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Open Access
in the biomedical field

The rise of PLoS ONE


Nathalie Duchange
Inserm
October 25, 2012
International movement
        born in the 1990s
to allow the free dissemination
  of publicly-funded research
TWO                    GREEN
COMPLEMENTARY         OPEN REPOSITORIES
   ROUTES         (institutional and disciplinary)

                     Authors self-archive their
                         scientific output



                             GOLD
                AUTHOR-PAY TO PUBLISH- MODEL
                   (Journals that provide OA)

                 Articles are free to read, share,
                distribute, results may be re-used
                    (authors keep their rights)
Specificities of the biomedical field that
impact on both routes to Open Access
Central role of publication
1     « Publish or Perish »


                                   Evaluation is based on
                                  publication in high quality
                                   peer-reviewed journals



                                      Journals’ quality is measured
                                          by the impact factor




    Impact: open repositories in life sicences
        collect mainly published articles
Conditions for archiving in Open Repositories
   depend on publishers and the extent
        of authors’rights transferred
A free open repository of biomedical and life sciences
          journal literature: PubMed Central
2         Launched in 2000 by the U.S.
          National Institutes of Health's
           National Library of Medicine         Direct access to the article
                    (NIH/NLM)                          from PubMed
                                               (free ressource of citations)




                  Impact: a reference in the field
Network : PubMed Central International




                               UK PubMed Central to become
                          Europe PubMed Central in november 2012
                  www.ebi.ac.uk/Information/News/press-releases/press-release-13072012-Europe_PMC.html
From HAL to PubMed Central




                             Entry by dedicated
HAL is the French national     portals, either
  multi-diciplinary and         institutional,
   multi-institutional         disciplinary or    HAL-Inserm is the institutional
    Open Repository               thematic              portal for Inserm



    Part of HAL biomedical articles are transferred to PubMed Central
                    (Depending on the publishers)
Gold Route
The rise of Open Access Journals since 2000
What full
                       Open Access
                         means ?




http://www.arl.org/sparc/bm~doc/howopenisit_open-review.pdf
PLoS: an Open Access Publisher


     Public Library of Science is a non profit
     publisher founded by leading scientists


           7 high impact factor journals
       PLoS Biology, PLoS Computational Biology, PLoS
       Genetics, PLoS Medicine, PLoS Neglected Tropical
            Diseases. PLoS One, PLoS Pathogens.



    Revolution in the publishing model:
          introducing PLoS One
“Peer review is ostensibly one of the central pillars of
                modern science. A paper is not taken seriously by
                 other scientists unless it is published in a “peer
PLoS ONE                        reviewed” journal.”

                “But the truth is that peer review as practiced in the
 Revisiting   21st century biomedical research poisons science. It is
Peer-Review    conservative, cumbersome, capricious and intrusive.”
                                         Michael Eisen, co-funder of PLoS
                                            www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=694




                           PLoS ONE Peer Review:
                     - Papers have to be technically sound
                - Importance of the paper is let to the readearship
Acceptance rate: 70%
                                                 Impact Factor > 4

                                                Fast publication
                   Received: July 12, 2012; Accepted: September 14, 2012; Published: October 17, 2012



                                                       Metrics

 PLoS ONE

Attractivity for
 researchers
Will Open Access publishing kill quality?




         « Both scientists recently published in a PLOS open
         access journal with papers related to the research for
         which they were recognized by the Nobel Committee »

         « Since 2009, Shinya Yamanaka has published
         9 papers in PLOS ONE »




http://blogs.plos.org/blog/2012/10/08/two-plos-authors-awarded-nobel-prize-in-medicine/
Conclusion
           Opt for Green + Gold

Most research organisations and funders have established
  OA mandates and/or policies that support both routes



         Gold OA accounts for approximatively
             10% of the published articles



             The pay-to-publish model is
              not without financial risk
“The greatest benefit of open
access publishing is widening
the debate on scientific
research; what's free to read
and republish is also free to
discuss, dispute, and learn
from”
              Kamran Abbasi
              J R Soc Med. 2012 May; 105(5): 185.
To learn more
Thank you for your attention



           ?

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Open Access in the biomedical field - the rise of PloS ONE by Nathalie Duchange

  • 1. Open Access in the biomedical field The rise of PLoS ONE Nathalie Duchange Inserm October 25, 2012
  • 2. International movement born in the 1990s to allow the free dissemination of publicly-funded research
  • 3. TWO GREEN COMPLEMENTARY OPEN REPOSITORIES ROUTES (institutional and disciplinary) Authors self-archive their scientific output GOLD AUTHOR-PAY TO PUBLISH- MODEL (Journals that provide OA) Articles are free to read, share, distribute, results may be re-used (authors keep their rights)
  • 4. Specificities of the biomedical field that impact on both routes to Open Access
  • 5. Central role of publication 1 « Publish or Perish » Evaluation is based on publication in high quality peer-reviewed journals Journals’ quality is measured by the impact factor Impact: open repositories in life sicences collect mainly published articles
  • 6. Conditions for archiving in Open Repositories depend on publishers and the extent of authors’rights transferred
  • 7. A free open repository of biomedical and life sciences journal literature: PubMed Central 2 Launched in 2000 by the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine Direct access to the article (NIH/NLM) from PubMed (free ressource of citations) Impact: a reference in the field
  • 8. Network : PubMed Central International UK PubMed Central to become Europe PubMed Central in november 2012 www.ebi.ac.uk/Information/News/press-releases/press-release-13072012-Europe_PMC.html
  • 9. From HAL to PubMed Central Entry by dedicated HAL is the French national portals, either multi-diciplinary and institutional, multi-institutional disciplinary or HAL-Inserm is the institutional Open Repository thematic portal for Inserm Part of HAL biomedical articles are transferred to PubMed Central (Depending on the publishers)
  • 10. Gold Route The rise of Open Access Journals since 2000
  • 11. What full Open Access means ? http://www.arl.org/sparc/bm~doc/howopenisit_open-review.pdf
  • 12. PLoS: an Open Access Publisher Public Library of Science is a non profit publisher founded by leading scientists 7 high impact factor journals PLoS Biology, PLoS Computational Biology, PLoS Genetics, PLoS Medicine, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. PLoS One, PLoS Pathogens. Revolution in the publishing model: introducing PLoS One
  • 13. “Peer review is ostensibly one of the central pillars of modern science. A paper is not taken seriously by other scientists unless it is published in a “peer PLoS ONE reviewed” journal.” “But the truth is that peer review as practiced in the Revisiting 21st century biomedical research poisons science. It is Peer-Review conservative, cumbersome, capricious and intrusive.” Michael Eisen, co-funder of PLoS www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=694 PLoS ONE Peer Review: - Papers have to be technically sound - Importance of the paper is let to the readearship
  • 14. Acceptance rate: 70% Impact Factor > 4 Fast publication Received: July 12, 2012; Accepted: September 14, 2012; Published: October 17, 2012 Metrics PLoS ONE Attractivity for researchers
  • 15. Will Open Access publishing kill quality? « Both scientists recently published in a PLOS open access journal with papers related to the research for which they were recognized by the Nobel Committee » « Since 2009, Shinya Yamanaka has published 9 papers in PLOS ONE » http://blogs.plos.org/blog/2012/10/08/two-plos-authors-awarded-nobel-prize-in-medicine/
  • 16. Conclusion Opt for Green + Gold Most research organisations and funders have established OA mandates and/or policies that support both routes Gold OA accounts for approximatively 10% of the published articles The pay-to-publish model is not without financial risk
  • 17. “The greatest benefit of open access publishing is widening the debate on scientific research; what's free to read and republish is also free to discuss, dispute, and learn from” Kamran Abbasi J R Soc Med. 2012 May; 105(5): 185.
  • 19. Thank you for your attention ?