countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt.  Russia (by EU, US)  Sudan by US since 1997.  Syria (by EU, US), arms and imports of oil.  Taiwan, enacted in response to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 and weapons of mass destruction program.  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, (by UN), consumer goods, enacted 1975.  International sanctions during the 2013–15 Ukrainian crisis  Venezuela,(by EU, US),since 2017,arms embargo and selling of assets banned due to human rights violations,high government corruption,links with drug cartels and electoral rigging in the 2018 Venezuelan presidential elections.
  • 18. Examples or History of Sanctions  EU, US, Australia, Canada and Norway (by Russia) since August 2014. On August 13, 2015, the embargo was expanded to Albania, Montenegro, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.
  • 19. Some of the most common punitive financial measures  Some of the most common punitive financial measures include:  Tariffs: Surcharges on imported goods, often imposed to aid domestic industries and markets.  Quotas: Limits on the number of goods that may be imported or exported.  Embargoes: Restrictions on or cessation of trading with a nation or bloc of nations. These can include limiting or banning travel by individuals to and from nations.  Non-tariff barriers: These are designed to make foreign goods more expensive by complying with onerous regulatory requirements.  Asset seizure/freeze: Capturing or holding the financial assets of nations, citizens, or preventing the sale or moving of those assets.
  • 20. Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions  Researchers debate the effectiveness of economic sanctions in their ability to achieve their stated purpose.  Success of sanctions as a form of measuring effectiveness has also been widely debated by scholars of economic sanctions.  Critics say sanctions are often poorly conceived and rarely successful in changing a target’s conduct, while supporters contend they have become more effective in recent years and remain an essential foreign policy tool.  According to one landmark study, sanctions have only about a 30 percent chance of succeeding. And the longer sanctions are in place, the less effective they become, as the targeted nations or individuals learn how to work around them.
  • 21. Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions  One of the key questions in the field of intentional relations on the issue of foreign policy tools is “Do economic sanctions work?” In fact, this question is highly debated amongst scholars and policymakers.  When looking at whether economic sanctions work, the findings in the field are that many economic sanctions do not work, and in those cases that economic sanctions work, it often depends on the situation, context, and specific country effects of the economic sanctions. Plus, there are other risks to economic sanctions, such as the effects on civilian lives.  It is necessary to differentiate between Impact and effectiveness. An assessment of the Utility of sanctions cannot be limited to their effectiveness – the costs incurred by those states imposing sanctions must also be borne in mind.
  • 22. Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions  Some policy analysts believe imposing trade restrictions only serves to hurt ordinary people.  Other criticize sanctions, saying they are most often felt by innocent civilians and not the intended government officials. Sanctions imposed against Iraq in the 1990s after its invasion of Kuwait, for example, caused prices for basic commodities to spike, led to extreme food shortages, and triggered outbreaks of disease and famine.  International sanctions can and do work sometimes, however. One of the most famous examples is the near-total economic isolation imposed on South Africa South Africa in the 1980s in protest against that nation's policy of racial apartheid. The United States and many other nations ceased trading and companies divested their holdings, which in conjunction with strong domestic resistance led to the end of South Africa's white-minority government in 1994.
  • 23. Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions  David M. Rowe 2010:  The importance of economic sanctions to policy makers has spawned a substantial amount of scholarly work dominated by two questions: whether sanctions “work” and whether states should use them. The long-running scholarly debate about whether sanctions work is essentially a dispute over how to classify cases. However, comparing cases of success and failure is problematic, in part because the very notion of what constitutes the successful use of sanctions is not clear and policy makers rarely seek to influence a single target or pursue a single policy goal when using sanctions.  One of the most promising developments in the literature has been the increasing use of game theory to analyze sanctions, but this approach does not adequately determine the appropriateness of sanctions as a policy instrument. Sanctions research should focus instead on the basic strategic dynamics of the sanctions episode in order to identify those factors that contribute most strongly to the effective use of sanctions and to enable policy makers to understand more about the consequences of using sanctions as an instrument of statecraft.
  • 24. Economic Sanctions and the Impact on Civilians  Along with criticisms about the effectiveness of economic sanctions with regards to policy change, many have also suggested that sanctions do little to hurt regimes, and do much more to impact civilians in the population. For example, in a 1990 study entitled Effect of the Gulf War on Infant and Child Mortality in Iraq, Ascherio et. al. found “infant and child mortality increased more than threefold in the period from January through August 1991, as compared with the average rates during the previous six years.
  • 25. What is the Sanctions process at the UN?  As the UN’s principal crisis-management body, the security Council may respond to global threats by cutting economic ties with state and non-state groups. (Chapter 7)  Sanctions resolutions must pass the fifteen-member Council by a majority vote and without a veto from any of the five permanent members: the United States, China, France, Russia, and the United Kingdom.  The most common types of UN sanctions, which are binding on all member states, are asset freezes, travel bans, and arms embargoes.  UN sanctions regimes are typically managed by a special committee and a monitoring group. The global police agency Interpol assists some sanctions committees, particularly those concerning al-Qaeda and the Taliban, but the UN has no independent means of enforcement and relies on member states, many of which have limited resources and little political incentive. Anecdotal evidence suggests that enforcement is often weak.
  • 26. UN’s Sanctions  Prior to 1990, the Council imposed sanctions against just two states: Southern Rhodesia (1966) and South Africa (1977). However, since the end of the Cold War, the body has used sanctions more than twenty times, most often targeting parties to an intrastate conflict, as in Somalia, Liberia, and Yugoslavia in the 1990s. But despite this cooperation, sanctions are often divisive, reflecting the competing interests of world powers. For instance, since 2011, Russia and China have vetoed several Security Council resolutions concerning the conflict in Syria, some of which could have led to sanctions against President Bashar al-Assad’s regime.
  • 27. How did the 9/11 attacks change sanctions policy?  In concert with its allies, the U.S. government launched an all-out effort to disrupt the financial infrastructure supporting terrorists and international criminals. This campaign focused on the gateways of the global financial system—international banks—and relied on a handful of new authorities granted to U.S. agents in the days after the attacks.  On September 23, President George W. Bush signed EO 13224 that provided Treasury Department officials with far-reaching authority to freeze the assets and financial transactions of individuals and other entities suspected of supporting terrorism. Weeks later, Bush gave the Treasury broad powers (under Section 311 of the USA Patriot Act) to designate foreign jurisdictions and financial institutions as “primary money laundering concerns.” (Notably, Treasury needs only a reasonable suspicion—not necessarily any evidence—to target entities under these laws.)
  • 28. How did the 9/11 attacks change sanctions policy?  Experts say that these measures fundamentally reshaped the financial regulatory environment, greatly raising the risks for banks and other institutions engaged in suspicious activity, even unwittingly.  The centrality of New York and the dollar to the global financial system mean these U.S. policies are felt globally.  “This new approach worked by focusing squarely on the behavior of financial institutions rather than on the classic sanctions framework of the past,” wrote Juan Zarate, a top Bush administration official involved in counterterrorism efforts, in his book Treasury’s War (2013).
  • 30. What are Extraterritorial Sanctions?  Primary & Secondary Economic Sanctions  Traditionally, sanctions prohibit only a home country’s or region’s corporations and citizens from doing business with a blacklisted entity. (Unlike UN sanctions, which are global by nature.) However, extraterritorial sanctions (sometimes called secondary sanctions or a secondary boycott) are designed to restrict the economic activity of governments, businesses, and nationals of third countries. As a result, many governments consider these sanctions a violation of their sovereignty and international law.
  • 31. Penalties for Sanctions Violations  Penalties for sanctions violations can be huge in terms of fines, loss of business, and reputational damage. Federal and state authorities have been particularly rigorous in prosecuting banks in recent years, settling at least fifteen cases with fines over $100 million since 2009.  In a record settlement, France’s largest lender, BNP Paribas, pleaded guilty in 2014 to processing billions of dollars for blacklisted Cuban, Iranian, and Sudanese entities. The bank was fined nearly $9 billion—by far the largest such penalty in history—and lost the right to convert foreign currency into dollars for certain types of transactions for one year.
  • 32. Major US Sanctions violations cases 2009-2016
  • 33. Economic Sanctions & Globalization  The emergence of globalization as a dominant world phenomenon has turned sanctions into a premier tool of choice for policy makers. As a result, the use of sanctions as a diplomatic tool of foreign policy has increased over the last decade.  Indeed, prior to 1990, sanctions were only used twice as a restrictive measures by the UN, specifically against Southern Rhodesia in 1966 and South Africa in 1977. However, since then, the number of sanctions imposed by UN has increased more than ten times.  In addition, the EU has implemented sanction in 31 cases since 1992, while the US has used sanctions programs unilaterally as a part of its policy a full 29 times since 2010. This shift towards the popularity of restrictive measures could be explained by the fact that world economic have become more interdependent and, as a result, more vulnerable to the effect of sanctions.
  • 34. Economic Sanctions & Globalization  Moreover, the US and other wealthy countries are able to use their advantage in the world economy in order to “ exert hegemonic influence” over targeted states for achieving economic and non economic goals.(Alexander,2009,40)  Therefore, it is possible that the implementation of restrictive measures may seriously undermine the target-state’s economy , as well as cause tension with important trading partner, thus diverting investments away.
  • 35. Economic Sanctions & Globalization  International economic sanctions are contemporarily applied within a wide range of situations, not only the ones concerning peace or break of it. These situations are an expression of the changes taking place in the international arena more recently, that involve political consequences of circumstances of nation-building in ex-colonies, usually rich in natural or strategic resources; these consequences are expressed mainly in internal fighting, dictatorship and open violation of human rights of the population, spread of terrorist actions, the real cause of which has yet to be profoundly studied.  Common events that result in the implementation of economic sanctions include human rights violations, the development of weapons of mass destruction, or unfair trading policies.
  • 36. Sanction of Individuals  The concept of “ Smart sanctions” – in particular financial and travel sanctions directed at individuals- has been developed at the international level since the 1990s.  List of individuals sanctioned during the 2013–15 Ukrainian crisis  There is a United Nations sanction imposed by UN Security Council Resolution 1267 in 1999 against all Al-Qaida- and Taliban- associated individuals. The cornerstone of the sanction is a consolidated list of persons maintained by the Security Council. All nations are obliged to freeze bank accounts and other financial instruments controlled by or used for the benefit of anyone on the list.  Example: Iran & Russia,
  • 37. Resources  Economic Sanctions and International Security, David M. Rowe ( international Studies Association Oxford University Press . Mars 2010  Economic Sanctions as political instrument in IR: The case of Russian Federation, Lenina Pomeranz.2015.  Sanctions in International Relations on the Current State of Reaserch, Peter Rudolf, German Institute for International and security Affairs.  Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy. council on foreign relations, www.cfr.org/book  Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Volume 15, International Sanctions in Theory & practice  Northwestern University School of Law , 2010, The Moral and Legal Basis for Sanctions, Anthony D'Amato.  Tallinn University of Technology, The Power of Sanctions As a Tool of IR: Fators that Define Its Success, Christine Lumen.  Economic sanctions (wiki pedia) 
  • 38. ‫فارسی‬ ‫منابع‬ -،‫مهدی‬ ،‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫اجرایی‬ ‫ضمانت‬ ‫یا‬ ‫ملی‬ ‫سیاست‬ ،‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫های‬ ‫تحریم‬ ،‫مهدی‬ ،‫حدادی‬‫اندیشه‬ ‫تابستان‬ ‫و‬ ‫بهار‬ ،‫سوم‬ ‫شماره‬ ‫اول‬ ‫سال‬ ، ‫حقوقی‬ ‫های‬1382، -‫تحر‬ ‫بر‬ ‫تاکید‬ ‫با‬ ،‫قدرت‬ ‫عوامل‬ ‫بر‬ ‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫های‬ ‫تحریم‬ ‫تاثیر‬ ،‫حسین‬ ،‫هشی‬ ‫مختاری‬‫های‬ ‫یم‬ ‫ژئوپلتیک‬ ‫فصلنامه‬ ،‫ایران‬ ‫علیه‬ ‫ملل‬ ‫سازمان‬ ‫امنیت‬ ‫شورای‬-‫تاب‬ ،‫دوم‬ ‫شماره‬ ،‫یازدهم‬ ‫سال‬‫ستان‬ 1394‫صص‬173-134
  • 39. Thanks for Your Attention ‫عزیزان‬ ‫توجه‬ ‫از‬ ‫تشکر‬