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No energy to waste
Turning nuclear waste into sustainable energy
Dutch Power Nuclear Energy Event
At DIFFER, Eindhoven, 29 February 2024
Titus Tielens, CBDO
2
PAGE |
The energy transition comes with challenges
No electricity
transport capacity
available
Limits of congestion
management have
been reached
No more grid connections
Unstable prices
Risk of power shortage
3
PAGE |
Nuclear technology could provide solution – but people express doubts
“Nuclear energy is too dangerous;
we should focus on other sources”
“Leaving nuclear waste behind is
just wrong, no matter how safe it is”
“Nuclear energy will come too late
to reach our emission targets”
“Nuclear energy comes with
too high costs”
4
PAGE |
Thorizon is developing a molten salt reactor to provide stable,
affordable carbon-free energy
5
PAGE |
Agenda 1. Why Thorizon
2. Safe, smart & circular
3. Opportunity in the Netherlands
6
PAGE |
Molten Salt Reactors are known to work and have many advantages
Intrinsic safety
Less nuclear waste
Economic
Flexible
Molten Salt Reactor Advantages
« Molten Salt Reactors are seen as a game changer in the
nuclear industry »
International Atomic Energy Agency
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1965-1969
7
PAGE |
Thorizon’s patented cartridge concept addresses the two main challenges
Source: Thorizon ; EP 3963603 B1
The cartridge concept was patented by Thorizon in 2020
Fuel management
Cartridges are fully contained
No online treatment needed
Salt containment
Replaceable cartridges
Existing materials qualify
✓
✓
8
PAGE |
All the complexity is contained in the cartridges
9
PAGE |
1. Safe – the system is walk-away safe
Fuel is liquid and continuously transported out of core
Low pressure, no steam escalation, self-regulating
Multiple containments
Immediate shut-down if pumps stop
Passive cooling after shut-down
10
PAGE |
2. Smart – the Thorizon One will be a versatile source of energy
Source: Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power estimates up to 2050 (IAEA, 2022), European industrial heat market study (LGI Consulting, Bredimas, 2010); Nuclear Europe – SMR PrePartnership
Réacteur Thorizon One
First artistic impression representative of the plant's footprint
Electricity
 100 MW generation 24/7
 250.000 households
 Adjustable output 50-300 MW
 Storage during low demand
to deliver energy at peak demand
 Complements wind and solar power
Process heat
 250 MW at 550 °C
 For decarbonization of industrial
production processes
 For hydrogen production
(high temperature electrolysis)
 Utilizes existing infrastructure
Demand of
100+ GWe in
Europe
in 2050
Demand of
300-350
GWth
in Europe
11
PAGE |
3. Circular – turning ‘nuclear waste’ into clean energy
Natural radiation, re-usable
Highly radioactive, half life 20-30 years
Stable, re-usable
95%
238U
1%
235U
3%
Fission
products
1%
Heavy metals
95%
238U
Spent fuel
Highly radiotoxic
radioactive for 10-100 thousand years
96%
238U
4%
235U
Traditional reactors
Nuclear fuel
Enough fuel for 100+
Thorizon reactors in Europe
• Nearly carbon free
• Low claim on land,
materials, minerals
12
PAGE |
Agenda 1. Why Thorizon
2. The Thorizon concept
3. Opportunity in the Netherlands
13
PAGE |
The technology is being developed in the Netherlands (and France)
 International start-up with 30 professionals
based in Amsterdam and Lyon
 Technical expertise in nuclear engineering,
nuclear physics and chemistry, thermal
hydraulics and safety simulations
 Spin-off from NRG based on decades of
research at the research reactor in Petten
 Backed by an experienced shareholder
board of public and private investors:
Invest-NL, Impuls Zeeland, PDENH,
Positron, Huisman
 Dutch-French partner network: EPZ,
NRG-PALLAS, Orano, DIFFER, TU Delft,
Huisman, VDL, Demcon, Schelde-Exotec, ..
14
PAGE |
Combining Gen III and Gen IV could create a closed cycle
Rolls Royce (ULC Energy)
470 MWe
Fuel: uranium
Thorizon One
100 MWe
Fuel: molten salt with spent fuel
Orano, La Hague
Spent fuel reprocessing
15
PAGE |
DIFFER is a partner of Thorizon
core
section
Double
confinement
Gas-salt
plenum
Heat
exchanger
Pump
DICE @ DIFFER will test salt-material
interaction under heavy irradiation to
determine material lifetime
16
PAGE |
Your support can help us realize the Thorizon One

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Dutch Power Event 7. Titus Tielens - Thorizon.pdf

  • 1. No energy to waste Turning nuclear waste into sustainable energy Dutch Power Nuclear Energy Event At DIFFER, Eindhoven, 29 February 2024 Titus Tielens, CBDO
  • 2. 2 PAGE | The energy transition comes with challenges No electricity transport capacity available Limits of congestion management have been reached No more grid connections Unstable prices Risk of power shortage
  • 3. 3 PAGE | Nuclear technology could provide solution – but people express doubts “Nuclear energy is too dangerous; we should focus on other sources” “Leaving nuclear waste behind is just wrong, no matter how safe it is” “Nuclear energy will come too late to reach our emission targets” “Nuclear energy comes with too high costs”
  • 4. 4 PAGE | Thorizon is developing a molten salt reactor to provide stable, affordable carbon-free energy
  • 5. 5 PAGE | Agenda 1. Why Thorizon 2. Safe, smart & circular 3. Opportunity in the Netherlands
  • 6. 6 PAGE | Molten Salt Reactors are known to work and have many advantages Intrinsic safety Less nuclear waste Economic Flexible Molten Salt Reactor Advantages « Molten Salt Reactors are seen as a game changer in the nuclear industry » International Atomic Energy Agency Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1965-1969
  • 7. 7 PAGE | Thorizon’s patented cartridge concept addresses the two main challenges Source: Thorizon ; EP 3963603 B1 The cartridge concept was patented by Thorizon in 2020 Fuel management Cartridges are fully contained No online treatment needed Salt containment Replaceable cartridges Existing materials qualify ✓ ✓
  • 8. 8 PAGE | All the complexity is contained in the cartridges
  • 9. 9 PAGE | 1. Safe – the system is walk-away safe Fuel is liquid and continuously transported out of core Low pressure, no steam escalation, self-regulating Multiple containments Immediate shut-down if pumps stop Passive cooling after shut-down
  • 10. 10 PAGE | 2. Smart – the Thorizon One will be a versatile source of energy Source: Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power estimates up to 2050 (IAEA, 2022), European industrial heat market study (LGI Consulting, Bredimas, 2010); Nuclear Europe – SMR PrePartnership Réacteur Thorizon One First artistic impression representative of the plant's footprint Electricity  100 MW generation 24/7  250.000 households  Adjustable output 50-300 MW  Storage during low demand to deliver energy at peak demand  Complements wind and solar power Process heat  250 MW at 550 °C  For decarbonization of industrial production processes  For hydrogen production (high temperature electrolysis)  Utilizes existing infrastructure Demand of 100+ GWe in Europe in 2050 Demand of 300-350 GWth in Europe
  • 11. 11 PAGE | 3. Circular – turning ‘nuclear waste’ into clean energy Natural radiation, re-usable Highly radioactive, half life 20-30 years Stable, re-usable 95% 238U 1% 235U 3% Fission products 1% Heavy metals 95% 238U Spent fuel Highly radiotoxic radioactive for 10-100 thousand years 96% 238U 4% 235U Traditional reactors Nuclear fuel Enough fuel for 100+ Thorizon reactors in Europe • Nearly carbon free • Low claim on land, materials, minerals
  • 12. 12 PAGE | Agenda 1. Why Thorizon 2. The Thorizon concept 3. Opportunity in the Netherlands
  • 13. 13 PAGE | The technology is being developed in the Netherlands (and France)  International start-up with 30 professionals based in Amsterdam and Lyon  Technical expertise in nuclear engineering, nuclear physics and chemistry, thermal hydraulics and safety simulations  Spin-off from NRG based on decades of research at the research reactor in Petten  Backed by an experienced shareholder board of public and private investors: Invest-NL, Impuls Zeeland, PDENH, Positron, Huisman  Dutch-French partner network: EPZ, NRG-PALLAS, Orano, DIFFER, TU Delft, Huisman, VDL, Demcon, Schelde-Exotec, ..
  • 14. 14 PAGE | Combining Gen III and Gen IV could create a closed cycle Rolls Royce (ULC Energy) 470 MWe Fuel: uranium Thorizon One 100 MWe Fuel: molten salt with spent fuel Orano, La Hague Spent fuel reprocessing
  • 15. 15 PAGE | DIFFER is a partner of Thorizon core section Double confinement Gas-salt plenum Heat exchanger Pump DICE @ DIFFER will test salt-material interaction under heavy irradiation to determine material lifetime
  • 16. 16 PAGE | Your support can help us realize the Thorizon One