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Due: 10:00AM April 5 (Wednesday)
Assignment #4 (Individual)
Type and appropriately format your proof. Handwritten answers
will not be accepted. You may use any
word processor to type and format your answer. Turn in a hard-
copy of your proof.
Prove that the following language is undecidable.
PSUPERTM = {(M1, M2) | TM M1 accepts a proper superset of
the strings that TM M2 accepts}
As a decision problem, PSUPERTM is the problem of
determining whether L(M1) � L(M2) is true for any
two given TMs M1 and M2.
Write your proof in the format and style adopted in the class,
with notes/comments to clarify the steps of the
proof and the TM's used or created in the proof. All TM's must
be clearly specified and/or defined in the
format adopted in the class.
Your proof may make use of the facts that the languages
HALTTM, ATM, ETM, ALLTM, NOTEMPTYTM,
FINITETM, and EQTM are provably undecidable.
Running head: SELF-EVALUATION
1
SELF-EVALUATION
4
Self-Evaluation
Fahad Alanazi
Mississippi College
Self-Evaluation
Introduction
One of the most interesting classes I attended was on helping
relationship which was critical in providing the student with
knowledge of methods and techniques in counseling. It was an
impactful class because I learned a variety of lessons that will
be crucial in future especially in the process of career
development. The engagements in class between the instructor
Dr. Lemon and the students were crucial in ensuring that one
gets comprehensive understanding of all the concepts that are
related to the topic. The model that was used to teach the course
was effective in ensuring that one did not forget since it also
involved some minor practical. The course covered all the
covered all the comprehensive topics that relate to the
techniques and methods in counseling; hence, it gave students a
wide range of knowledge on how to deal with different types of
clients. It was a great class, and I learned a lot concerning
counseling which will be useful in future.
Self-Evaluation
A critical aspect of counseling that a counselor must focus on is
the attending behavior to the client. It was a great lesson
learned because one understood that culturally incorrect
attending might reduce the effectiveness of the session.
Therefore, it is the role of the counselor to understand the
cultural background of the client so that the information he or
she aims at getting does not in any way affected by the cultural
background (Ivey, Bradford, &Zalaquett, 2013).
In addition, we learned about the guidelines that ensure
effective feedback. It is a technique that will ensure in future
the information one acquires from the clients is effective and
can be used effectively to provide a diagnosis.
I also learned a lot about opening communication with clients.
Communication is one of the key aspects that determine the
effectiveness of a counseling session. I learned that types of
questions that can be used when dealing with a patient. They
include open, and closed. Moreover, there are positive client
assets that counselors can focus on to enhance the
communication process. Such lessons will be useful in future
since one will identify these assets easily. Besides, some less
verbal clients are not willing to share a lot of information with
the counselor (Frazier, Tix, & Barron, 2004). The class helped
in making one understand the steps one should take to ensure
that they engage such clients for effective communication.
The class also allowed us to learn about observation skills.
Observation is one of the greatest methods that a counselor can
use to determine the problem a person is going through.
Nonverbal behavior helps the counselor understand the issues
the client might be going through or thinking. When a counselor
understands how to read the nonverbal behavior, it becomes
enough for them to make a diagnosis. The verbal behavior also
shows whether the client is composed or anxious. Moreover,
understanding the discrepancies between the behavior of the
individual becomes a critical aspect in coming up with a
conclusion about the behavior of the client. Such lessons have
helped in enhancing my observation skills when dealing with
various individuals.
The class also helped us learn about developing verbal and
nonverbal prompts. These are ways of making the best about of
the observations made. Moreover, there is also the element of
restating and repetition of keywords. We have learned that there
can be a hidden message if the client consistently repeats a
certain word which becomes important for them. The class
helped me understand the importance of being keen to detail
because they form the basis of an effective diagnosis.
Noting and reflecting the feelings of the client is also a key
factor that has helped me in understanding the best models for
conducting counseling. It has provided me with a skill of
identifying the various forms of emotions that the client may
possess; hence, using them to make comprehensive diagnosis
effectively. The client's nonverbal and verbal feelings are
effective in determining how the clients feel concerning a
particular aspect. Besides, the technique of reflecting the
feelings also plays a critical role in ensuring that the counselor
gets the information they need from the client. It is a skill that I
have found to be useful because it does not depend on the
verbal information given. The emotional intensity of the client
is also a key factor that determines how they feel concerning a
particular issue. The class has helped me learn how to know and
read the emotions of a client so as to come up with a
comprehensive conclusion.
Understanding the needs of the client is effective in coming up
with the structure skills that a counselor uses to diagnose the
client (Ivey, Bradford, &Zalaquett, 2013). I learned that the
basic listening sequence could be key in coming up with a
comprehensive report about the client. Moreover, one can
provide counselor empathy to the client so that they can feel
comfortable to share anything. The counselor of the session and
the circle of decision-making is also a key factor that may
ensure a successful meeting with the clients. It is a lesson that
will be useful in ensuring I put the needs of the clients first as a
counselor.
Selective attention and reflective meaning are also important
lessons I learned from the class. I have developed the skills of
focusing on the narrative and determining the information that
will be useful or not. Besides, I have learned the method of
focusing on the information the client is giving so as to
determine the important one that can be useful in coming up
with a diagnosis. Moreover, the reflect meaning makes a session
with the client more interactive; hence, making them explore
beliefs and values that might be crucial to them. The skill of
reflective meaning will be of great importance in my career
since I will be able to determine the way to interact with the
client for them to get the best out of the session.
The class has also given me the opportunity to learn about
interpersonal influence and how it might be of help in ensuring
the client gives credible information. I have also learned the
skills of interpretation of the information the clients have given
so as to reduce any cases of erroneous interpretation. Moreover,
I have gained the skills of ensuring self-disclosure and
acquiring of feedback from the client so as to come up with a
comprehensive conclusion and recommendation. It is also
important to note that the class has focused on the advice and
directive strategy that the client is supposed to be given.
Crisis intervention is also a key aspect in the course that has
proved to be of great importance. It is important for a counselor
to interview the client on the potential thoughts of suicide. It is
important to note that a client seeking the services of a
counselor or being recommended for such might be in a position
to have suicidal thoughts (Hanson et.al, 2005). In this regard,
the course has been helpful in ensuring that one understands the
intensity of the problem such that effective recommendations
are made. It is an element that will be of help in future when
practicing counseling.
Conclusion
The course has been great, and I have learned a lot that will be
useful in the career development in future. They are effective
lessons that make up the methods and techniques in counseling.
The lessons that I have learned make up the better part of a
counseling course; hence, I will have developed great skills and
knowledge in dealing with clients. Besides, it is a course that is
focused on the needs of the client; therefore, it requires one to
develop unique skills that will enhance the effectiveness of the
recommendations made. It has been an informative class, and I
look forward to using the skills gained for the betterment of the
field of study.
References
Frazier, P. A., Tix, A. P., & Barron, K. E. (2004).Testing
moderator and mediator effects in
counseling psychology research.Journal of counseling
psychology, 51(1), 115.
Hanson, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Petska, K. S.,
& Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed
methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of
counseling psychology,
52(2), 224.
Ivey, A., Bradford, M., &Zalaquett, C. (2013).Intentional
interviewing and counseling:
Facilitating client development in a multicultural society.
London: Cengage Learning.

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Due 1000AM April 5 (Wednesday) .docx

  • 1. Due: 10:00AM April 5 (Wednesday) Assignment #4 (Individual) Type and appropriately format your proof. Handwritten answers will not be accepted. You may use any word processor to type and format your answer. Turn in a hard- copy of your proof. Prove that the following language is undecidable. PSUPERTM = {(M1, M2) | TM M1 accepts a proper superset of the strings that TM M2 accepts} As a decision problem, PSUPERTM is the problem of determining whether L(M1) � L(M2) is true for any two given TMs M1 and M2. Write your proof in the format and style adopted in the class, with notes/comments to clarify the steps of the proof and the TM's used or created in the proof. All TM's must be clearly specified and/or defined in the format adopted in the class. Your proof may make use of the facts that the languages HALTTM, ATM, ETM, ALLTM, NOTEMPTYTM, FINITETM, and EQTM are provably undecidable.
  • 2. Running head: SELF-EVALUATION 1 SELF-EVALUATION 4 Self-Evaluation Fahad Alanazi Mississippi College Self-Evaluation Introduction One of the most interesting classes I attended was on helping relationship which was critical in providing the student with knowledge of methods and techniques in counseling. It was an impactful class because I learned a variety of lessons that will be crucial in future especially in the process of career development. The engagements in class between the instructor Dr. Lemon and the students were crucial in ensuring that one gets comprehensive understanding of all the concepts that are related to the topic. The model that was used to teach the course was effective in ensuring that one did not forget since it also involved some minor practical. The course covered all the covered all the comprehensive topics that relate to the techniques and methods in counseling; hence, it gave students a wide range of knowledge on how to deal with different types of clients. It was a great class, and I learned a lot concerning counseling which will be useful in future. Self-Evaluation A critical aspect of counseling that a counselor must focus on is the attending behavior to the client. It was a great lesson
  • 3. learned because one understood that culturally incorrect attending might reduce the effectiveness of the session. Therefore, it is the role of the counselor to understand the cultural background of the client so that the information he or she aims at getting does not in any way affected by the cultural background (Ivey, Bradford, &Zalaquett, 2013). In addition, we learned about the guidelines that ensure effective feedback. It is a technique that will ensure in future the information one acquires from the clients is effective and can be used effectively to provide a diagnosis. I also learned a lot about opening communication with clients. Communication is one of the key aspects that determine the effectiveness of a counseling session. I learned that types of questions that can be used when dealing with a patient. They include open, and closed. Moreover, there are positive client assets that counselors can focus on to enhance the communication process. Such lessons will be useful in future since one will identify these assets easily. Besides, some less verbal clients are not willing to share a lot of information with the counselor (Frazier, Tix, & Barron, 2004). The class helped in making one understand the steps one should take to ensure that they engage such clients for effective communication. The class also allowed us to learn about observation skills. Observation is one of the greatest methods that a counselor can use to determine the problem a person is going through. Nonverbal behavior helps the counselor understand the issues the client might be going through or thinking. When a counselor understands how to read the nonverbal behavior, it becomes enough for them to make a diagnosis. The verbal behavior also shows whether the client is composed or anxious. Moreover, understanding the discrepancies between the behavior of the individual becomes a critical aspect in coming up with a conclusion about the behavior of the client. Such lessons have helped in enhancing my observation skills when dealing with various individuals. The class also helped us learn about developing verbal and
  • 4. nonverbal prompts. These are ways of making the best about of the observations made. Moreover, there is also the element of restating and repetition of keywords. We have learned that there can be a hidden message if the client consistently repeats a certain word which becomes important for them. The class helped me understand the importance of being keen to detail because they form the basis of an effective diagnosis. Noting and reflecting the feelings of the client is also a key factor that has helped me in understanding the best models for conducting counseling. It has provided me with a skill of identifying the various forms of emotions that the client may possess; hence, using them to make comprehensive diagnosis effectively. The client's nonverbal and verbal feelings are effective in determining how the clients feel concerning a particular aspect. Besides, the technique of reflecting the feelings also plays a critical role in ensuring that the counselor gets the information they need from the client. It is a skill that I have found to be useful because it does not depend on the verbal information given. The emotional intensity of the client is also a key factor that determines how they feel concerning a particular issue. The class has helped me learn how to know and read the emotions of a client so as to come up with a comprehensive conclusion. Understanding the needs of the client is effective in coming up with the structure skills that a counselor uses to diagnose the client (Ivey, Bradford, &Zalaquett, 2013). I learned that the basic listening sequence could be key in coming up with a comprehensive report about the client. Moreover, one can provide counselor empathy to the client so that they can feel comfortable to share anything. The counselor of the session and the circle of decision-making is also a key factor that may ensure a successful meeting with the clients. It is a lesson that will be useful in ensuring I put the needs of the clients first as a counselor. Selective attention and reflective meaning are also important lessons I learned from the class. I have developed the skills of
  • 5. focusing on the narrative and determining the information that will be useful or not. Besides, I have learned the method of focusing on the information the client is giving so as to determine the important one that can be useful in coming up with a diagnosis. Moreover, the reflect meaning makes a session with the client more interactive; hence, making them explore beliefs and values that might be crucial to them. The skill of reflective meaning will be of great importance in my career since I will be able to determine the way to interact with the client for them to get the best out of the session. The class has also given me the opportunity to learn about interpersonal influence and how it might be of help in ensuring the client gives credible information. I have also learned the skills of interpretation of the information the clients have given so as to reduce any cases of erroneous interpretation. Moreover, I have gained the skills of ensuring self-disclosure and acquiring of feedback from the client so as to come up with a comprehensive conclusion and recommendation. It is also important to note that the class has focused on the advice and directive strategy that the client is supposed to be given. Crisis intervention is also a key aspect in the course that has proved to be of great importance. It is important for a counselor to interview the client on the potential thoughts of suicide. It is important to note that a client seeking the services of a counselor or being recommended for such might be in a position to have suicidal thoughts (Hanson et.al, 2005). In this regard, the course has been helpful in ensuring that one understands the intensity of the problem such that effective recommendations are made. It is an element that will be of help in future when practicing counseling. Conclusion The course has been great, and I have learned a lot that will be useful in the career development in future. They are effective lessons that make up the methods and techniques in counseling. The lessons that I have learned make up the better part of a counseling course; hence, I will have developed great skills and
  • 6. knowledge in dealing with clients. Besides, it is a course that is focused on the needs of the client; therefore, it requires one to develop unique skills that will enhance the effectiveness of the recommendations made. It has been an informative class, and I look forward to using the skills gained for the betterment of the field of study. References Frazier, P. A., Tix, A. P., & Barron, K. E. (2004).Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research.Journal of counseling psychology, 51(1), 115. Hanson, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Petska, K. S., & Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 224. Ivey, A., Bradford, M., &Zalaquett, C. (2013).Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society. London: Cengage Learning.