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dryingtechniques inpharmaceutical industry
By Dr ANJANA.P
2ND YEAR PG
R&B DEPARTMENT
Govt. Ayurveda College, Tripunithura, Kerala
 Important process in almost all the pharmaceutical industries.
 Last stage of the process , before packaging.
 prevent the deterioration
 produce a readily soluble or free flowing product.
 DEFINITION :-
 Drying is defined as a process in which the liquid is removed
from a material by the application of heat and is accomplished by
the transfer of a liquid from a surface, in to an unsaturated
vapour phase.
 NEED FOR DRYING :-
 For the preparation of granules which can be dispensed in bulk,
compressed in the form of tablets or filled in capsules.
 For the preparation of certain products like dried aluminium
hydroxide, spray dried lactose & powdered extracts.
 For reducing the bulk & weight , there by lowering the cost of
transporation and storage.
 Vegetable drugs are dried before extraction to facilitate
grinding and to avoid deterioration on storage.
 As dried products are more stable than moist ones , therefore
heat is required for drying.
 FACTORS AFFECTING DRYING
PROCESS:-
 Various methods and equipment's for drying are available ,the
choice of which depends up on the following factors :-
 Whether the product is sensitive to heat or not
 Physical characteristics of the product before drying
 The nature of the solvent to be removed.
 Whether the process is to be carried out under aseptic
conditions or not.
 Quantity of the product to be dried.
 Available source of heat.
 Cost involved.
TYPES OF DRYERS :-
I. Dryers for dilute solutions, suspensions and slurries :-
a. Drum dryer
b. Spray dryer
II . Dryers for damp solid materials :-
a. Tray or shelf dryers
b. Tunnel dryers
c. Rotary dryer
 d. Fluidizer bed dryer
 e. Vaccum dryer
 f. Freeze dryer.
Dryers for dilute solutions , suspensions and
slurries:-
 DRUM DRYER :-
 Drum dryer consists of a steel drum , 0.75 to 1.5 m in diameter
and 2-4 m in length.
 Drum is heated internally by steam and rotated on its
longitudinal axis.
 The liquid to be dried is kept in a feeding pan in which the
heated drum dips.
 As the drum rotates the liquid is applied to the surface and
spreads to a film which dries rapidly.
 The dried product is scrapped from the surface of the drum by
means of a doctor knife , in the form of flakes.
 The drying rate can be controlled by adjusting rotation speed
and temperature of the drum.
 ADVANTAGES :-
 It is a quick method of drying as the material spreads in a thin
film over large surface area.
 Heating time is short i.e. only a few seconds.
 The equipment is compact which requires small space for its
operation.
 The equipment can be enclosed in a vacuum chamber
thereby temperature of drying can be reduced.
 The product is obtained in flake form which has added
advantages.
 USES:-
 Used for drying of milk products, starch products, iron salts
and suspensions of kaolin or zinc oxide etc.
 SPRAY DRYER :-
 Used for drying only the liquid materials such as solutions,
slurries and thin pastes.
 In this method the liquid is dispersed as fine droplets in to a
moving stream of hot air where they are evaporated rapidly
before reaching the wall of the chamber.
 The final product will be in the form of fine powder , collected
in a collection system.
 Depending up on the nature of material to be dried , there are
different types of spray dryers.
 All spray dryers consists of following components :-
 Feed delivery system
 Atomizer
 Heated air supply
 Drying chamber
 Solid – gas separator
 Product collecting system .
 WORKING :-
 The material to be dried is fed to the atomizer by gravity or
by use of a suitable pump.
 The rate of feed is adjusted in such a way that each droplet of
sprayed liquid is completely dried before it comes in contact
with the walls of drying chamber.
 The dried powder is not overheated in the process.
 The inlet air temperature is kept constant.
 High temperature can result in improper drying.
 Excessive feed rates will lower the outer temperature due to
which the material will be collected on the walls of the
chamber.
 The disc of the atomizer is driven by an air turbine and spins
at 35000rpm.
 Air is introduced with the help of a fan, which is heated by means of
electric heater to a maximum temperature of 350*c .
 The sprayed droplets from atomizer come in to contact with the
hot air just below the disc .
 The droplets rapidly evaporate as they are carried by currents of
hot air in the drying chamber.
 The dried powder is separated from the exhaust gas in cyclone
separator and collected in to container.
 The flow rate is controlled by a valve.
 APPLICATIONS:-
 The material can be dried at a very fast rate.ie the actual drying
time for a droplet is only a few seconds.
 Since the evaporation rate is very high , droplets are not
subjected to a very high temperature.
 Thermo liable substances can be easily dried without
decomposition.
 Spray dryers can be designed for drying under sterile
conditions.
 The dried powder will have a uniform particle size & shape.
 Because of good flow properties the spray dried powders can
be easily compressed in the form of tablets.
 Labour costs are low since the material is dried in a single
operation with no handling.
 DISADVANTAGES :-
 The equipment is very bulky and costly.
 The drying chamber alone may be 15m height and 6m in
diameter.
 There is lot of wastage of heat since the air must still be hot
enough when it leaves the dryer to avoid condensation of
moisture.
 USES :-
 The substances which are spray dried include boric acid,
methyl cellulose, sulphar, lactose, citric acid, sodium
phosphate, gelatin, acacia, milk and food products , soap and
detergents.
 Materials up to 2000kg/hour can be handled.
II. DRYERS FOR DAMP SOLID MATERIALS :-
 TRAY OR SHELF DRYERS:-
 Cabinet or compartment dryers.
 These type dryers are essentially hot air ovens.
 The material to be dried is spread in thin layers in trays , the
number of which varies according to the size of the oven.
 The heating is done by the forced circulation of large volume
of heated air by means of fans.
 In truck dryers , the trays are loaded on trucks ( racks fitted
with wheels) which can be pushed and taken out easily from
the drying chamber.
 In pharmaceutical industries truck dryers are preferred over
tray dryers because of convenience in loading and unloading
the drying cabinets.
 Drying by means of truck or tray dryers is a batch process
rather than continuous drying as in the case of moving belt
dryers.
 In pharmaceutical industries batch drying is preferred
because each batch can be dried separately and same
equipment can be used for drying a wide variety of
materials.
 TUNNEL DRYER:-
 Modification of tray dryer.
 Oven is replaced by a tunnel.
 The material to be dried is entered at one end and the dried
material is collected at the other end of the tunnel.
 The trays containing the wet material is loaded on trucks or
on single or multiple belt conveyers which has an automatic
speed control.
 In the multiple belt conveyer system the partially dried
material which has completed one circle moves
automatically from the end of 1st conveyer on to the 2nd
conveyer moving in opposite direction.
 In this way the product may travel successively five times
along the tunnel before it is discharged at the other end of
the tunnel.
 As compared to the tray dryers, the tunnel dryers have the
advantage that it is semi-continuous as well as continuous in
operation and can be used for large scale production.
ROTARY DRYER :-
 Modified form of tunnel dryer which consists of a horizontal
tube, slightly inclined , so that the material fed at one end will
move gradually through the tube towards the other end , as the
tube is slowly rotated at about 10 rev/minute.
 To improve contact , the cylindrical tube is fitted with baffles
which lift the solids and spill the particles through the air steam,
which gives rapid drying.
 Heating is done either directly, by a hot air current within the
tube or indirectly through an outer shell containing steam
tubes or heated gases.
 Due to rotation of the cylinder , the material is turned over
by tumbling effect and drying takes place from individual
particles and not from static bed.
 When recovery of solvent is important then rotary vacuum
dryer may be used.
 Small rotary vacuum dryers are used for aseptic work.
 Such dryers are made up of stainless steel and all parts can
be sterilized.
 USES:-
 For continuous drying of powdered or granular solids on
large scale and several tonnes of material can be dried per
hour.
 FLUIDIZED BED DRYER :-
 Is known by the name because a gas is allowed to
flow upward through a bed of particulate solids at a
velocity greater than the settling velocity of the
particles , the solids will be blown up and become
partially suspended in the gas stream.
 The resultant mixture of solids and gas behaves like a liquid
and the solids are said to be fluidized.
 This technique is very efficient and is used for drying
granular solids because each particle is surrounded by the
drying gas.
 2 types of fluidized bed dryers are used in pharmaceutical
industries – vertical & horizontal.
 Vertical type is used for batch drying.
 Horizontal type is used for continuous drying.
 ADVANTAGES :-
 They are efficient as material can be dried within 20 – 40
minutes compared with several hours in tray dryers.
 Drying takes place from individual particles and not from
whole bed.
 The temperature of a fluidized bed is uniform and can be
controlled to the desired temperature.
 A free flowing product is produced.
 Since the containers are mobile which make handling easy
thereby labour costs are reduced.
 Due to short drying time the unit has a high output.
 DISADVANTAGES :-
 Due to turbulence of the fluidized state, large quantities of
fines are produced.
 Too wet granules stick together on drying therefore too wet
granules must not be used.
 Many organic powders develop electrostatic charges during
fluidization so efficient electrical earthing of the drying
chamber and the cloth filters is necessary.
 USES :-
 For drying any powdered material .
 Special application in drying the tablet granules and widely
used for this purpose.
 VACUUM DRYER:-
 In pharmaceutical practice the vacuum oven is commonly
used for vacuum drying.
 Vacuum oven is a modified form of vacuum still and
consists of a jacketed vessel sufficiently hard in construction
to withstand vacuum within the oven and stream pressure in
the jacket.
 This type of oven is constructed in such a way that it provides
large surface area for heat transfer by conduction and is
provided with a door which can be tightly closed to provide
air tight seal.
 The oven is connected through a condenser and receiver to a
vacuum pump .
 Vacuum pump can be connected directly to the oven.
 For drying the material is spread on trays which are placed on
steam heated shelves in the jacket of vacuum oven.
 ADVANTAGES :-
 Thermo liable substances can be dried at a low temperature and
chances of oxidation are reduced.
 During the manufacture of a dry extract , a porous and friable
product is obtained which is especially useful in tablet
manufacturing.
 Bye the use of condenser the solvent can be recovered from the
product.
 DISADVANTAGES :-
 Heat transfer may be low and non uniform.
 The capacity of vacuum oven is limited therefore may not be
suitable for large quantities.
 Labour and running costs are high.
 After drying a grinding process is necessary to get a powdered
product.
 There is danger that the finally powdered material may be
drawn off by the vacuum pump, and filters which require
frequent cleaning have to be provided.
 FREEZING DRYER :-
 Freeze drying is the process in which water is removed from
liquid products by sublimation .
 Also called sublimation drying.
 As the dried product has great affinity for water , therefore
this process is also known as lyophilisation.
 In this process the liquid is first frozen to ice before
application of vacuum , to avoid frothing .
 Then sublimation of frozen ice is carried out under reduced
pressure.
 The vaporization of ice occurs only at the surface , hence
the frozen ice is exposed to large surface area for rapid
sublimation .
 Freeze drying on large scale may be carried out by freezing
the product in a container kept on the shelf of a chamber by
circulating a refrigerant like Freon, ammonia or ethylene
glycol from the compressor through pipes fitted along the
sides of the shelf.
 When the freezing is complete , vacuum is applied to the
chamber which has been previously chilled by means of
circulating the refrigerant from the large compressor.
 Heating is then applied to the product by heating coils or by
circulating hot water.
 The process is continued till the product is dry and a spongy
solid material is left behind.
 The liquid products to be freeze dried are sterilized and
distributed aseptically to the final containers which are kept
open during the drying process and are immediately sealed as
soon as the drying is complete.
 APPLICATIONS :-
 For manufacture of certain pharmaceutical and biological
products which are thermo liable.
 Drying blood plasma, vitamins, enzymes, hormones and
antibiotics.
 ADVANTAGES :-
 Freeze dried product has definite physical properties as
compared to products dried by other methods.
 Freeze dried products are more stable than vacuum dried
products and are often more readily soluble.
 DISADVANTAGES :-
 Very slow and expensive process .
 Is preferably used for those products which cannot be dried
by any other method.
Ayurvedic perspective of drying :-
 Most of the raw drugs used for the preparation of
formulations are properly dried , after collection.
 Two types of drying are commonly advocated .
 Drying under direct sunlight & drying under shade.
 Also different dryers can be used for drying purposes.
 Raw drugs are to be dried properly to remove the water
content or moisture content.
 Removal of moisture content will enhance the shelf life.
 In case of compound preparations:-
 Most of the preparations are dried by placing directly under
the sun
e:g – Chakrikas before bhasma preparations
 Sun light – provides heat & light energy .
 certain preparations are prepared in the presence of moon
light
 E:g – Pravala pisti
 Moon light – provides light energy , it does not provide heat
energy.
 The perparations which contain constituents , that get
decomposes under sunlight are get dried under shade.
 e:g – Kasisa, most of the gulika preparations etc.
CONCLUSION :-
 Drying is an important process in every pharmaceutical
procedures.
 It is the process done prior to packaging of formulations.
 Drying helps in the conversion of raw drugs in to suitable
dosage forms.
 It provides free flowing or easy handling substances for
tablet or granule formation.
 There are different drying techniques available, based on
the nature of the drugs.
 Most commonly Drum dryer , spray dryer , tray dryer
etc. are commonly used in Ayurvedic pharmaceutical
industry.
THANK
U

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DRYING TECHNIQUES IN PHARMACY

  • 1. dryingtechniques inpharmaceutical industry By Dr ANJANA.P 2ND YEAR PG R&B DEPARTMENT Govt. Ayurveda College, Tripunithura, Kerala
  • 2.  Important process in almost all the pharmaceutical industries.  Last stage of the process , before packaging.  prevent the deterioration  produce a readily soluble or free flowing product.
  • 3.  DEFINITION :-  Drying is defined as a process in which the liquid is removed from a material by the application of heat and is accomplished by the transfer of a liquid from a surface, in to an unsaturated vapour phase.
  • 4.  NEED FOR DRYING :-  For the preparation of granules which can be dispensed in bulk, compressed in the form of tablets or filled in capsules.  For the preparation of certain products like dried aluminium hydroxide, spray dried lactose & powdered extracts.  For reducing the bulk & weight , there by lowering the cost of transporation and storage.
  • 5.  Vegetable drugs are dried before extraction to facilitate grinding and to avoid deterioration on storage.  As dried products are more stable than moist ones , therefore heat is required for drying.
  • 6.  FACTORS AFFECTING DRYING PROCESS:-  Various methods and equipment's for drying are available ,the choice of which depends up on the following factors :-  Whether the product is sensitive to heat or not  Physical characteristics of the product before drying  The nature of the solvent to be removed.
  • 7.  Whether the process is to be carried out under aseptic conditions or not.  Quantity of the product to be dried.  Available source of heat.  Cost involved.
  • 8. TYPES OF DRYERS :- I. Dryers for dilute solutions, suspensions and slurries :- a. Drum dryer b. Spray dryer II . Dryers for damp solid materials :- a. Tray or shelf dryers b. Tunnel dryers c. Rotary dryer
  • 9.  d. Fluidizer bed dryer  e. Vaccum dryer  f. Freeze dryer.
  • 10. Dryers for dilute solutions , suspensions and slurries:-  DRUM DRYER :-  Drum dryer consists of a steel drum , 0.75 to 1.5 m in diameter and 2-4 m in length.  Drum is heated internally by steam and rotated on its longitudinal axis.
  • 11.  The liquid to be dried is kept in a feeding pan in which the heated drum dips.  As the drum rotates the liquid is applied to the surface and spreads to a film which dries rapidly.  The dried product is scrapped from the surface of the drum by means of a doctor knife , in the form of flakes.  The drying rate can be controlled by adjusting rotation speed and temperature of the drum.
  • 12.  ADVANTAGES :-  It is a quick method of drying as the material spreads in a thin film over large surface area.  Heating time is short i.e. only a few seconds.  The equipment is compact which requires small space for its operation.
  • 13.  The equipment can be enclosed in a vacuum chamber thereby temperature of drying can be reduced.  The product is obtained in flake form which has added advantages.  USES:-  Used for drying of milk products, starch products, iron salts and suspensions of kaolin or zinc oxide etc.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.  SPRAY DRYER :-  Used for drying only the liquid materials such as solutions, slurries and thin pastes.  In this method the liquid is dispersed as fine droplets in to a moving stream of hot air where they are evaporated rapidly before reaching the wall of the chamber.  The final product will be in the form of fine powder , collected in a collection system.
  • 17.  Depending up on the nature of material to be dried , there are different types of spray dryers.  All spray dryers consists of following components :-  Feed delivery system  Atomizer  Heated air supply  Drying chamber  Solid – gas separator
  • 18.
  • 19.  Product collecting system .  WORKING :-  The material to be dried is fed to the atomizer by gravity or by use of a suitable pump.  The rate of feed is adjusted in such a way that each droplet of sprayed liquid is completely dried before it comes in contact with the walls of drying chamber.  The dried powder is not overheated in the process.
  • 20.  The inlet air temperature is kept constant.  High temperature can result in improper drying.  Excessive feed rates will lower the outer temperature due to which the material will be collected on the walls of the chamber.  The disc of the atomizer is driven by an air turbine and spins at 35000rpm.
  • 21.  Air is introduced with the help of a fan, which is heated by means of electric heater to a maximum temperature of 350*c .  The sprayed droplets from atomizer come in to contact with the hot air just below the disc .  The droplets rapidly evaporate as they are carried by currents of hot air in the drying chamber.  The dried powder is separated from the exhaust gas in cyclone separator and collected in to container.
  • 22.  The flow rate is controlled by a valve.  APPLICATIONS:-  The material can be dried at a very fast rate.ie the actual drying time for a droplet is only a few seconds.  Since the evaporation rate is very high , droplets are not subjected to a very high temperature.  Thermo liable substances can be easily dried without decomposition.
  • 23.  Spray dryers can be designed for drying under sterile conditions.  The dried powder will have a uniform particle size & shape.  Because of good flow properties the spray dried powders can be easily compressed in the form of tablets.  Labour costs are low since the material is dried in a single operation with no handling.
  • 24.  DISADVANTAGES :-  The equipment is very bulky and costly.  The drying chamber alone may be 15m height and 6m in diameter.  There is lot of wastage of heat since the air must still be hot enough when it leaves the dryer to avoid condensation of moisture.
  • 25.  USES :-  The substances which are spray dried include boric acid, methyl cellulose, sulphar, lactose, citric acid, sodium phosphate, gelatin, acacia, milk and food products , soap and detergents.  Materials up to 2000kg/hour can be handled.
  • 26.
  • 27. II. DRYERS FOR DAMP SOLID MATERIALS :-  TRAY OR SHELF DRYERS:-  Cabinet or compartment dryers.  These type dryers are essentially hot air ovens.  The material to be dried is spread in thin layers in trays , the number of which varies according to the size of the oven.
  • 28.  The heating is done by the forced circulation of large volume of heated air by means of fans.  In truck dryers , the trays are loaded on trucks ( racks fitted with wheels) which can be pushed and taken out easily from the drying chamber.  In pharmaceutical industries truck dryers are preferred over tray dryers because of convenience in loading and unloading the drying cabinets.
  • 29.  Drying by means of truck or tray dryers is a batch process rather than continuous drying as in the case of moving belt dryers.  In pharmaceutical industries batch drying is preferred because each batch can be dried separately and same equipment can be used for drying a wide variety of materials.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.  TUNNEL DRYER:-  Modification of tray dryer.  Oven is replaced by a tunnel.  The material to be dried is entered at one end and the dried material is collected at the other end of the tunnel.  The trays containing the wet material is loaded on trucks or on single or multiple belt conveyers which has an automatic speed control.
  • 33.  In the multiple belt conveyer system the partially dried material which has completed one circle moves automatically from the end of 1st conveyer on to the 2nd conveyer moving in opposite direction.  In this way the product may travel successively five times along the tunnel before it is discharged at the other end of the tunnel.
  • 34.  As compared to the tray dryers, the tunnel dryers have the advantage that it is semi-continuous as well as continuous in operation and can be used for large scale production.
  • 35.
  • 36. ROTARY DRYER :-  Modified form of tunnel dryer which consists of a horizontal tube, slightly inclined , so that the material fed at one end will move gradually through the tube towards the other end , as the tube is slowly rotated at about 10 rev/minute.  To improve contact , the cylindrical tube is fitted with baffles which lift the solids and spill the particles through the air steam, which gives rapid drying.
  • 37.  Heating is done either directly, by a hot air current within the tube or indirectly through an outer shell containing steam tubes or heated gases.  Due to rotation of the cylinder , the material is turned over by tumbling effect and drying takes place from individual particles and not from static bed.  When recovery of solvent is important then rotary vacuum dryer may be used.
  • 38.  Small rotary vacuum dryers are used for aseptic work.  Such dryers are made up of stainless steel and all parts can be sterilized.  USES:-  For continuous drying of powdered or granular solids on large scale and several tonnes of material can be dried per hour.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.  FLUIDIZED BED DRYER :-  Is known by the name because a gas is allowed to flow upward through a bed of particulate solids at a velocity greater than the settling velocity of the particles , the solids will be blown up and become partially suspended in the gas stream.
  • 43.  The resultant mixture of solids and gas behaves like a liquid and the solids are said to be fluidized.  This technique is very efficient and is used for drying granular solids because each particle is surrounded by the drying gas.  2 types of fluidized bed dryers are used in pharmaceutical industries – vertical & horizontal.
  • 44.  Vertical type is used for batch drying.  Horizontal type is used for continuous drying.
  • 45.  ADVANTAGES :-  They are efficient as material can be dried within 20 – 40 minutes compared with several hours in tray dryers.  Drying takes place from individual particles and not from whole bed.  The temperature of a fluidized bed is uniform and can be controlled to the desired temperature.
  • 46.  A free flowing product is produced.  Since the containers are mobile which make handling easy thereby labour costs are reduced.  Due to short drying time the unit has a high output.  DISADVANTAGES :-  Due to turbulence of the fluidized state, large quantities of fines are produced.
  • 47.  Too wet granules stick together on drying therefore too wet granules must not be used.  Many organic powders develop electrostatic charges during fluidization so efficient electrical earthing of the drying chamber and the cloth filters is necessary.  USES :-  For drying any powdered material .
  • 48.  Special application in drying the tablet granules and widely used for this purpose.
  • 49.  VACUUM DRYER:-  In pharmaceutical practice the vacuum oven is commonly used for vacuum drying.  Vacuum oven is a modified form of vacuum still and consists of a jacketed vessel sufficiently hard in construction to withstand vacuum within the oven and stream pressure in the jacket.
  • 50.  This type of oven is constructed in such a way that it provides large surface area for heat transfer by conduction and is provided with a door which can be tightly closed to provide air tight seal.  The oven is connected through a condenser and receiver to a vacuum pump .  Vacuum pump can be connected directly to the oven.
  • 51.  For drying the material is spread on trays which are placed on steam heated shelves in the jacket of vacuum oven.  ADVANTAGES :-  Thermo liable substances can be dried at a low temperature and chances of oxidation are reduced.  During the manufacture of a dry extract , a porous and friable product is obtained which is especially useful in tablet manufacturing.
  • 52.  Bye the use of condenser the solvent can be recovered from the product.  DISADVANTAGES :-  Heat transfer may be low and non uniform.  The capacity of vacuum oven is limited therefore may not be suitable for large quantities.  Labour and running costs are high.  After drying a grinding process is necessary to get a powdered product.
  • 53.  There is danger that the finally powdered material may be drawn off by the vacuum pump, and filters which require frequent cleaning have to be provided.
  • 54.
  • 55.  FREEZING DRYER :-  Freeze drying is the process in which water is removed from liquid products by sublimation .  Also called sublimation drying.  As the dried product has great affinity for water , therefore this process is also known as lyophilisation.
  • 56.  In this process the liquid is first frozen to ice before application of vacuum , to avoid frothing .  Then sublimation of frozen ice is carried out under reduced pressure.  The vaporization of ice occurs only at the surface , hence the frozen ice is exposed to large surface area for rapid sublimation .
  • 57.  Freeze drying on large scale may be carried out by freezing the product in a container kept on the shelf of a chamber by circulating a refrigerant like Freon, ammonia or ethylene glycol from the compressor through pipes fitted along the sides of the shelf.  When the freezing is complete , vacuum is applied to the chamber which has been previously chilled by means of circulating the refrigerant from the large compressor.
  • 58.  Heating is then applied to the product by heating coils or by circulating hot water.  The process is continued till the product is dry and a spongy solid material is left behind.  The liquid products to be freeze dried are sterilized and distributed aseptically to the final containers which are kept open during the drying process and are immediately sealed as soon as the drying is complete.
  • 59.  APPLICATIONS :-  For manufacture of certain pharmaceutical and biological products which are thermo liable.  Drying blood plasma, vitamins, enzymes, hormones and antibiotics.  ADVANTAGES :-  Freeze dried product has definite physical properties as compared to products dried by other methods.
  • 60.  Freeze dried products are more stable than vacuum dried products and are often more readily soluble.  DISADVANTAGES :-  Very slow and expensive process .  Is preferably used for those products which cannot be dried by any other method.
  • 61.
  • 62. Ayurvedic perspective of drying :-  Most of the raw drugs used for the preparation of formulations are properly dried , after collection.  Two types of drying are commonly advocated .  Drying under direct sunlight & drying under shade.  Also different dryers can be used for drying purposes.
  • 63.  Raw drugs are to be dried properly to remove the water content or moisture content.  Removal of moisture content will enhance the shelf life.  In case of compound preparations:-  Most of the preparations are dried by placing directly under the sun e:g – Chakrikas before bhasma preparations
  • 64.  Sun light – provides heat & light energy .  certain preparations are prepared in the presence of moon light  E:g – Pravala pisti  Moon light – provides light energy , it does not provide heat energy.  The perparations which contain constituents , that get decomposes under sunlight are get dried under shade.  e:g – Kasisa, most of the gulika preparations etc.
  • 65. CONCLUSION :-  Drying is an important process in every pharmaceutical procedures.  It is the process done prior to packaging of formulations.  Drying helps in the conversion of raw drugs in to suitable dosage forms.  It provides free flowing or easy handling substances for tablet or granule formation.
  • 66.  There are different drying techniques available, based on the nature of the drugs.  Most commonly Drum dryer , spray dryer , tray dryer etc. are commonly used in Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry.