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Ecology of Ranaviruses:
A State of Understanding

M. Niemiller

Matthew J. Gray
University of Tennessee
Center for Wildlife Health
Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries
4 February 2014, 11:30 AM, Lecture Hall B
UF Infectious Diseases and Pathology
Presentation
Contributors:
Unpublished Data

M. Brand, University of Tennessee
R. Brenes, Carroll University
J. Chaney, University of Tennessee
J. Earl, NSF NIMBioS
N. Hilzinger, University of Tennessee
R. Hill, University of Tennessee
J. Hoverman, Purdue University
R. Huether, University of Tennessee
A. Kouba, Memphis Zoo
D. Miller, University of Tennessee
P. Reilly, University of Tennessee
S. Roon, Oregon State University
B. Sutton, Tennessee State University
K. Smith, EcoHealth Alliance
J. Tucker, Humboldt University
T. Waltzek, University of Florida
N. Wheelwright, Bowdoin College
B. Wilkes, University of Tennessee
Outline
I.

Ranavirus-Host Characteristics

II. Ecology: Species to Communities
III. Effects of Stressors
IV. Commercial Trade & Pathogen Pollution
Ranavirus Characteristics
•dsDNA, 150-280K bp
•120-300 nm in diameter
(3x smaller than bacteria)
Une

•Icosahedral Shape (20)

Balseiro

Family: Iridoviridae
Genera:

Iridovirus, Chloriridovirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, and Lymphocystivirus
Invertebrates

Ectothermic Vertebrates

Species (6)
Paracrystalline
Array

ICTV (2012)

Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV)
Bohle iridovirus (BIV)
Frog virus 3 (FV3)
Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus
European catfish virus
Santee-Cooper Ranavirus

Virion

Chinchar et al. (2011)
How Does Ranavirus Infect A Host?
Routes of Transmission
Indirect
Transmission

Direct
Contact

Ingestion

Water or
Sediment

Incidental,
Necrophagy,
Cannibalism,
Predation

Skin, Gills,
Intestines
(epithelial cells)
One Second
Skin Contact

(Mortality
2X Faster)

Brunner et al. (2004), Harp & Petranka (2006), Brunner et al. (2007), Hoverman et al. (2010)
Ranavirus Replication Cycle
Chinchar (2002), Chinchar et al. (2006), Robert et al. (2011)

Viral
Transcription

within
3 hours of
exposure

Cell death
occurs
within
6 – 9 hrs
PI
12 – 32 C
Gross Signs of Infected Amphibians
Edema, Erythema, Hemorrhages, Ulcerations

A. Duffus, Gordon

N. Haislip, UT

D. Green, USGS
Signs Vary Among Species
Haislip, Miller, and Gray
(unpubl. data)

Lithobates clamitans

Lithobates
sylvaticus

Hyla chrysoscelis
Organ Destruction
3 Primary Organs: Liver, Spleen, and Kidney
Bollinger et al. (1999)
Miller et al. (2007, 2008)

D. Miller

Liver Necrosis

D. Miller

Spleen Necrosis

D. Miller

Kidney Degeneration

Pathogenesis
Target Organ Failure

Mortality Can Be Rapid!

Heart Failure
Toxicosis, Anemia

Quickly as 3 days!
Hoverman et al. (2011a)
Maine 2013 Die-off
1000 carcasses/m2
>200,000 dead
qPCR Confirmed
Wheelwright et al.
(in review)

<24 hrs

6/14/13

6/15/13
What Mechanisms Lead to Outbreaks?
Gray et al. (2009)

Gray et al.
(2009)
Species Challenges

FV3-like Ranaviruses
Single-species FV3-like Challenges
100
90

Amphibians

FV3
RI

Percent mortality

80
70
60

High

Moderate

50

Low

40
30
20
10
0

Hoverman et al. (2011): 19 Species Tested
Single-species FV3-like Challenges
15 Additional
Species

Amphibians
Brenes (2013)

Ambystomatidae

Ranidae
Life History and Phylogeny
Amphibians

No Phylogenetic Signal
P = 0.354

Brenes (2013)

All Three Isolates
•
•
•
•

Fast development hatching time*
Low aquatic index
Breeding habitat (temporal)*
Breeding time (spring)

Smoky Mountains Isolate
35 spp

• Distance: Population & Isolate
Co-evolution
Single-species FV3-like Challenges
Chelonians
Terrapene carolina, T. ornata, Elseya latisternum, Emydura krefftii , Trachemys scripta

Greatest infection and morbidity with IP
infection or oral inoculation.
Water bath exposure sufficient for transmission
with some species.
Ariel (1997), Johnson et al. (2007), Allender (2012), Waltzek, Gray, Miller (unpubl.
data)

Mississippi
Map Turtle
Soft-shelled Turtle
Brenes (2013)
Control Turtle

Fish

Amph
Single-species
FV3-like & ATV Challenges
Fishes
No Transmission:
Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus,
Lepomis cyanellus

Jancovich et al. (2001), Bang Jensen et al. (2011a)

Low Transmission:
Amelurus melas, Esox luscious,
Sander lucioperca,
Micropterus salmoides
Gobbo et al. (2010), Bang Jensen et al. (2009, 2011b), Picco et al. (2010)

High Mortality:
Scaphirhynchus albus
Waltzek et al. (in review; DAO)
Single-species FV3-like Challenges
Fishes
Brenes (2013)

Mosquito fish
Channel catfish

Control

Turtle

Fish

Amph

Control

Turtle

No Transmission: tilapia, bluegill and fathead minnow

Fish

Amph
Reservoirs or Amplification Hosts?
FV3-like Ranaviruses

Low Mortality
(Subclinical)
Reservoir

Low Mortality Low – High Mortality
(Subclinical) (Subclinical & Clinical)
Reservoir

Reservoir or
Amplification
Can Interclass Transmission Occur?

Bandin & Dopazo (2011)
Evidence from the Wild
13 February
2012

North Branch
Stream Valley
State Park

26 of 31 Box
Turtles Die
from
Ranaviral
Disease

Larval
anurans and
salamanders
dead too

2008 – 2011

Farnsworth
and Seigel
(2013)
Evidence of Interclass Transmission
Bayley et al. (2013)

Pike-perch Iridovirus

Frog Virus 3

Common Frog
Tadpoles

Pike
Pike-perch
Black Bullhead

Bang Jensen 2009, 2011;
Gobbo et al. 2010
Evidence of Interclass Transmission
0% mortality
in controls

Waltzek, Gray, and Miller

5%
Gray

Bull

Wood

Pallid

85%

80%

95%
Evidence of Interclass Transmission
0% mortality
in controls

Waltzek, Gray, and Miller

45%
35%
5%

Pallid Isolate Caused Mortality;
Bullfrog Isolate Resulted in Infection
Interclass Transmission
Sympatric Ectothermic Vertebrate Species
Amphibian

Fish

Reptile

Brenes (2013)

Can ranavirus move among host species?
Experiment
• Direct exposure
– Exposed to 103 PFU/mL
– 3 days

• 12-L containers divided in
half by a 2000 µm plastic
mesh
• Different species in each
side of the container
Turtle and Fish Results
Brenes et al. (in review; PLoS ONE)

• All classes tested can
transmit the virus
• Turtles infected tadpoles
– 50% mortality

• Fish infected tadpoles
– 10% mortality

10%
50%
Amphibian Results
Brenes et al. (in review; PLoS ONE)

• Amphibians transmitted to turtles
but not fish
• No mortality of turtles or fish
exposed to infected tadpoles
• Supporting that turtles and fish
may be reservoirs of ranavirus
• Amphibians may be amplifying
species
Superspreaders
and Amplifying Species
Paull et al. (2012)
Persistence

Host Community

Contact Rate

Disease Hotspots

•Gahl and
Calhoun (2010)
•Uyeharaet al.
(2010)
•Brunner et al.
(2011)

Superspreading Individuals
Shedding Rate

Dispersal

Contact

•Green et al. (2002)
•Petranka et al.
(2003)
•Harp and
Petranka (2006)

Amplification Species
Susceptibility

2012

Contact Rate

Frontiers in
Ecology and the
Environment
10:75-82
Ranavirus Superspreaders
Reilly, Gray, & Miller (unpubl. data)
6 hrs cohabitation

3-day 103PFU/mL

n = 10 tadpoles/tub

20/80 Rule: Superspreading
Community Level Transmission
Brenes, Gray, & Miller (unpubl. data)

Inoculated in Lab
103 PFU/mL FV3
Exposure Order

Appalachian: Wood frog, chorus
frog, spotted salamander
Coastal Plains: Gopher frog, chorus,
southern toad

Does Exposure Order or Composition Matter?
Exposure Order Matters
Brenes (2013)
Design

Exposure
Treatments
Only Wood Frogs
Only Chorus Frogs
Only Spotted Salamanders
Control

n = 5 pools/trt
10 larvae/spp
60 days

Appalachian Community
Wood Frogs

Chorus Frogs

100%
(high)
44%
(mod)

43% Chorus Frogs
12% Spotted Salam
72% Wood Frogs
3%

Spotted Salam

24% Chorus Frogs
Spotted Salam

6%
(low)

18% Wood Frogs

52%
40%
16%
Community Composition Matters
Brenes (2013)
Design

Exposure
Treatments
Only Gopher Frogs
Only Chorus Frogs
Only Southern Toad
Control

n = 5 pools/trt
10 larvae/spp
Inoculated in Lab
103 PFU/mL FV3
60 days

Gopher Frogs

Chorus Frogs

Gulf Coastal Plain, USA
100%
(high)
78%
(high)

52% Chorus Frogs
34% Southern Toad
70% Gopher Frog
58% Southern Toad
32% Chorus Frogs

Southern Toad

76%
(high)

80% Gopher Frog

62%
68%
62%
Impacts of Stressors

Gray et al. (2009)
Impacts of Development
Across Seven Species

χ 23 = 40.1 ; p<0.001

Haislip et al. (2011)

Egg membrane
may act as a
protective barrier

**
**
*

ML Estimate: Hatchling – 3X > Embryo
Larval
– 4X > Embryo
Metamorph – 5X > Embryo

**
a

b
Kerby et al. (2011)
b
Anax increased
susceptibility to ATV
b
(A. tigrinum)

b
c

b

b

c

Tree frog

Chorus frog

Wood frog

Green frog
Competing Temperature Hypotheses
• Virus Replication Hypothesis

Bayley et al. (2013)

– Ranavirus replication increases with temperature
up to 32 C High Pathogenicity at Higher Temperatures

• Temperature Induced Stress Hypothesis
– Early Spring Breeding Species:
• Stressed by Warm Temp

– Summer Breeding Species:
• Stressed by Cold Temp
Pathogenicity is Species-specific and Related to Typical Water
Temperature Experienced During Tadpole Development

M. Brand
Wood Frog
Survival and Infection Prevalence
Warm
Cold

No Control
Mortality
100% Mortality in 7 d
Clinical

= 152484

Brand et al.
(unpubl. data)

Subclinical

= 84
Spotted Salamander
Survival and Infection Prevalence
No Control
Mortality

45% Mortality

Warm
Cold
Brand et al.
(unpubl. data)

Clinical

= 6837
Subclinical

= 1700

Subclinical

= 10

15%
45%
10%
Green Frog

Survival and Infection Prevalence
40% Mortality

15%
Control
Mortality
in Warm
Chamber

Clinical

= 1871

Warm
Cold
Brand et al.
(unpubl. data)

Virus Replication
Hypothesis
40%

30%
5%

Subclinical

=9
Clinical

= 103
TN and MN Wood Frogs

Reilly, Gray and Miller(unpubl. data)
25oC Chamber

15oC Chamber

Median days to mortality:
Median days to mortality:
-Minnesota = 5.5 d 10 – 12 d
-Minnesota =15.5 d
-Tennessee = 6 d
-Tennessee =18 d
Faster
In Vitro Replication Stops at 12 C (Chinchar 2002)
Factors Contributing to Emergence
Anthropogenic Stressors:
A. tigrinum

1) Herbicide (Atrazine)
Insecticide (Carbaryl)
2) Cattle Land Use:

Forson & Storfer (2006); Gray et al. (2007); Greer et
al. (2008); Kerby et al. (2011)

ATV Susceptibility

Prevalence

Green Frogs and Tiger
Salamanders

Other Possible Stressors: Pesticide Mixtures, Nitrogenous Waste,
Endocrine Disruptors, Acidification, Global Warming, Heavy Metals

Pathogen Pollution:

(Cunningham et al. 2003)

Anthropogenic introduction of novel strains to naïve populations

Picco et al. (2007)

•Fishing Bait
•Ranaculture Facilities
•Biological Supply Companies
•International Food & Pet Trade
•Contaminated Fomites

Schloegel et al. (2009)
Risk of Pathogen Pollution

Majji et al. (2006), Storfer et al. (2007), Mazzoni et al. (2009), Hoverman et al. (2011a)
100
90

Ranaculture isolate 2X more lethal than FV3

FV3

Percent mortality

RI
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Commercial Trade and Emergence
Drs. Andrew Storfer and Angela Picco
Storfer et al. (2007), Picco & Collins (2008)
•
•
•
•
•
•

85% bait shops had >1 infected salamander
32% prevalence (n = 2228)
Anglers: used (26-73%) and released (26 – 67%)
Different ATV strains are being transported
Phylogenetic Concordance Analysis
• Lack of co-evolution: host-pathogen phylogenies
• Complete concordance when adjusted for human trade
Emergence: purification of virulence gene
Global Trade of Ranavirus Hosts

Kristine Smith, DVM

From 2000-2006, the U.S. imported >1.5 billion individual
animals (fish & wildlife; Smith et al. 2009)

90% fish, 2% amphibians, 1% reptiles
25 million live amphibians imported to U.S./year
Ranavirus Positive
•Hong Kong = 89%
•Dominican Republic = 70%
•Madagascar = 57%
Smith et al. (unpubl. data)
World Organization for Animal Health
OIE Aquatic Code
Chytridiomycosis
Ranaviral disease
2008

Notifiable Diseases
Certification for
Shipment
Schloegel et al. (2010)

Disinfection:
$75/
bottle

Johnson et al. (2003), Bryan et al. (2009);
Gold et al (2014)

•Bleach >4%
•EtOH >70%
•Virkon >1%
•Nolvasan >0.75%

International
Transport of
Animals
What do we Know?
•Ranavirus are Multi-species Pathogens
•Amphibians with fast-developing larvae most susceptible
•Interclass Transmission can occur
•Community Composition matters
•Amplification: amphibians; Reservoirs: all classes
•Transmission is efficient – Multiple Routes
•Environmental Persistence is long
•Pathogenicity might increase in Warm Temperatures
• Anthropogenic Stressors and Pathogen Pollution
contribute to Ranavirus Emergence
•Enforcing OIE regulations and Biosecurity are Essential

Ranaviruses represent a significant threat to the
global biodiveristy of ectothermic vertebrates
Global Ranavirus Consortium
http://fwf.ag.utk.edu/mgray/ranavirus/ranavirus.htm
Symposia
Discussion Groups
Website
Reporting System
Outreach Resources
Springer eBook

The goal of the GRC is to facilitate communication
and collaboration among scientists and veterinarians
conducting research on ranaviruses and diagnosing
cases of ranaviral disease
GRC@LISTSERV.UTK.EDU
Questions??

Photo:
N. Wheelwright

mgray11@utk.edu
865-974-2740

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Ecology of Ranaviruses: State of Understanding

  • 1. Ecology of Ranaviruses: A State of Understanding M. Niemiller Matthew J. Gray University of Tennessee Center for Wildlife Health Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries 4 February 2014, 11:30 AM, Lecture Hall B UF Infectious Diseases and Pathology
  • 2. Presentation Contributors: Unpublished Data M. Brand, University of Tennessee R. Brenes, Carroll University J. Chaney, University of Tennessee J. Earl, NSF NIMBioS N. Hilzinger, University of Tennessee R. Hill, University of Tennessee J. Hoverman, Purdue University R. Huether, University of Tennessee A. Kouba, Memphis Zoo D. Miller, University of Tennessee P. Reilly, University of Tennessee S. Roon, Oregon State University B. Sutton, Tennessee State University K. Smith, EcoHealth Alliance J. Tucker, Humboldt University T. Waltzek, University of Florida N. Wheelwright, Bowdoin College B. Wilkes, University of Tennessee
  • 3. Outline I. Ranavirus-Host Characteristics II. Ecology: Species to Communities III. Effects of Stressors IV. Commercial Trade & Pathogen Pollution
  • 4. Ranavirus Characteristics •dsDNA, 150-280K bp •120-300 nm in diameter (3x smaller than bacteria) Une •Icosahedral Shape (20) Balseiro Family: Iridoviridae Genera: Iridovirus, Chloriridovirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, and Lymphocystivirus Invertebrates Ectothermic Vertebrates Species (6) Paracrystalline Array ICTV (2012) Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) Bohle iridovirus (BIV) Frog virus 3 (FV3) Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus European catfish virus Santee-Cooper Ranavirus Virion Chinchar et al. (2011)
  • 5. How Does Ranavirus Infect A Host? Routes of Transmission Indirect Transmission Direct Contact Ingestion Water or Sediment Incidental, Necrophagy, Cannibalism, Predation Skin, Gills, Intestines (epithelial cells) One Second Skin Contact (Mortality 2X Faster) Brunner et al. (2004), Harp & Petranka (2006), Brunner et al. (2007), Hoverman et al. (2010)
  • 6. Ranavirus Replication Cycle Chinchar (2002), Chinchar et al. (2006), Robert et al. (2011) Viral Transcription within 3 hours of exposure Cell death occurs within 6 – 9 hrs PI 12 – 32 C
  • 7. Gross Signs of Infected Amphibians Edema, Erythema, Hemorrhages, Ulcerations A. Duffus, Gordon N. Haislip, UT D. Green, USGS
  • 8. Signs Vary Among Species Haislip, Miller, and Gray (unpubl. data) Lithobates clamitans Lithobates sylvaticus Hyla chrysoscelis
  • 9. Organ Destruction 3 Primary Organs: Liver, Spleen, and Kidney Bollinger et al. (1999) Miller et al. (2007, 2008) D. Miller Liver Necrosis D. Miller Spleen Necrosis D. Miller Kidney Degeneration Pathogenesis Target Organ Failure Mortality Can Be Rapid! Heart Failure Toxicosis, Anemia Quickly as 3 days! Hoverman et al. (2011a)
  • 10. Maine 2013 Die-off 1000 carcasses/m2 >200,000 dead qPCR Confirmed Wheelwright et al. (in review) <24 hrs 6/14/13 6/15/13
  • 11. What Mechanisms Lead to Outbreaks? Gray et al. (2009) Gray et al. (2009)
  • 13. Single-species FV3-like Challenges 100 90 Amphibians FV3 RI Percent mortality 80 70 60 High Moderate 50 Low 40 30 20 10 0 Hoverman et al. (2011): 19 Species Tested
  • 14. Single-species FV3-like Challenges 15 Additional Species Amphibians Brenes (2013) Ambystomatidae Ranidae
  • 15. Life History and Phylogeny Amphibians No Phylogenetic Signal P = 0.354 Brenes (2013) All Three Isolates • • • • Fast development hatching time* Low aquatic index Breeding habitat (temporal)* Breeding time (spring) Smoky Mountains Isolate 35 spp • Distance: Population & Isolate Co-evolution
  • 16. Single-species FV3-like Challenges Chelonians Terrapene carolina, T. ornata, Elseya latisternum, Emydura krefftii , Trachemys scripta Greatest infection and morbidity with IP infection or oral inoculation. Water bath exposure sufficient for transmission with some species. Ariel (1997), Johnson et al. (2007), Allender (2012), Waltzek, Gray, Miller (unpubl. data) Mississippi Map Turtle Soft-shelled Turtle Brenes (2013) Control Turtle Fish Amph
  • 17. Single-species FV3-like & ATV Challenges Fishes No Transmission: Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Lepomis cyanellus Jancovich et al. (2001), Bang Jensen et al. (2011a) Low Transmission: Amelurus melas, Esox luscious, Sander lucioperca, Micropterus salmoides Gobbo et al. (2010), Bang Jensen et al. (2009, 2011b), Picco et al. (2010) High Mortality: Scaphirhynchus albus Waltzek et al. (in review; DAO)
  • 18. Single-species FV3-like Challenges Fishes Brenes (2013) Mosquito fish Channel catfish Control Turtle Fish Amph Control Turtle No Transmission: tilapia, bluegill and fathead minnow Fish Amph
  • 19. Reservoirs or Amplification Hosts? FV3-like Ranaviruses Low Mortality (Subclinical) Reservoir Low Mortality Low – High Mortality (Subclinical) (Subclinical & Clinical) Reservoir Reservoir or Amplification
  • 20. Can Interclass Transmission Occur? Bandin & Dopazo (2011)
  • 21. Evidence from the Wild 13 February 2012 North Branch Stream Valley State Park 26 of 31 Box Turtles Die from Ranaviral Disease Larval anurans and salamanders dead too 2008 – 2011 Farnsworth and Seigel (2013)
  • 22. Evidence of Interclass Transmission Bayley et al. (2013) Pike-perch Iridovirus Frog Virus 3 Common Frog Tadpoles Pike Pike-perch Black Bullhead Bang Jensen 2009, 2011; Gobbo et al. 2010
  • 23. Evidence of Interclass Transmission 0% mortality in controls Waltzek, Gray, and Miller 5% Gray Bull Wood Pallid 85% 80% 95%
  • 24. Evidence of Interclass Transmission 0% mortality in controls Waltzek, Gray, and Miller 45% 35% 5% Pallid Isolate Caused Mortality; Bullfrog Isolate Resulted in Infection
  • 25. Interclass Transmission Sympatric Ectothermic Vertebrate Species Amphibian Fish Reptile Brenes (2013) Can ranavirus move among host species?
  • 26. Experiment • Direct exposure – Exposed to 103 PFU/mL – 3 days • 12-L containers divided in half by a 2000 µm plastic mesh • Different species in each side of the container
  • 27. Turtle and Fish Results Brenes et al. (in review; PLoS ONE) • All classes tested can transmit the virus • Turtles infected tadpoles – 50% mortality • Fish infected tadpoles – 10% mortality 10% 50%
  • 28. Amphibian Results Brenes et al. (in review; PLoS ONE) • Amphibians transmitted to turtles but not fish • No mortality of turtles or fish exposed to infected tadpoles • Supporting that turtles and fish may be reservoirs of ranavirus • Amphibians may be amplifying species
  • 29. Superspreaders and Amplifying Species Paull et al. (2012) Persistence Host Community Contact Rate Disease Hotspots •Gahl and Calhoun (2010) •Uyeharaet al. (2010) •Brunner et al. (2011) Superspreading Individuals Shedding Rate Dispersal Contact •Green et al. (2002) •Petranka et al. (2003) •Harp and Petranka (2006) Amplification Species Susceptibility 2012 Contact Rate Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10:75-82
  • 30. Ranavirus Superspreaders Reilly, Gray, & Miller (unpubl. data) 6 hrs cohabitation 3-day 103PFU/mL n = 10 tadpoles/tub 20/80 Rule: Superspreading
  • 31. Community Level Transmission Brenes, Gray, & Miller (unpubl. data) Inoculated in Lab 103 PFU/mL FV3 Exposure Order Appalachian: Wood frog, chorus frog, spotted salamander Coastal Plains: Gopher frog, chorus, southern toad Does Exposure Order or Composition Matter?
  • 32. Exposure Order Matters Brenes (2013) Design Exposure Treatments Only Wood Frogs Only Chorus Frogs Only Spotted Salamanders Control n = 5 pools/trt 10 larvae/spp 60 days Appalachian Community Wood Frogs Chorus Frogs 100% (high) 44% (mod) 43% Chorus Frogs 12% Spotted Salam 72% Wood Frogs 3% Spotted Salam 24% Chorus Frogs Spotted Salam 6% (low) 18% Wood Frogs 52% 40% 16%
  • 33. Community Composition Matters Brenes (2013) Design Exposure Treatments Only Gopher Frogs Only Chorus Frogs Only Southern Toad Control n = 5 pools/trt 10 larvae/spp Inoculated in Lab 103 PFU/mL FV3 60 days Gopher Frogs Chorus Frogs Gulf Coastal Plain, USA 100% (high) 78% (high) 52% Chorus Frogs 34% Southern Toad 70% Gopher Frog 58% Southern Toad 32% Chorus Frogs Southern Toad 76% (high) 80% Gopher Frog 62% 68% 62%
  • 34. Impacts of Stressors Gray et al. (2009)
  • 35. Impacts of Development Across Seven Species χ 23 = 40.1 ; p<0.001 Haislip et al. (2011) Egg membrane may act as a protective barrier ** ** * ML Estimate: Hatchling – 3X > Embryo Larval – 4X > Embryo Metamorph – 5X > Embryo **
  • 36. a b Kerby et al. (2011) b Anax increased susceptibility to ATV b (A. tigrinum) b c b b c Tree frog Chorus frog Wood frog Green frog
  • 37. Competing Temperature Hypotheses • Virus Replication Hypothesis Bayley et al. (2013) – Ranavirus replication increases with temperature up to 32 C High Pathogenicity at Higher Temperatures • Temperature Induced Stress Hypothesis – Early Spring Breeding Species: • Stressed by Warm Temp – Summer Breeding Species: • Stressed by Cold Temp Pathogenicity is Species-specific and Related to Typical Water Temperature Experienced During Tadpole Development M. Brand
  • 38. Wood Frog Survival and Infection Prevalence Warm Cold No Control Mortality 100% Mortality in 7 d Clinical = 152484 Brand et al. (unpubl. data) Subclinical = 84
  • 39. Spotted Salamander Survival and Infection Prevalence No Control Mortality 45% Mortality Warm Cold Brand et al. (unpubl. data) Clinical = 6837 Subclinical = 1700 Subclinical = 10 15% 45% 10%
  • 40. Green Frog Survival and Infection Prevalence 40% Mortality 15% Control Mortality in Warm Chamber Clinical = 1871 Warm Cold Brand et al. (unpubl. data) Virus Replication Hypothesis 40% 30% 5% Subclinical =9 Clinical = 103
  • 41. TN and MN Wood Frogs Reilly, Gray and Miller(unpubl. data) 25oC Chamber 15oC Chamber Median days to mortality: Median days to mortality: -Minnesota = 5.5 d 10 – 12 d -Minnesota =15.5 d -Tennessee = 6 d -Tennessee =18 d Faster In Vitro Replication Stops at 12 C (Chinchar 2002)
  • 42. Factors Contributing to Emergence Anthropogenic Stressors: A. tigrinum 1) Herbicide (Atrazine) Insecticide (Carbaryl) 2) Cattle Land Use: Forson & Storfer (2006); Gray et al. (2007); Greer et al. (2008); Kerby et al. (2011) ATV Susceptibility Prevalence Green Frogs and Tiger Salamanders Other Possible Stressors: Pesticide Mixtures, Nitrogenous Waste, Endocrine Disruptors, Acidification, Global Warming, Heavy Metals Pathogen Pollution: (Cunningham et al. 2003) Anthropogenic introduction of novel strains to naïve populations Picco et al. (2007) •Fishing Bait •Ranaculture Facilities •Biological Supply Companies •International Food & Pet Trade •Contaminated Fomites Schloegel et al. (2009)
  • 43. Risk of Pathogen Pollution Majji et al. (2006), Storfer et al. (2007), Mazzoni et al. (2009), Hoverman et al. (2011a) 100 90 Ranaculture isolate 2X more lethal than FV3 FV3 Percent mortality RI 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
  • 44. Commercial Trade and Emergence Drs. Andrew Storfer and Angela Picco Storfer et al. (2007), Picco & Collins (2008) • • • • • • 85% bait shops had >1 infected salamander 32% prevalence (n = 2228) Anglers: used (26-73%) and released (26 – 67%) Different ATV strains are being transported Phylogenetic Concordance Analysis • Lack of co-evolution: host-pathogen phylogenies • Complete concordance when adjusted for human trade Emergence: purification of virulence gene
  • 45. Global Trade of Ranavirus Hosts Kristine Smith, DVM From 2000-2006, the U.S. imported >1.5 billion individual animals (fish & wildlife; Smith et al. 2009) 90% fish, 2% amphibians, 1% reptiles 25 million live amphibians imported to U.S./year Ranavirus Positive •Hong Kong = 89% •Dominican Republic = 70% •Madagascar = 57% Smith et al. (unpubl. data)
  • 46. World Organization for Animal Health OIE Aquatic Code Chytridiomycosis Ranaviral disease 2008 Notifiable Diseases Certification for Shipment Schloegel et al. (2010) Disinfection: $75/ bottle Johnson et al. (2003), Bryan et al. (2009); Gold et al (2014) •Bleach >4% •EtOH >70% •Virkon >1% •Nolvasan >0.75% International Transport of Animals
  • 47. What do we Know? •Ranavirus are Multi-species Pathogens •Amphibians with fast-developing larvae most susceptible •Interclass Transmission can occur •Community Composition matters •Amplification: amphibians; Reservoirs: all classes •Transmission is efficient – Multiple Routes •Environmental Persistence is long •Pathogenicity might increase in Warm Temperatures • Anthropogenic Stressors and Pathogen Pollution contribute to Ranavirus Emergence •Enforcing OIE regulations and Biosecurity are Essential Ranaviruses represent a significant threat to the global biodiveristy of ectothermic vertebrates
  • 48. Global Ranavirus Consortium http://fwf.ag.utk.edu/mgray/ranavirus/ranavirus.htm Symposia Discussion Groups Website Reporting System Outreach Resources Springer eBook The goal of the GRC is to facilitate communication and collaboration among scientists and veterinarians conducting research on ranaviruses and diagnosing cases of ranaviral disease GRC@LISTSERV.UTK.EDU