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Drinking Water Treatment Process
ENC 3246 Communications For Engineers
University of South Florida
Harinder Mootoor, Sabrina Oliveira, Zil Patel
Virus
Bacteria
Sediments
Raw Water
Raw Water
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Repeal each other
Attract each other
Neutral particles
Coagulation
Coagulant
Water particles
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Particles collide and link together through weak bonds
And form big clumps called flocs
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Removal of sediments
Clean water to filtration
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Filtration
Clean water to disinfection
Water from sedimentation
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Disinfection
Microorganisms remainingDisinfecting agents
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
Filtration
Treated Water
Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
FiltrationTreated Water Storage
Disinfection
Coagulants
Raw
Water
Distribution
Home Consumption
Water Treatment Process
Conclusion
Raw water comes from various sources such as
lakes and rivers. Raw water if filled with harmful
particles, therefore it must be treated before it
is consumed. Going through the water
treatment, raw water is filtered and disinfected
to kill off and clean out all of the harmful
particles. The water is then distributed
throughout the society for various uses by
humans.

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Drinking Water Treatment Process

Editor's Notes

  1. About 71 % of the Earth’s surface contains water. Millions of gallons of water are being treated and transported to millions of people every day. Water is a vital part of our nutrition, diet and survival. It is needed for us to live and maintain a healthy lifestyle http://www.elearning-africa.com/eLA_Newsportal/wp-content/uploads/Fotolia_26790321_M.jpg
  2. Most of the water in the world is filled with viruses, bacteria, microbes, and other harmful particles. http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/magnifier-bacteria-virus-cells-water-drop-vector-illustration-44038688.jpg
  3. The water that contains these impurities is known as “Raw Water”.
  4. Raw water is found in various locations, such as lakes, streams, reservoirs, wells, underground aquifers, etc. http://www.lovethesepics.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Crater-Lake-at-the-Mouth-of-Taal-Volcano-in-Luzon-Philippines.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Arkhangelskaia_oblast_Plesetskiy_Raion.JPG http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/publications/waterway/webpc/12.jpg http://floridaspringsinstitute.org/Resources/Pictures/Springs1.jpg
  5. The transformation of raw water to drinking water is called water treatment, and is a very large business around the world. Water treatment is needed to eliminate the risk of waterborne diseases and reduce the levels of harmful disinfectant by-products. Treatment results in improved odor, taste and appearance of the water received from these process plants. Each specific additive or detailed method varies from plant to plant depending on the type of impurities found in the raw water. However, no matter where the water is obtained, there are 6 general stages that all raw water must go through to become useable, treated water. Water is sent to pumping stations from various bodies of waters to the treatment facilities.
  6. Stage 1- Coagulation-Flocculation The first step in treating drinking water involves the removal of sediments and particles. In the collected water, chemicals known as coagulants are added. Coagulants, such as aluminum sulfate are added to thicken the water and form flocks of bacteria, mud and other impurities
  7. Most of the particles in the raw water have a negative charge, which make them repeal each other. The coagulants, which have a positive charge, react with the negative particles, forming neutral particles. After the coagulants are added, the water is rapidly mixed so the coagulants are dispersed and the particles collide to form bigger clumps, called microflocs.
  8. In flocculation the water goes through a gentle mixing so the microflocs formed do not disintegrate and can collide with each other to form even bigger particles, called flocs. The flock is a collection of most of the suspended load and bacteria in the water that caused its turbidity, and once it is formed the water will be clearer.
  9. In the sedimentation chamber the flocs are separated from the water by leaving the water undisturbed to allow the dense particles to settle to the bottom by gravity.
  10. These suspended solids will then be collected several times daily into a hopper to be removed from the water flow. The sedimentation can also occur by pumping the flocks to the top for physical removal by skimmers. Although after the sedimentation most of the suspended load and biological contaminants in the water are removed, microscopic bacteria and virus, and other fine solids still remain in the water, and will be removed by the filtration and disinfection.
  11. Once most of the major particles are removed, the water is pushed through layers of activated carbon, sand and gravel to filter out any remaining fine particles and microorganisms. The primary filtration process used is adsorption, where the particles are attracted to the filter material, such as activated carbon, and are gathered on its surface. The secondary process is the straining out of the remaining flocs in the water in a filter where the pores between the filter material, such as sand, are smaller than they are, trapping them preventing them from flowing with the water However, this water is still filled with bacteria, viruses, and other organic matter.
  12. To kill the remaining disease causing microorganisms, the water must be disinfected. Disinfection is normally done in two ways; either with the addition of chlorine or ozone. 1.9 mg of chlorine is added to every 4 cups of water used to kill germs and bugs. Ozone is supercharged oxygen, added to water as bubbles to scrub and disinfect viruses, germs, and fungi. The disinfectant agent remains active in water to prevent the microorganisms from growing in the plumbing during distribution on water.
  13. After disinfection the water will be stored in a basin to be distributed.
  14. .