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DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER,
A PROMISING MODEL FOR
DIABETES STUDIES
Nwanaga Clinton Uche
(Nnamdi Azikiwe University)
OUTLINE
❏ Overview of Diabetes Mellitus
❏ Review Of Drosophila
Melanogaster
❏ Drosophila Melanogaster life cycle
❏ The Culture And Media Of
Drosophila
❏ Drosophila Model Applications
❏ Why Drosophila Model In Diabetes
Studies
❏ Establishment Of Drosophila Diabetes
Models
❏ Proof of drosophila model accuracy in
diabetes
❏ Limitations of the fly model
❏ Conclusion
❏ Selected References
DIABETES MELITUS
Diabetes will be the sixth most common cause of death in 2030 according to
WHO(Inoue, Katsube, and Hinami, 2018 ;WHO., 2016)
As at 2019, 8.2 million Nigerians were estimated to have impaired glucose
tolerance, with the number projected to increase to 11.5 million by 2030.
(Adeleye, 2021; IDF,2019)
DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
❖ Drosophila melanogaster also known as “fruit fly” is an
insect belonging to the family Drosophilae.
❖ They are between 2-4 mm long and weigh about 1 mg.
WHY DROSOPHILA IN DIABETES STUDIES?
★ Small, easy to handle, and
inexpensive to maintain and
manipulate in the laboratory.
★ Cost and High rate of
reproduction (Miao et al.,
2022)
★ Short life cycle (Abolaji et al.,
2013)
★ Multiple-model organism
★ No ethical Approval (Festing et al.,
1999)
★ Simplified genetics (Rand, 2010).
★ Flies also have limited genetic
redundancy.
★ Pathways for energy metabolism
and Metabolic organs are
conserved (Miao et al., 2022)
DROSOPHILA LIFE CYCLE
The Drosophila life cycle is about 2
weeks long, and is comprised of 4
major stages: the embryo, larva,
pupa, and adult.
The average lifespan of Drosophila
is between 60-80 days, however
lifespan can be affected by factors
such as temperature or
overcrowding.
THE CULTURE AND MEDIA OF
DROSOPHILA
•cornmeal medium
(Peng et al., (2009) and Li et al., (2007)
•constant humidity and
temperature (60%
relative humidity;
23+1oC respectively
•12 h light/dark
cycle.
DROSOPHILA MODEL APPLICATIONS
❖ neurological illnesses including Parkinson's and
Alzheimer's (Hirth, 2010)
❖ cancer (Nagaraja and Banerjee, 2004),
❖ Developmental heart defects (Ocorr et al., 2007),
❖ inflammation and infectious diseases (Hirth, 2010),
❖ and metabolic disorders (diabetes) (Pendse et al., 2013)
PROOF OF DROSOPHILA MODEL ACCURACY IN
DIABETES STUDIES
➢ partial or complete elimination of IPC (type 1 diabetes) (
Rulifson et al., 2002)
➢ knockout of Dilp1-5 gene (type 1 diabetes) (Zhang et al.,
2009)
➢ insulin signaling pathway mutation (type 2 diabetes)
➢ high-sugar or high-fat inducing (type 2 diabetes) (Miao et
al., 2022)
PROOF OF DROSOPHILA MODEL ACCURACY
IN DIABETES STUDIES
P. curatellifolia (Ogunbolude et al., 2009; Omale et al., 2020).
Syzygium cumini extract (Kumar et al., 2008; Ecker et al.,
2017)
P. ostreatus (Zhang et al., 2016; Omale et al., 2020)
LIMITATIONS OF DROSOPHILA MODEL
Drosophila does not possess hemoglobin
Study of cell autonomous functions.(Adams et al.,
2000; Myers et al., 2000)
CONCLUSION
Despite the differences in gross morphology of humans and the fruit
fly, many factors including the genes , organs and signaling pathways
responsible for sugar metabolism are conserved in Drosophila
melanogaster making it a worthy model for diabetes studies.
SELECTED REFERENCES
➔ Abolaji AO, Kamdem JP, Farombi EO, Rocha JB., (2013) Drosophila melanogaster
as a Promising Model Organism in Toxicological Studies. Arch. Bas. App. Med. 33-
38
➔ Adesola, R.O., Lawal, J.T. and Oladele, O.E., 2021. Drosophila melanogaster
(Meigen, 1830): A potential model for human diseases. World News of Natural
Sciences, 36, pp.42-59
➔ Miao, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Tang, W., Zhang, Z., Liu, Y. and Xu, Q., (2022).
Drosophila melanogaster diabetes models and its usage in the researches of anti-
diabetes management with traditional Chinese medicines. Frontiers in Medicine,
p.2301.
➔ Warr, C., Shaw, K., Azim, A., Piper, M., & Parsons, L., (2018). Using Mouse and

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DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, A PROMISING MODEL FOR DIABETES STUDIES.pptx

  • 1. DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, A PROMISING MODEL FOR DIABETES STUDIES Nwanaga Clinton Uche (Nnamdi Azikiwe University)
  • 2. OUTLINE ❏ Overview of Diabetes Mellitus ❏ Review Of Drosophila Melanogaster ❏ Drosophila Melanogaster life cycle ❏ The Culture And Media Of Drosophila ❏ Drosophila Model Applications ❏ Why Drosophila Model In Diabetes Studies ❏ Establishment Of Drosophila Diabetes Models ❏ Proof of drosophila model accuracy in diabetes ❏ Limitations of the fly model ❏ Conclusion ❏ Selected References
  • 3. DIABETES MELITUS Diabetes will be the sixth most common cause of death in 2030 according to WHO(Inoue, Katsube, and Hinami, 2018 ;WHO., 2016) As at 2019, 8.2 million Nigerians were estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance, with the number projected to increase to 11.5 million by 2030. (Adeleye, 2021; IDF,2019)
  • 4. DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER ❖ Drosophila melanogaster also known as “fruit fly” is an insect belonging to the family Drosophilae. ❖ They are between 2-4 mm long and weigh about 1 mg.
  • 5. WHY DROSOPHILA IN DIABETES STUDIES? ★ Small, easy to handle, and inexpensive to maintain and manipulate in the laboratory. ★ Cost and High rate of reproduction (Miao et al., 2022) ★ Short life cycle (Abolaji et al., 2013) ★ Multiple-model organism ★ No ethical Approval (Festing et al., 1999) ★ Simplified genetics (Rand, 2010). ★ Flies also have limited genetic redundancy. ★ Pathways for energy metabolism and Metabolic organs are conserved (Miao et al., 2022)
  • 6. DROSOPHILA LIFE CYCLE The Drosophila life cycle is about 2 weeks long, and is comprised of 4 major stages: the embryo, larva, pupa, and adult. The average lifespan of Drosophila is between 60-80 days, however lifespan can be affected by factors such as temperature or overcrowding.
  • 7. THE CULTURE AND MEDIA OF DROSOPHILA •cornmeal medium (Peng et al., (2009) and Li et al., (2007) •constant humidity and temperature (60% relative humidity; 23+1oC respectively •12 h light/dark cycle.
  • 8. DROSOPHILA MODEL APPLICATIONS ❖ neurological illnesses including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (Hirth, 2010) ❖ cancer (Nagaraja and Banerjee, 2004), ❖ Developmental heart defects (Ocorr et al., 2007), ❖ inflammation and infectious diseases (Hirth, 2010), ❖ and metabolic disorders (diabetes) (Pendse et al., 2013)
  • 9. PROOF OF DROSOPHILA MODEL ACCURACY IN DIABETES STUDIES ➢ partial or complete elimination of IPC (type 1 diabetes) ( Rulifson et al., 2002) ➢ knockout of Dilp1-5 gene (type 1 diabetes) (Zhang et al., 2009) ➢ insulin signaling pathway mutation (type 2 diabetes) ➢ high-sugar or high-fat inducing (type 2 diabetes) (Miao et al., 2022)
  • 10. PROOF OF DROSOPHILA MODEL ACCURACY IN DIABETES STUDIES P. curatellifolia (Ogunbolude et al., 2009; Omale et al., 2020). Syzygium cumini extract (Kumar et al., 2008; Ecker et al., 2017) P. ostreatus (Zhang et al., 2016; Omale et al., 2020)
  • 11. LIMITATIONS OF DROSOPHILA MODEL Drosophila does not possess hemoglobin Study of cell autonomous functions.(Adams et al., 2000; Myers et al., 2000)
  • 12. CONCLUSION Despite the differences in gross morphology of humans and the fruit fly, many factors including the genes , organs and signaling pathways responsible for sugar metabolism are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster making it a worthy model for diabetes studies.
  • 13. SELECTED REFERENCES ➔ Abolaji AO, Kamdem JP, Farombi EO, Rocha JB., (2013) Drosophila melanogaster as a Promising Model Organism in Toxicological Studies. Arch. Bas. App. Med. 33- 38 ➔ Adesola, R.O., Lawal, J.T. and Oladele, O.E., 2021. Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830): A potential model for human diseases. World News of Natural Sciences, 36, pp.42-59 ➔ Miao, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Tang, W., Zhang, Z., Liu, Y. and Xu, Q., (2022). Drosophila melanogaster diabetes models and its usage in the researches of anti- diabetes management with traditional Chinese medicines. Frontiers in Medicine, p.2301. ➔ Warr, C., Shaw, K., Azim, A., Piper, M., & Parsons, L., (2018). Using Mouse and