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DRAVYAGUNA ITIHASA –
NIGHANTU PARICHAYA
PRESENTED BY
DR. MADHUBALA P GOPINATH
1ST YEAR P.G. SCHOLAR
DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNANA
GAVC, TRIVANDRUM
GUIDED BY
DR. INDULEKHA.V.C
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNANA
GAVC, TRIVANDRUM
1
CONTENTS
EVOLUTION OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS TO NIGHANTUS
History of Dravyaguna Vijnana
Dravyaguna – Definitions according to different authors
Evolution of historical study of dravyaguna – Ancient, Medieval and Modern references
Ancient period – References from Prevedic, Vedic, Samhita scriptures
Medieval and Modern period – References through nighantus
Nighantu Parichaya – Etymology, Definition, Relavance, Utility, List of nighantus
Conclusion
2
HISTORY OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNAN (DGV)
The history of dravyaguna goes back to eternity.
 Preservation of health has been instinctive necessity of
mankind since then.
Plants are used as food and medicine from time immemorial.
But the 1st mentioning of Dravyaguna is traceable from Charaka
Samhita.
Dravya guna shastra has been identified as a separate speciality
by Narahari, the author of Raj Nighantu. (17 A.D.)
3
TRACES OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNAN (DGV)
Acc. to Charaka,
य़तश्चायुष्याणि अनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुिकर्ााणि वेदयत्यतो
अप्यायुवेदः। तत्रायुश्याणि अनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुिकर्ााणि
क
े वलेनोपदेक्ष्यन्ते तन्त्रेि॥
Ayurveda is the science which deals with Dravya, guna and
karma of helpful and harmful material.
4
DEFINITION OF DGV
द्रव्याणाां गुणकर्ााणण प्रयोग विविधास्तथा । सिाशो यत्र िर्णयान्ते शास्त्रां द्रव्यगुणां हि
तत ्।।
(P. V. Sharma Dravyaguna Vignyana Vol.1
Pg.3)
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma defined Dravyaguna shastra as the branch which
deals with the properties, actions and therapeutic effects of various dravyas.
5
EVOLUTION OF DGV
For the sake of convenience, historical study can be divided into the
following periods:
1. Ancient - Pre-vedic Period, Vedic Period, Samhita period – 4,000
BC -7 AD
2. Medieval – Post Samhita period/ Proto Nighantu period – 8 AD –
15 AD
3. Modern – Nighantu period – 16 AD - PRESENT
6
INCLUSIONS OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA
DRAVYAGUNAVIJNAN can be broadly classified into
PADARTHA VIJNANA – Basic principles of Dravyaguna – Saptapadarthas
Study of Dravya, Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka, Prabhava, Karma
DRAVYA VIJNANA – Systemic understanding of drugs
Can be redivided into
Namaroopa vijnana
Yoga Vijnana Guna karma vijnana and Prayoga Vijnana
Samyoga Vijnana
7
Pre-Vedic Period
• Covers the history from antiquity to the times before the emergence of Vedas
• Includes prehistory and protohistory including Indus valley civilization
• PALAEOLITHIC AGE: Plants were used as food. Barks and leaves were used to cover bodies.
•NEOLITHIC AGE: Man learnt cultivation and began to grow crops. There are evidences of tree
worship, which indicates great importance of plants.
8
Vedic Period (2000 B.C. – 1000 B.C.)
The status of medicine and use of plants are evidenced from the vedic
literature – Samhitaas, Upanishads, Kalpasutras.
Basic concepts during Vedic period are :
1. Rigveda – Oushadhi sukta – is the oldest authoritative document of the
knowledge of plants.
2. The plant ‘soma’ has been praised as the elixir of life, was considered as the
king of plants (oshadhiraja).
3. In the 12th sooktha of Shukla Yajurveda - medicinal properties of different
herbs, their uses, collection of drugs are described.
9
Rigveda 67
Yajurveda 81
Atharvaveda 89
10
Classification of plants in Vedic period
Based on the FORM or SIZE Based on the USAGE
OSHADHI
VANASPATI
ATHARVANI
ANGIRASI
DAIVI
MANUSHYAJA
11
Vedic Period – Comparison of plant parts to human body
PARTS OF HUMAN BODY
Loma -
Twak -
Rakta -
Mamsa -
Snayu -
Asthi -
Majja -
PARTS OF PLANTS
Parna, Moola (leaves and roots)
Bahirupaatika (epiderm)
Niryasa (resin)
Shakara (mesoderm)
Kinatta (endoderm)
Aabhyantara kaashta (heartwood)
Majja (pith)
12
Samhita Period
Post Vedic Period / Samhita period – 1,500 BC – 7TH CENTURY AD
 Charaka Samhita
 Susrutha Samhita
 Ashtanga Sangraha and Hrudaya
Marks the development of Ayurveda.
It is in the initial phase of this period, great epics- Mahabharatam, Ramayanam were compiled.
Shad darshanas also took form in this period
13
Charaka Samhita
Charaka Samhita is considered to be one of the most important reference books for Dravyaguna.
SOOTRASTANA-
CHAPTERS
REFERENCES RELATED TO DRAVYA GUNA
1 (DJ) DRAVYASANGRAHA, DRAVYA-GUNA-KARMA LAKSHANA, SHADRASA, DRAVYA BHEDA
2 (AT) HERBS MEANT FOR PANCHAKARMA – SHIROVIRECHANA, VAMANA, VIRECHANA,
ASTHAPANA, ANUVASANA
3 (AG) HERBS USED FOR EXTERNAL APPLICATION
4 (SS) 600 YOGAS FOR VAMANA & VIRECHANA, 50 MAHAKASHAYAS- EACH KASHAYA WITH 10
DRUGS
9 (KC) PADACHATHUSHTAYA, DRAVYA GUNA (QUALITIES OF IDEAL DRUGS)
14
Charaka Samhita
22 (LB) DRAVYA RELATED TO SHADUPAKRAMA
25 (YP) AGRYAANAM SANGRAHA
26 (AB) CONCEPT OF RASA, VIPAKA, VIRYA, PRABHAVA ; VIRUDDHA DRAVYA
27 (AP) DRAVYA VARGA -
VIMANASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
1 (RV) RASA- MITHYOPAYOGA AND DOSA PRAKOPA; PIPPALI, KSHARA, LAVANA GUNA
2 (RB) RASA SKANDA
KALPASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
1-6 VAMANA GANA
7-12 VIRECHANA GANA
15
Sushruta Samhita
SUTRASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
1 (VD) STHAVARA AND JANGAMA AUSHADHI - 4 TYPES EACH
20 (HA) HITA & AHITA DRAVYA
34 (YS) BHESHAJA GUNA (QUALITIES OF AN IDEAL DRUG)
36 (BPV) AUSHADHA AHARANA YOGYA BHUMI (IDEAL PLACE OF COLLECTION)
37 (MI) DRUGS USED FOR PATICULAR KARMA – SHODHANA, ROPANA ETC.
38 (DS) 37 GANAS
39 (SS) SHODHANA - PANCHAKARMA UPAYOGI DRAVYA, SHAMANA- VAATADI DOSHA
SHAMANA
40 (DRGVVV) ALL BASIC CONCEPTS OF DG
41 (DVV) PANCHABHAUTIKATWA, PANCHAVIDHA DRAVYA
42(RVV) RASA AND TYPES
16
Sushruta Samhita
43 (Va DV) VAMANA DRUGS
44 (Vi DV) VIRECHANA DRUGS
45 (DDV) PANEEYA VARGA
46 (APV) DHANYA VARGA, PHALA VARGA
UTTARATANTRA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
63 (RBV) PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF RASA
17
Ashtanga Hrudaya
SUTRASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
1 RASA PANCHAKA, AUSHADA CHATHURGUNA, DESA
5 VARGAS( TOYA,KSIRA etc)
6 SUKA SIMBI DHANYA etc
7 VIRUDHA
9 DRAVYA LAKSHANAS,BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DRAVYAGUNA
10 RASA
14 LANGHANA AND BRIMHANA
15 32 GANAS
18
Ashtanga Hrudaya
CIKITSASTHANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
VARIOUS PREPARATIONS FROM DIFFERENT DRAVYAS
KALPASTHANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
VAMANA AND VIRECHANA KALPAS
UTHARATANTRA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG
39 RASAYANA DRAVYAS AND THEIR PREPARATIONS
40 VAJIKARANA DRAVYAS AND THEIR PREPARATIONS
19
LAGHUTRAYI
Sharangadhara also contributed towards dravyaguna vijnana in a considerable manner incorporating the basic
principles of DGV:
Use of fresh drugs or dry drugs
Properties of drugs according to place of origin – drugs from Vindhya desha are hot in potency
Time of collection of the drug
Parts to be used
Aushadha karma
Introduction of new drugs like bhanga, rudanti, babbula, mahanimba, patala garudi etc.
Mana Paribhasha was better explained
Acharya Bhava Mishra has also contributed significantly to dravyaguna by preparing a systematically arranged
appendix “BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU” to Bhavaprakasha Samhita.
20
NIGHANTU PARICHAYA
MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PERIOD
21
Etymology - NIGHANTU
From words
• ( xÉqÉç+AÉ+WûlÉç) - to collect
• (ÌlÉ+aÉqÉç) - to communicate
22
NIGHANTU
The literature on dravyaguna is generally known as Nighantu.
The origin of Nighantus goes back to Vedic Nighantu.
The Nighantu contained synonyms which throws light on different aspects of
entity and expose their hidden meanings.
Yaska (Sanskrit grammarian, author of nirukta) called Nighantu as Nigama and
Nirukta and used it synonymously
 Nighantus and nirukthas are sciences which acquaint us with the secret meanings
Nirukthas throw light in to the secret meanings of Vedas, whereas nighantus
explain the terms used for the variety of drugs in samhitas, with respect to its
synonyms, homonyms and gunakarmas.
23
NIGHANTU
ÌlÉaÉÔRûÉjÉï EcrÉiÉå AlÉålÉ mÉëMüÉUåhÉ iÉiÉç ÌlÉ£üqÉç (rÉÉxMü)
 Niruktha points/brings out the concealed or secret meaning of
Vedas.
ÌlÉaÉÔRûÉjÉï aÉqÉrÉÎliÉ elÉÉmÉrÉÎliÉ LÌiÉ ÌlÉaÉqÉ:” (rÉÉxMü)
Is that which brings out extremely concealed or secret of words.
At a later point of time the nighantus were analyzed in two aspects;
That which gives the synonyms of words
That which gives the meaning of words along with its actions and
therapeautical aspects
24
Definitions - NIGHANTU
According to Vachaspatya, Nighantu is that kind of work where synonyms are collected.
एकार्ा वाचचनाां पयााय शब्दानाां सङ्गो यत्र प्रायेिोपददश्यते तत्र ननघन्टु शब्दः प्रससद्धः|
(वाचस्पत्यां)
According to Hemachandra, Nighantu is a collection of nouns
नार्सङ्रह: इनत| (हेर्चन्द्र)
According to Shabdakalpadruma: That which looks beautiful or shines.
ननघण्टनत शोभते इनत| (श.क.द्रु)
25
Relevance - NIGHANTU
Nighantu is a collection of dravya which explains its synonymous
terms in use along with or without the explanation of its properties
and actions.
1) Dravya Vargeekarana
It most times follows some principles of classification of drugs. It
classifies medicinal plants into categories of similar actions or similar
properties.
The approach towards the available dravyas (ahara & oushadha) were
different in each Nighantu but was considered to be systematic.
Eg: Bhavaprakasha nighantu classified in 23 vargas.
26
Relevance - NIGHANTU
2) Dravya namakarana
Drug nomenclature was
addressed with different
techniques in nighantus.
Eg : Raja nighantu followed a
specific criteria for dravya
namakarana based on
Rudhi
Prabhava
Desoktha
Lanchana
Upama
Virya
Itharahwaya.
27
Relevance - NIGHANTU
3) Description about abhava dravyas
Nighantus also showed much interest in identifying the
timely problems in those periods (drug unavailability) and
delivered their own solutions.
Eg: Bhavaprakasha nighantu elaborately described the
abhava dravyas in general and specially for ashtavarga
dravyas.
28
Relevance - NIGHANTU
4) Inclusion of newer drugs to dravyaguna sastra
Many nighantus showed keen interest in properly identifying the
locally available/imported drugs and commonly using drugs and
mentioned them as a part of dravya vivarana.
Eg: Madana pala nighantu introduced the drugs like Ahiphena,
bhanga etc..to therapeutic category after its proper validation.
Today’s world looks towards reverse pharmacology and hence
traditional medicine is in limelight. To bring it into use, TM requires
standardization. Contribution of these nighantus in the field of
ethnobotany and pharmacotherapeutics is pathbreaking.
29
Utility - NIGHANTU
According to Raja Nighantu,
ननघण्टुना ववना वैद्यो ववद्वान व्याकरि ववना|
आयुधां च ववना योद्धा त्रयो हासस्य भाजनर् ्||
(R.N/ GRANTHAPRASTAVANA/9)
Again, it is said that even the most learned physician may get
confused in the selection of a choice drug without consulting this
nighantu because there are numerous types of drugs with different
rasa guna veerya vipaka etc.(R.N)
30
NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA
ANCIENT PERIOD : UPTO 7TH CENTURY A.D
NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE
VEDIC NIGHANTU
SAUSRUTA NIGHANTU SUSRUTA 5TH CENTURY
RASA VAISHESHIKA NAGARJUNA 5TH CENTURY
31
NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA
MEDIEVAL PERIOD : 8-15TH CENTURY A.D
NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE
1 ASHTANGA NIGHANTU VAGBHATA 8TH CENTURY
2 PARYAYA RATNAMALA MADHAVA 9TH CENTURY
3 SIDHASARA NIGHANTU RAVIGUPTA 9TH CENTURY
4 NIGHANTU - 9-10TH CENTURY
5 HARAMEKHALA NIGHANTU MAHUKA 10TH CENTURY
6 CHAMATKAARA NIGHANTU RANGACHARYA 10TH CENTURY
7 MADANAADI NIGHANTU CHANDRANANDANA 10TH CENTURY
8 DRAVYAGUNASANGRAHA CHAKRAPANIDATTA 11TH CENTURY
9 DHANWANTARI NIGHANTU MAHENDRA BHAUGIKA 11TH CENTURY
10 INDU NIGHANTU INDU 11TH CENTURY
32
NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA
MEDIEVAL PERIOD : 8-15TH CENTURY A.D
NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE
11 NIMI NIGHANTU NIMI 11TH CENTURY
12 SHABDACHANDRIKA CHAKRADUTTA 11TH CENTURY
13 ANEKARTHA KOSHA MANAKA 12TH CENTURY
14 NIGHANTU SHESHA /
ABHIDHANA CHINTAMANI
HEMACHANDRA 12TH CENTURY
15 SODHALA NIGHANTU SODHALA 12TH CENTURY
16 MADHAVA DRAVYAGUNA/
BHAVASWABHAAVA VAADA
MADHAVA 13TH CENTURY
17 SHADRASA NIGHANTU/
ABHIDHANA RATNAMALA
CHATURA RASITA 13TH CENTURY
18 SIDHAMANTRA KESHAVA 13TH CENTURY
33
NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA
MEDIEVAL PERIOD : 8-15TH CENTURY A.D
NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE
19 HRUDAYA DEEPIKA BHOPADEVA (SON OF
KESHAVA)
13TH CENTURY
20 SHATASLOKI BOPADEVA 13TH CENTURY
21 AYURVEDA MAHODADHI/ SUSHENA VAIDYAKA SUSHENA 14TH CENTURY
22 MADANAVINODA/
MADANAPALA NIGHANTU
MADANAPALA
MAHARAJA
14TH CENTURY (1374)
23 KAIYYADEVA NIGHANTU KAIYYADEVA 15TH CENTURY
34
NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA
MODERN PERIOD : FROM 16TH CENTURY A.D
NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE
1 BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU BHAVAMISHRA 16TH CENTURY
2 RAJA NIGHANTU/
ABHIDHANA CHOODAMANI
NARAHARI PANDIT 17TH CENTURY
3 VAIDHYAVATAMSA LOLIMBARAJA 17TH CENTURY
4 DRAVYAGUNA SHATHASLOKI TRIMALLABHATTA 17TH CENTURY
5 SHIVAKOSHA SHIVADUTTA MISHRA 17TH CENTURY
6 HIKAMAT PRAKASHA MAHADEVA 18TH CENTURY (1773)
7 RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU RAJAVALLABHA 18TH CENTURY
8 NIGHANTU RATNAKARA VISHNU VASUDEVA GODBOLE 19TH CENTURY
9 NIGHANTU SANGRAHA RAGHUNATHJI INDRAJI 19TH CENTURY
10 SHALIGRAMA NIGHANTU SHALIGRAMA 19TH CENTURY
11 VANAUSHADHI GUNAADARSHA SHANKARARADAJI SHASTRI PADE 19TH CENTURY
35
NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA (20TH CENTURY)
BOOK AUTHOR TIMELINE
12 VANAUSHADHI DARPANA KAVIRAJ BIRAJA CHARANA GUPTA 20TH CENTURY (1909)
13 VANASPATI SHASTRA JAIKRISHNA INDRAJI THAKAR 20TH CENTURY (1910)
14 NIGHANTU AADARSHA VAIDYA BAAPALALJI 20TH CENTURY (1928)
15 ROOPA NIGHANTU ROOPALAAL VAISHYA 20TH CENTURY (1934)
16 SANDIGDHA NIRNAYA/
VANAUSHADHA SHASTRA
Pt. BHAGIRATH SWAMI 20TH CENTURY (1936)
17 VANAUSHADHI CHANDRODAYA CHANDRARAJA BHANDAARI 20TH CENTURY (1938)
18 DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA Y.T. ACHARYA 20TH CENTURY (1953)
19 DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA PRIYAVRAT SHARMA 20TH CENTURY (1968)
20 PRIYA NIGHANTU PRIYAVRAT SHARMA 20TH CENTURY (1983)
36
NIGHANTUS
AUTHORSHIP, PERIOD, CONTENTS OF INDIVIDUAL NIGHANTUS
37
CONTENTS
S. NO NIGHANTU
1 PARYAYA RATNAMALA
2 DHANWANTARI NIGHANTU
3 HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU
4 ASHTANGA NIGHANTU
5 RAJA NIGHANTU
6 SIDHAMANTRA NIGHANTU
7 BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU
8 MADANAPALA NIGHANTU
S. NO NIGHANTU
9 RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU
10 MADHAVA DRAVYAGUNA
11 KAIYYADEVA
12 SHODHALA NIGHANTU
13 SHALIGRAMA NIGHANTU
14 NIGHANTU RATNAKARA
15 NIGHANTU AADARSHA
16 PRIYA NIGHANTU
38
PARYAYA RATNAMALA 9TH CENTURY
MADHAVA
•Author - Madhava – Rugvinishchaya/ Nidana – Indukarasunu – “Shilahrada”
•Contents
Synonymous medical lexicon, incorporates numerous words of common parlance.
 It has appended itself a section on homonyms and another on mana – measures including
paribhasha.
The present text is based on a collection of nine manuscripts found in Bengali.
The complete text contains over 800 slokas.
39
DHANVANTARI NIGHANTU 11TH CENTURY
MAHENDRA BHOGIKA
Author
Authorship unclear - M.B- Son of Krishna Bhogika – from Sthanviswara/
Thaneswara
Details
• Original text – Dravyavali with only synonyms
• Descriptions of rasadi added later and converting it into new text – Dh.N
Contents - Systematic classification of drugs under different vargas
40
DHANVANTARI NIGHANTU 11TH CENTURY
MAHENDRA BHOGIKA
Guduchyaadi – 128 drugs – guduchi, ativisha, kapikachu etc.
Shatapushpaadi – 54 drugs – mostly spices – shatapushpa, vacha, pippali etc.
Chandanaadi - 79 drugs- mostly aromatic drugs- chandana, raktachandana,
kramuka etc.
Karaveeraadi – 75 drugs – teekshna dravyas – karaveera, arka etc.
Amraadi – 74 drugs – fruit bearing plants – amra etc.
Suvarnaadi – 181 drugs – minerals, precious stones, grains, ghee, honey etc.
Mishraka – 70 dravya vargas – triphala, trikatu, panchavalkala, visha etc.
41
7 Vargas of Dhanwantari nighantu
HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY
BOPADEVA
•Author
Son of Keshava ( author of Sidhamantra) who was a royal physician,
Keshavavaidyasunu – from Vedapura.
He also wrote Shatashloki with his own commentary –
Chandrakala.
He also authored commentaries – Goodarthadeepika (on
Sharangadhara samhita), Prakasha Chandra Vyakhya ( on
Sidhamantra)
Also authored Harileela on the advise of Hemadri.
Totally he has written 26 books
42
HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY
BOPADEVA
•Contents
Hridayadeepika Nighantu is similar to Amarakosha
Written on the basis of synonyms and not on gunakarma.
Introductory verse offers salutations to aja ( unborn) and
akshara (indestructible)
divided to 8 vargas
Mostly on Devanagari scripts but some in Bengali
43
HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY
BOPADEVA
Chatuspada
Tripada
Dwipada
Ekapada
Dwinaama
Ekanaama
Nanaartha
Mishraka
44
8 vargas of HDN
ASHTANGA NIGHANTU 8TH CENTURY
VAGBHATA
Author
Acharya Vahak or Acharya Vagbhata
This work might be appended to Ashtanga Hrudaya
Edited by Prof Priyavrat Sharma
Contents
This work belongs to the class of nighantus with synonyms only.
The author made attempts to describe drugs clearly and as such he has coined
new synonyms which are significant for giving clear picture of dravya.
26 ganas of vaghbhata are mentioned
45
ASHTANGA NIGHANTU 8TH CENTURY
VAGBHATA
46
S. N. VARGA
1 Shaka varga
2 Phalavarga and puspavarga
3 Parthiva dravyas (Mineral drugs)
4 Jantava dravyas (Animal drugs)
5 Visa dravyas
6 Jaliya dravyas (Water resources)
7 Iksu and Madhu varga
8 Taila varga
S.N. VARGA
7 Madhya Varga
8 Dhanya varga
9 Mishraka varga
10 Kritanna varga
11 Mamsa varga
12 Sharira dhatus and doshas
13 Graha varga
RAJA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY
NARAHARI PANDIT
Author – Son of Iswara pandit – royal physician of the Kashmir
king then.
Details – also called Abhidhaana chudamani / Dravya
abhidhana gana sangraha
Period – not clear- but mentions references from
Madanapaala and Dhanwantari – thus period might be around
15th -16th century
47
RAJA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY
NARAHARI PANDIT
Contents of Raja Nighantu
Recognised dravyaguna as a speciality branch among ashtangas and
stressed importance of knowledge of dravyaguna to become a good
physician.
Includes 23 vargas
Mentions special vargas – Aanupaadi, Dharanyaadi, Manushyaadi,
Rogaadi and Satwaadi Vargas
Describes 698 drugs in Aushadhi varga
Includes more number of synonyms
Developed a method of plant nomenclature
48
RAJA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY
NARAHARI PANDIT
ANUPADI VARGA
DHARANYAADI VARGA SUVARNAADI VARGA
GUDUCHYADI VARGA PAANEEYADI VARGA
SHATAHWAADI VARGA KSHIRAADI VARGA
PARPATAADI VARGA SHALYAADI
PIPPALYAADI VARGA MAMSAADI VARGA
MOOLAKAADI VARGA MANUSHYAADI VARGA
SHALMALYAADI VARGA SIMHAADI VARGA
PRABHADRAADI VARGA ROGAADI VARGA
KARAVEERADI VARGA SATWAADI VARGA
AMRAADI VARGA MISHRAKAADI VARGA
CHANDANAADI VARGA ANEKAARTHADI VARGA
49
SIDDHAMANTRA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY
ACHARYA KESHAVA
•Author
Son of Mahadeva, disciple of Bhaskar, patronized by Simharaja (king of Yadava dynasty
at Dandaka desha)– from Vedapada, at the bank of river Varada, capital of Dandaka desha
(now in Maharashtra)
His son Bopadeva authored the commentary called Prakasha Chandra Vyakhya
•Contents
Adopted a different method in describing the dravya in his Nighantu.
The drugs have been arranged according to their effect on dosha and the rasa, guna,
virya, vipaka have to be inferred on this basis.
Described 57 drugs according to variation of effect on dosha, classified into 8 groups
50
SIDDHAMANTRA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY
ACHARYA KESHAVA
8 Vargas in SMN
1 VATAGHNA VARGA
2 PITTAGHNA
3 KAPHAGHNA
4 VATAPITTAGHNA
5 KAPHAVAATAGHNA
6 KAPHAPITTAGHNA
7 DOSHAGHNA
8 DOSHALA
The first nine verses of the Prakasha commentary - Navashloki
gives an idea about basic principles of Ayurveda – Moulika
Sidhanta.
The author followed a peculiar method to arrive at a conclusion,
esp in the contexts of scholarly difference with regard to the
effect of the drug on dosha.
51
BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY
BHAVAMISHRA
Author – Bhavamisra
Vimarshakaara – Krishna Chandra Chunekar
Detail – first name of the book – Haritakyaadi Nighantu
This was written as an appendix to the Bhavaprakasha, one among
the laghutrayi, written by the same author
Commentary – Sivaprakashika – by Pt. Shivasharma
Contents – 23 vargas
52
BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY
BHAVAMISHRA
Name of the varga Number of Drugs Examples
1 Harithakyaadi 84 Haritaki, Vibhitaki
2 Karpooradi 52 Karpoora, Kasturi
3 Guduchyaadi 140 Guduchi, Nagavalli
4 Pushpa 32 Kamala, Ketaki
5 Phala 55 Amra, Bijapura
6 Vataadi 41 Vata, Aswatha
7 Suvarnaadi 64 Gandhaka, Suvarna
8 Dhanya 29 Shali, Vrihi
9 Shaaka 66 Vastuka, Shigru
10 Mamsa 57 Pratuda, Vishkira
11 Krtaanna 35 Mantha, Kaanji
53
Vargas of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY
BHAVAMISHRA
12 Vari 13 Taushara, Kaupa
13 Dugdha 8 Go dugdha, Mahisha dugdha
14 Dadhi 8 Manda dadhi, Go dadhi
15 Takra 4 Ghola, Mathitha
16 Navaneeta 2 Go dugdhotta, Mahisha dugdhotta
17 Gruta 8 Go ghruta, Mahisha ghruta
18 Mutra 8 Go mutra, Khara mutra
19 Taila 9 Tila taila, Sarshapa taila
20 Sandhana 10 Sauveera, Arishta
21 Madhu 8 Makshika Kshoudra
22 Ikshu 13 Paudraka , Nilapora
54
Vargas of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY
BHAVAMISHRA
23 Anekartha Raktabeeja, Chandrahaasa, Vasuka, Sreyasi, Ambashta, Aksha
Dwayartha 114
Trayartha 84
Chaturartha 3
Bahvartha 4
55
Vargas of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
MADANAPALA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY
MADANAPALA
Author –
 Raja Madanapala, King belongs to Tika dynasty
 Also the author of some other books – Yantraprakasha,
Sidhanta garbha.
The king patronized a team of scholars in the pursuit of
writing these books.
Details - Other name of the book – Madana vinoda
56
RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU 18TH CENTURY
RAJAVALLABHA
Author
Vaidyashiromani Rajavallabha – redacted by Narayanadas - 1760 AD.
Contents
Followed and exemplified shlokas of Madanapala and Bhavaprakasha nighantus
Divided into 6 chapters or PARICCHEDAS
PARICCHEDA CONTENTS
1 MANGALACHARANA, DINACHARYA
57
RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU 18
TH
CENTURY
RAJAVALLABHA
PARICCHEDA CONTENTS
2 ANULEPANA DRAVYAS – CHANDANA, AGARU, KUMKUMA, KASTOORI, TEJAPATRA,
KANKOLA, SHATI, RAKTACHANDANA, USHIRA
3 DHANYAVARGA, SHAKAVARGA, KACHUKUNDAVARGA, PHALAVARGA,
MATSYAVARGA, MAMSAVARGA
MATSYAPUTA PAKAVIDHI IS DESCRIBED
4 BUDHIGUNA, DESHAGUNA, SHADRASA GUNA AND THEIR BASIC CONCEPTS
5 PUSHPAGUNA
6 NANAUSHADI VARGA
58
MADHAVA DRAVYAGUNA 13TH CENTURY 1250
MADHAVA
Author
The scholars have identified him as the same person who composed Paryayaratnamala and
Ruvinishchaya.
Its in Devanagari script.
Contents
The peculiarities of these manuscripts with respect to their spelling are:
Va has been used instead of Ba – Vala for Bala
Sha has been used for Sa and vice versa – Kasha for Kasa & Saivala for Shaivala
Ya for Ja such as Yushta and Jushta.
59
KAIYYADEVA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY 1425
KAIYYADEVA
Author – Belonged to Bharadwaja Gotra -Son of Sharnga - Kaiyadeva authored 2
books namely
Pathyapathya vibhodhaka
Namaratnakara
Detail - The author has given importance to maintaining normal health and to
prevent diseases. So has put forth principles of Ayurveda in his work. Hence was
called Pathyapathya vibhodhaka. There are references to the name of Kaiyyadeva in
Persian Medical Treatise - Madanu-i- Shifa
Contents - Classified dravyas to 9 (8+1) vargas.
Introduced new grouping – Vihara varga and Naanartha varga
60
SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY
SODHALA
Author
 Acharaya Shodhala, Son of Swaccha
Paradas and different samskaras of parada mentioned indicating the
period of the book post 10th century AD.
Contents
27 classifications were made
61
SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY
SODHALA
sl no Name of the varga No of drugs
1 Guduchyadi varga 115
2 Satapushpadi varga 59 Spices
3 Candanadi varga 79 Aroma
4 Karaviradi varga 88 Tikshna dravyas
5 Amradi varga 80 Fruit- bearing plants
6 Swarnadi varga
7 Lakshmanadi varga 68
8 Paniyadi varga Various liquids
9 Paniya varga
62
27 Vargas of Shodhala Nighantu
SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY
SODHALA
10 ksira varga
11 Dadhi varga Curds
12 Takra varga Buttermilk
13 Navanita varga Butter
14 Grta varga Ghee
15 Taila varga Oils
16 Madhu varga Honey
17 Iksu varga Sugarcane and its products
18 Madya varga Fermented beverages
19 Mutra varga Urine
63
27 Vargas of Shodhala Nighantu
SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY
SODHALA
20 sukadhanya varga
21 Jurna varga
22 Trnadhanya varga
23 Simbi dhnaya varga
24 Krtanna varga
25 Anupa varga
26 Mamsa varga
27 Misraka varga
64
27 Vargas of Shodhala Nighantu
SHALIGRAMA NIGHANTU 19TH CENTURY
LALA SHALIGRAMA
Author
Lala Shaligrama vaidya - belongs to Moradabad,Uttarpradesh – Son of
Anandarupa Khushal Ram.
Also authored Shaligrama Oushadha Shabdasaagara.
The work was published by Sri Venkateshwara Steam Press, Bombay in 1896.
Contents
The book has two khandas
Prathama khanda- consists 24 vargas- Karpooradi, Haritakyaadi, Tailavargas etc.
Dwitiya khanda - consists of 2 vargas – Anoopadi varga and Mishraka varga .
65
NIGHANTU RATNAKARA 18TH CENTURY
VISHNU VASUDEV GODBOLE
Details
Consits of 2 khandas
Prathama khanda includes subjects of Dravyaguna,
Shareera, Ashtastana pareeksha, Manaparibhasha,
Rasashastra, Arkaprakasha, Ajirnamanjari etc.
Dviteeya khanda explains subjects of Nidana and chikitsa.
66
NIGHANTU RATNAKARA 18TH CENTURY
VISHNU VASUDEV GODBOLE
The author included Akaarakarabha, Peetakaraveera, Agnijara,
Kankushta, Pudeena, Karpura, Taila, Sitaphala, Navasadara etc.
He also included modern drugs like amaruda, anjra, kajootaka,
tambaku etc.
The work was initially published by Nirnaya Sagar Press in Bombay.
In 1936 the work was edited by Srikrishna Shastri Navare with
Marathi translation. Later in 1892, the second edition by Sri
Ravidutta was published by Nawal Kishore Press,Lucknow
67
NIGHANTU ADARSHA 20TH CENTURY (1928)
BAPALAL VAIDYA
Author
Born on September 1896, hails from Sanasli – Panchmahal district of Gujarat.
 He has published “Brihatrayini vanaspathiyon” in Gujarathi wherein he mentions
complete list of plants in Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hrudaya.
Very popularly known for his works on controversial drugs, “SOME CONTROVERSIAL DRUGS
IN INDIAN MEDICINE” - 1982
Details
Initially published the work in Gujarathi language in 2 volumes – 1928
Second edition 1966
Later translated to Hindi -1968 -published by Chaukhamba Sanskrit series, Varanasi
68
NIGHANTU ADARSHA 20TH CENTURY (1928)
BAPALAL VAIDYA
The work deals with individual dravya, with their nirukti and properties.
The book was presented in 2 volumes – basic principles of Dravyaguna in the 1st
volume.
Modern botanical discriptions have been included because of his knowledge in
botany.
Deals with 571 drugs in toto.
The morphology, properties, posology, formulations are explained. Some Unani
drugs are mentioned.
Gives discriptions of 126 vargas.
69
PRIYA NIGHANTU 20TH CENTURY (1983)
P.V.SHARMA
Author
Reputed scholar, Prof Priya Vrata Sharma -Born on Nov 1st 1920, in Khagaul near
Patna.
Graduated in A.M.S degree from BHU. He also did M.A in Sanskrit and M.A in Hindi.
He held highest positions in academic and administrative fields.
Authored and edited about 50 books.
Published and presented about 500 scientific papers.
Details
Second revised edition published in 1995
Anekartha paryayas had been deleted and only ekartha vachanam has been retained.
70
PRIYA NIGHANTU 20TH CENTURY (1983)
P.V.SHARMA
VARGA NO. OF
DRUGS
1 HARITHAKYAADI 115
2 PIPPALYAADI 38
3 SHATAPUSHPAADI 114
4 SARAAADI 78
5 KASTURYAADI 17
6 SUVARNAADI 36
7 SHAKA VARGA 54
8 PHALA VARGA 46
9 MAMSA VARGA 6
10 DHANYA VARGA 29
11 KRITANNA VARGA 47 PREPARATIONS
12 DRAVYAVARGA 23 VARIETIES
13 DRAVYAADI VARGA 40
71
OTHER DRAVYAGUNA BOOKS
BOOK AUTHOR TIMELINE
PHARMACOGRAPHIA OF INDIA WILLIAM DYMOCK, WARDEN &
HOOPER
1890
INDIAN MATERIA MEDICA K.N. NADKARNI 1908
INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS KIRTIKAR AND BASU 1913
POISONOUS PLANTS OF INDIA CHOPRA, BADHWAR & GHOSH 1949
INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA Col. R.N. CHOPRA 1954
VANASPATHIKA ANUSANDHANA
DARSHIKA
K.C. CHUNEKAR 1969
GLOSSARY OF VEGETABLE DRUGS
IN BRUHATRAYI
THAKUR BALWANT SINGH 1972
72
DRAVYAGUNA TEXT BOOKS
BOOK AUTHOR TIMELINE
DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA Dr.J.L.N. SHASTRY 2002
A HANDBOOK OF DRAVYAGUNA Prof. J.K. OJHA 2004
DRAVYAGUNA SOOTRAMAALA Dr. J.L.N. SHASTRY 2005
DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA Prof. D. SHANTHA KUMAR LUCAS 2006
INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS – FORGOTTEN HEALERS Dr. PRAKASH PARANJAPE 2001
IMP- ORIENT LONGMAN P.K.W, V.P.K.N, C.R.K
DATABASE ON MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN
AYURVEDA
K.V. BELLORE, M.B. YELNE, T.J.
DENNIS, B.G. CHAUDHARI
73
SOME DRAVYAGUNA BOOKS IN KERALA
BOOK AUTHOR
AYURVEDIYA OSHADHI NIGHANTU THAYYIL KUMARAN KRISHNAN
OSHADHI NIGHANTU KOCHU SHANKARAN VAIDYAN
AYURVEDA NIGHANTU K.N. PANICKER
TRAYEEKOSHAM MAANIKYA BHISHAGVARAN
ASHTANGA HRUDAYAKOSHAM K.A. VAIDYAN
PHARMACOGNOSY OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS IN KERALA Prof. K. NARAYANA IYER, Prof. K. KOLAMMAL
Hortus Malabaricus, which is a work on plants of western ghats is also an essential contribution.
74
CONCLUSION
Study of nighantus is essential for knowledge regarding identification and administration of
drugs which were used centuries ago.
Though the synonyms were meant to aid in identification, repetition of names for different
drugs based on its local utility leads to controversy in the identification of source plant. To solve
these controversies, many new works have been undertaken, based on modern knowledge of
botany and based on preclinical and clinical studies.
Thus the evolution of dravyaguna is continuous process. Nighantus/ Glossaries of herbs are
prepared and documented in systematic orders to meet the present challenges in the
knowledge of dravyaguna vijnana.
75

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Dravyaguna Itihasa – Nighantu Parichaya

  • 1. DRAVYAGUNA ITIHASA – NIGHANTU PARICHAYA PRESENTED BY DR. MADHUBALA P GOPINATH 1ST YEAR P.G. SCHOLAR DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNANA GAVC, TRIVANDRUM GUIDED BY DR. INDULEKHA.V.C ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNANA GAVC, TRIVANDRUM 1
  • 2. CONTENTS EVOLUTION OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS TO NIGHANTUS History of Dravyaguna Vijnana Dravyaguna – Definitions according to different authors Evolution of historical study of dravyaguna – Ancient, Medieval and Modern references Ancient period – References from Prevedic, Vedic, Samhita scriptures Medieval and Modern period – References through nighantus Nighantu Parichaya – Etymology, Definition, Relavance, Utility, List of nighantus Conclusion 2
  • 3. HISTORY OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNAN (DGV) The history of dravyaguna goes back to eternity.  Preservation of health has been instinctive necessity of mankind since then. Plants are used as food and medicine from time immemorial. But the 1st mentioning of Dravyaguna is traceable from Charaka Samhita. Dravya guna shastra has been identified as a separate speciality by Narahari, the author of Raj Nighantu. (17 A.D.) 3
  • 4. TRACES OF DRAVYAGUNAVIJNAN (DGV) Acc. to Charaka, य़तश्चायुष्याणि अनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुिकर्ााणि वेदयत्यतो अप्यायुवेदः। तत्रायुश्याणि अनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुिकर्ााणि क े वलेनोपदेक्ष्यन्ते तन्त्रेि॥ Ayurveda is the science which deals with Dravya, guna and karma of helpful and harmful material. 4
  • 5. DEFINITION OF DGV द्रव्याणाां गुणकर्ााणण प्रयोग विविधास्तथा । सिाशो यत्र िर्णयान्ते शास्त्रां द्रव्यगुणां हि तत ्।। (P. V. Sharma Dravyaguna Vignyana Vol.1 Pg.3) Acharya Priyavrat Sharma defined Dravyaguna shastra as the branch which deals with the properties, actions and therapeutic effects of various dravyas. 5
  • 6. EVOLUTION OF DGV For the sake of convenience, historical study can be divided into the following periods: 1. Ancient - Pre-vedic Period, Vedic Period, Samhita period – 4,000 BC -7 AD 2. Medieval – Post Samhita period/ Proto Nighantu period – 8 AD – 15 AD 3. Modern – Nighantu period – 16 AD - PRESENT 6
  • 7. INCLUSIONS OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA DRAVYAGUNAVIJNAN can be broadly classified into PADARTHA VIJNANA – Basic principles of Dravyaguna – Saptapadarthas Study of Dravya, Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka, Prabhava, Karma DRAVYA VIJNANA – Systemic understanding of drugs Can be redivided into Namaroopa vijnana Yoga Vijnana Guna karma vijnana and Prayoga Vijnana Samyoga Vijnana 7
  • 8. Pre-Vedic Period • Covers the history from antiquity to the times before the emergence of Vedas • Includes prehistory and protohistory including Indus valley civilization • PALAEOLITHIC AGE: Plants were used as food. Barks and leaves were used to cover bodies. •NEOLITHIC AGE: Man learnt cultivation and began to grow crops. There are evidences of tree worship, which indicates great importance of plants. 8
  • 9. Vedic Period (2000 B.C. – 1000 B.C.) The status of medicine and use of plants are evidenced from the vedic literature – Samhitaas, Upanishads, Kalpasutras. Basic concepts during Vedic period are : 1. Rigveda – Oushadhi sukta – is the oldest authoritative document of the knowledge of plants. 2. The plant ‘soma’ has been praised as the elixir of life, was considered as the king of plants (oshadhiraja). 3. In the 12th sooktha of Shukla Yajurveda - medicinal properties of different herbs, their uses, collection of drugs are described. 9
  • 11. Classification of plants in Vedic period Based on the FORM or SIZE Based on the USAGE OSHADHI VANASPATI ATHARVANI ANGIRASI DAIVI MANUSHYAJA 11
  • 12. Vedic Period – Comparison of plant parts to human body PARTS OF HUMAN BODY Loma - Twak - Rakta - Mamsa - Snayu - Asthi - Majja - PARTS OF PLANTS Parna, Moola (leaves and roots) Bahirupaatika (epiderm) Niryasa (resin) Shakara (mesoderm) Kinatta (endoderm) Aabhyantara kaashta (heartwood) Majja (pith) 12
  • 13. Samhita Period Post Vedic Period / Samhita period – 1,500 BC – 7TH CENTURY AD  Charaka Samhita  Susrutha Samhita  Ashtanga Sangraha and Hrudaya Marks the development of Ayurveda. It is in the initial phase of this period, great epics- Mahabharatam, Ramayanam were compiled. Shad darshanas also took form in this period 13
  • 14. Charaka Samhita Charaka Samhita is considered to be one of the most important reference books for Dravyaguna. SOOTRASTANA- CHAPTERS REFERENCES RELATED TO DRAVYA GUNA 1 (DJ) DRAVYASANGRAHA, DRAVYA-GUNA-KARMA LAKSHANA, SHADRASA, DRAVYA BHEDA 2 (AT) HERBS MEANT FOR PANCHAKARMA – SHIROVIRECHANA, VAMANA, VIRECHANA, ASTHAPANA, ANUVASANA 3 (AG) HERBS USED FOR EXTERNAL APPLICATION 4 (SS) 600 YOGAS FOR VAMANA & VIRECHANA, 50 MAHAKASHAYAS- EACH KASHAYA WITH 10 DRUGS 9 (KC) PADACHATHUSHTAYA, DRAVYA GUNA (QUALITIES OF IDEAL DRUGS) 14
  • 15. Charaka Samhita 22 (LB) DRAVYA RELATED TO SHADUPAKRAMA 25 (YP) AGRYAANAM SANGRAHA 26 (AB) CONCEPT OF RASA, VIPAKA, VIRYA, PRABHAVA ; VIRUDDHA DRAVYA 27 (AP) DRAVYA VARGA - VIMANASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG 1 (RV) RASA- MITHYOPAYOGA AND DOSA PRAKOPA; PIPPALI, KSHARA, LAVANA GUNA 2 (RB) RASA SKANDA KALPASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG 1-6 VAMANA GANA 7-12 VIRECHANA GANA 15
  • 16. Sushruta Samhita SUTRASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG 1 (VD) STHAVARA AND JANGAMA AUSHADHI - 4 TYPES EACH 20 (HA) HITA & AHITA DRAVYA 34 (YS) BHESHAJA GUNA (QUALITIES OF AN IDEAL DRUG) 36 (BPV) AUSHADHA AHARANA YOGYA BHUMI (IDEAL PLACE OF COLLECTION) 37 (MI) DRUGS USED FOR PATICULAR KARMA – SHODHANA, ROPANA ETC. 38 (DS) 37 GANAS 39 (SS) SHODHANA - PANCHAKARMA UPAYOGI DRAVYA, SHAMANA- VAATADI DOSHA SHAMANA 40 (DRGVVV) ALL BASIC CONCEPTS OF DG 41 (DVV) PANCHABHAUTIKATWA, PANCHAVIDHA DRAVYA 42(RVV) RASA AND TYPES 16
  • 17. Sushruta Samhita 43 (Va DV) VAMANA DRUGS 44 (Vi DV) VIRECHANA DRUGS 45 (DDV) PANEEYA VARGA 46 (APV) DHANYA VARGA, PHALA VARGA UTTARATANTRA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG 63 (RBV) PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF RASA 17
  • 18. Ashtanga Hrudaya SUTRASTANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG 1 RASA PANCHAKA, AUSHADA CHATHURGUNA, DESA 5 VARGAS( TOYA,KSIRA etc) 6 SUKA SIMBI DHANYA etc 7 VIRUDHA 9 DRAVYA LAKSHANAS,BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DRAVYAGUNA 10 RASA 14 LANGHANA AND BRIMHANA 15 32 GANAS 18
  • 19. Ashtanga Hrudaya CIKITSASTHANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG VARIOUS PREPARATIONS FROM DIFFERENT DRAVYAS KALPASTHANA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG VAMANA AND VIRECHANA KALPAS UTHARATANTRA REFERENCES RELATED TO DG 39 RASAYANA DRAVYAS AND THEIR PREPARATIONS 40 VAJIKARANA DRAVYAS AND THEIR PREPARATIONS 19
  • 20. LAGHUTRAYI Sharangadhara also contributed towards dravyaguna vijnana in a considerable manner incorporating the basic principles of DGV: Use of fresh drugs or dry drugs Properties of drugs according to place of origin – drugs from Vindhya desha are hot in potency Time of collection of the drug Parts to be used Aushadha karma Introduction of new drugs like bhanga, rudanti, babbula, mahanimba, patala garudi etc. Mana Paribhasha was better explained Acharya Bhava Mishra has also contributed significantly to dravyaguna by preparing a systematically arranged appendix “BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU” to Bhavaprakasha Samhita. 20
  • 22. Etymology - NIGHANTU From words • ( xÉqÉç+AÉ+WûlÉç) - to collect • (ÌlÉ+aÉqÉç) - to communicate 22
  • 23. NIGHANTU The literature on dravyaguna is generally known as Nighantu. The origin of Nighantus goes back to Vedic Nighantu. The Nighantu contained synonyms which throws light on different aspects of entity and expose their hidden meanings. Yaska (Sanskrit grammarian, author of nirukta) called Nighantu as Nigama and Nirukta and used it synonymously  Nighantus and nirukthas are sciences which acquaint us with the secret meanings Nirukthas throw light in to the secret meanings of Vedas, whereas nighantus explain the terms used for the variety of drugs in samhitas, with respect to its synonyms, homonyms and gunakarmas. 23
  • 24. NIGHANTU ÌlÉaÉÔRûÉjÉï EcrÉiÉå AlÉålÉ mÉëMüÉUåhÉ iÉiÉç ÌlÉ£üqÉç (rÉÉxMü)  Niruktha points/brings out the concealed or secret meaning of Vedas. ÌlÉaÉÔRûÉjÉï aÉqÉrÉÎliÉ elÉÉmÉrÉÎliÉ LÌiÉ ÌlÉaÉqÉ:” (rÉÉxMü) Is that which brings out extremely concealed or secret of words. At a later point of time the nighantus were analyzed in two aspects; That which gives the synonyms of words That which gives the meaning of words along with its actions and therapeautical aspects 24
  • 25. Definitions - NIGHANTU According to Vachaspatya, Nighantu is that kind of work where synonyms are collected. एकार्ा वाचचनाां पयााय शब्दानाां सङ्गो यत्र प्रायेिोपददश्यते तत्र ननघन्टु शब्दः प्रससद्धः| (वाचस्पत्यां) According to Hemachandra, Nighantu is a collection of nouns नार्सङ्रह: इनत| (हेर्चन्द्र) According to Shabdakalpadruma: That which looks beautiful or shines. ननघण्टनत शोभते इनत| (श.क.द्रु) 25
  • 26. Relevance - NIGHANTU Nighantu is a collection of dravya which explains its synonymous terms in use along with or without the explanation of its properties and actions. 1) Dravya Vargeekarana It most times follows some principles of classification of drugs. It classifies medicinal plants into categories of similar actions or similar properties. The approach towards the available dravyas (ahara & oushadha) were different in each Nighantu but was considered to be systematic. Eg: Bhavaprakasha nighantu classified in 23 vargas. 26
  • 27. Relevance - NIGHANTU 2) Dravya namakarana Drug nomenclature was addressed with different techniques in nighantus. Eg : Raja nighantu followed a specific criteria for dravya namakarana based on Rudhi Prabhava Desoktha Lanchana Upama Virya Itharahwaya. 27
  • 28. Relevance - NIGHANTU 3) Description about abhava dravyas Nighantus also showed much interest in identifying the timely problems in those periods (drug unavailability) and delivered their own solutions. Eg: Bhavaprakasha nighantu elaborately described the abhava dravyas in general and specially for ashtavarga dravyas. 28
  • 29. Relevance - NIGHANTU 4) Inclusion of newer drugs to dravyaguna sastra Many nighantus showed keen interest in properly identifying the locally available/imported drugs and commonly using drugs and mentioned them as a part of dravya vivarana. Eg: Madana pala nighantu introduced the drugs like Ahiphena, bhanga etc..to therapeutic category after its proper validation. Today’s world looks towards reverse pharmacology and hence traditional medicine is in limelight. To bring it into use, TM requires standardization. Contribution of these nighantus in the field of ethnobotany and pharmacotherapeutics is pathbreaking. 29
  • 30. Utility - NIGHANTU According to Raja Nighantu, ननघण्टुना ववना वैद्यो ववद्वान व्याकरि ववना| आयुधां च ववना योद्धा त्रयो हासस्य भाजनर् ्|| (R.N/ GRANTHAPRASTAVANA/9) Again, it is said that even the most learned physician may get confused in the selection of a choice drug without consulting this nighantu because there are numerous types of drugs with different rasa guna veerya vipaka etc.(R.N) 30
  • 31. NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA ANCIENT PERIOD : UPTO 7TH CENTURY A.D NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE VEDIC NIGHANTU SAUSRUTA NIGHANTU SUSRUTA 5TH CENTURY RASA VAISHESHIKA NAGARJUNA 5TH CENTURY 31
  • 32. NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA MEDIEVAL PERIOD : 8-15TH CENTURY A.D NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE 1 ASHTANGA NIGHANTU VAGBHATA 8TH CENTURY 2 PARYAYA RATNAMALA MADHAVA 9TH CENTURY 3 SIDHASARA NIGHANTU RAVIGUPTA 9TH CENTURY 4 NIGHANTU - 9-10TH CENTURY 5 HARAMEKHALA NIGHANTU MAHUKA 10TH CENTURY 6 CHAMATKAARA NIGHANTU RANGACHARYA 10TH CENTURY 7 MADANAADI NIGHANTU CHANDRANANDANA 10TH CENTURY 8 DRAVYAGUNASANGRAHA CHAKRAPANIDATTA 11TH CENTURY 9 DHANWANTARI NIGHANTU MAHENDRA BHAUGIKA 11TH CENTURY 10 INDU NIGHANTU INDU 11TH CENTURY 32
  • 33. NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA MEDIEVAL PERIOD : 8-15TH CENTURY A.D NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE 11 NIMI NIGHANTU NIMI 11TH CENTURY 12 SHABDACHANDRIKA CHAKRADUTTA 11TH CENTURY 13 ANEKARTHA KOSHA MANAKA 12TH CENTURY 14 NIGHANTU SHESHA / ABHIDHANA CHINTAMANI HEMACHANDRA 12TH CENTURY 15 SODHALA NIGHANTU SODHALA 12TH CENTURY 16 MADHAVA DRAVYAGUNA/ BHAVASWABHAAVA VAADA MADHAVA 13TH CENTURY 17 SHADRASA NIGHANTU/ ABHIDHANA RATNAMALA CHATURA RASITA 13TH CENTURY 18 SIDHAMANTRA KESHAVA 13TH CENTURY 33
  • 34. NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA MEDIEVAL PERIOD : 8-15TH CENTURY A.D NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE 19 HRUDAYA DEEPIKA BHOPADEVA (SON OF KESHAVA) 13TH CENTURY 20 SHATASLOKI BOPADEVA 13TH CENTURY 21 AYURVEDA MAHODADHI/ SUSHENA VAIDYAKA SUSHENA 14TH CENTURY 22 MADANAVINODA/ MADANAPALA NIGHANTU MADANAPALA MAHARAJA 14TH CENTURY (1374) 23 KAIYYADEVA NIGHANTU KAIYYADEVA 15TH CENTURY 34
  • 35. NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA MODERN PERIOD : FROM 16TH CENTURY A.D NIGHANTU AUTHOR TIMELINE 1 BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU BHAVAMISHRA 16TH CENTURY 2 RAJA NIGHANTU/ ABHIDHANA CHOODAMANI NARAHARI PANDIT 17TH CENTURY 3 VAIDHYAVATAMSA LOLIMBARAJA 17TH CENTURY 4 DRAVYAGUNA SHATHASLOKI TRIMALLABHATTA 17TH CENTURY 5 SHIVAKOSHA SHIVADUTTA MISHRA 17TH CENTURY 6 HIKAMAT PRAKASHA MAHADEVA 18TH CENTURY (1773) 7 RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU RAJAVALLABHA 18TH CENTURY 8 NIGHANTU RATNAKARA VISHNU VASUDEVA GODBOLE 19TH CENTURY 9 NIGHANTU SANGRAHA RAGHUNATHJI INDRAJI 19TH CENTURY 10 SHALIGRAMA NIGHANTU SHALIGRAMA 19TH CENTURY 11 VANAUSHADHI GUNAADARSHA SHANKARARADAJI SHASTRI PADE 19TH CENTURY 35
  • 36. NIGHANTUS IN AYURVEDA (20TH CENTURY) BOOK AUTHOR TIMELINE 12 VANAUSHADHI DARPANA KAVIRAJ BIRAJA CHARANA GUPTA 20TH CENTURY (1909) 13 VANASPATI SHASTRA JAIKRISHNA INDRAJI THAKAR 20TH CENTURY (1910) 14 NIGHANTU AADARSHA VAIDYA BAAPALALJI 20TH CENTURY (1928) 15 ROOPA NIGHANTU ROOPALAAL VAISHYA 20TH CENTURY (1934) 16 SANDIGDHA NIRNAYA/ VANAUSHADHA SHASTRA Pt. BHAGIRATH SWAMI 20TH CENTURY (1936) 17 VANAUSHADHI CHANDRODAYA CHANDRARAJA BHANDAARI 20TH CENTURY (1938) 18 DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA Y.T. ACHARYA 20TH CENTURY (1953) 19 DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA PRIYAVRAT SHARMA 20TH CENTURY (1968) 20 PRIYA NIGHANTU PRIYAVRAT SHARMA 20TH CENTURY (1983) 36
  • 37. NIGHANTUS AUTHORSHIP, PERIOD, CONTENTS OF INDIVIDUAL NIGHANTUS 37
  • 38. CONTENTS S. NO NIGHANTU 1 PARYAYA RATNAMALA 2 DHANWANTARI NIGHANTU 3 HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 4 ASHTANGA NIGHANTU 5 RAJA NIGHANTU 6 SIDHAMANTRA NIGHANTU 7 BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 8 MADANAPALA NIGHANTU S. NO NIGHANTU 9 RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU 10 MADHAVA DRAVYAGUNA 11 KAIYYADEVA 12 SHODHALA NIGHANTU 13 SHALIGRAMA NIGHANTU 14 NIGHANTU RATNAKARA 15 NIGHANTU AADARSHA 16 PRIYA NIGHANTU 38
  • 39. PARYAYA RATNAMALA 9TH CENTURY MADHAVA •Author - Madhava – Rugvinishchaya/ Nidana – Indukarasunu – “Shilahrada” •Contents Synonymous medical lexicon, incorporates numerous words of common parlance.  It has appended itself a section on homonyms and another on mana – measures including paribhasha. The present text is based on a collection of nine manuscripts found in Bengali. The complete text contains over 800 slokas. 39
  • 40. DHANVANTARI NIGHANTU 11TH CENTURY MAHENDRA BHOGIKA Author Authorship unclear - M.B- Son of Krishna Bhogika – from Sthanviswara/ Thaneswara Details • Original text – Dravyavali with only synonyms • Descriptions of rasadi added later and converting it into new text – Dh.N Contents - Systematic classification of drugs under different vargas 40
  • 41. DHANVANTARI NIGHANTU 11TH CENTURY MAHENDRA BHOGIKA Guduchyaadi – 128 drugs – guduchi, ativisha, kapikachu etc. Shatapushpaadi – 54 drugs – mostly spices – shatapushpa, vacha, pippali etc. Chandanaadi - 79 drugs- mostly aromatic drugs- chandana, raktachandana, kramuka etc. Karaveeraadi – 75 drugs – teekshna dravyas – karaveera, arka etc. Amraadi – 74 drugs – fruit bearing plants – amra etc. Suvarnaadi – 181 drugs – minerals, precious stones, grains, ghee, honey etc. Mishraka – 70 dravya vargas – triphala, trikatu, panchavalkala, visha etc. 41 7 Vargas of Dhanwantari nighantu
  • 42. HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY BOPADEVA •Author Son of Keshava ( author of Sidhamantra) who was a royal physician, Keshavavaidyasunu – from Vedapura. He also wrote Shatashloki with his own commentary – Chandrakala. He also authored commentaries – Goodarthadeepika (on Sharangadhara samhita), Prakasha Chandra Vyakhya ( on Sidhamantra) Also authored Harileela on the advise of Hemadri. Totally he has written 26 books 42
  • 43. HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY BOPADEVA •Contents Hridayadeepika Nighantu is similar to Amarakosha Written on the basis of synonyms and not on gunakarma. Introductory verse offers salutations to aja ( unborn) and akshara (indestructible) divided to 8 vargas Mostly on Devanagari scripts but some in Bengali 43
  • 44. HRIDAYADEEPIKA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY BOPADEVA Chatuspada Tripada Dwipada Ekapada Dwinaama Ekanaama Nanaartha Mishraka 44 8 vargas of HDN
  • 45. ASHTANGA NIGHANTU 8TH CENTURY VAGBHATA Author Acharya Vahak or Acharya Vagbhata This work might be appended to Ashtanga Hrudaya Edited by Prof Priyavrat Sharma Contents This work belongs to the class of nighantus with synonyms only. The author made attempts to describe drugs clearly and as such he has coined new synonyms which are significant for giving clear picture of dravya. 26 ganas of vaghbhata are mentioned 45
  • 46. ASHTANGA NIGHANTU 8TH CENTURY VAGBHATA 46 S. N. VARGA 1 Shaka varga 2 Phalavarga and puspavarga 3 Parthiva dravyas (Mineral drugs) 4 Jantava dravyas (Animal drugs) 5 Visa dravyas 6 Jaliya dravyas (Water resources) 7 Iksu and Madhu varga 8 Taila varga S.N. VARGA 7 Madhya Varga 8 Dhanya varga 9 Mishraka varga 10 Kritanna varga 11 Mamsa varga 12 Sharira dhatus and doshas 13 Graha varga
  • 47. RAJA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY NARAHARI PANDIT Author – Son of Iswara pandit – royal physician of the Kashmir king then. Details – also called Abhidhaana chudamani / Dravya abhidhana gana sangraha Period – not clear- but mentions references from Madanapaala and Dhanwantari – thus period might be around 15th -16th century 47
  • 48. RAJA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY NARAHARI PANDIT Contents of Raja Nighantu Recognised dravyaguna as a speciality branch among ashtangas and stressed importance of knowledge of dravyaguna to become a good physician. Includes 23 vargas Mentions special vargas – Aanupaadi, Dharanyaadi, Manushyaadi, Rogaadi and Satwaadi Vargas Describes 698 drugs in Aushadhi varga Includes more number of synonyms Developed a method of plant nomenclature 48
  • 49. RAJA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY NARAHARI PANDIT ANUPADI VARGA DHARANYAADI VARGA SUVARNAADI VARGA GUDUCHYADI VARGA PAANEEYADI VARGA SHATAHWAADI VARGA KSHIRAADI VARGA PARPATAADI VARGA SHALYAADI PIPPALYAADI VARGA MAMSAADI VARGA MOOLAKAADI VARGA MANUSHYAADI VARGA SHALMALYAADI VARGA SIMHAADI VARGA PRABHADRAADI VARGA ROGAADI VARGA KARAVEERADI VARGA SATWAADI VARGA AMRAADI VARGA MISHRAKAADI VARGA CHANDANAADI VARGA ANEKAARTHADI VARGA 49
  • 50. SIDDHAMANTRA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY ACHARYA KESHAVA •Author Son of Mahadeva, disciple of Bhaskar, patronized by Simharaja (king of Yadava dynasty at Dandaka desha)– from Vedapada, at the bank of river Varada, capital of Dandaka desha (now in Maharashtra) His son Bopadeva authored the commentary called Prakasha Chandra Vyakhya •Contents Adopted a different method in describing the dravya in his Nighantu. The drugs have been arranged according to their effect on dosha and the rasa, guna, virya, vipaka have to be inferred on this basis. Described 57 drugs according to variation of effect on dosha, classified into 8 groups 50
  • 51. SIDDHAMANTRA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY ACHARYA KESHAVA 8 Vargas in SMN 1 VATAGHNA VARGA 2 PITTAGHNA 3 KAPHAGHNA 4 VATAPITTAGHNA 5 KAPHAVAATAGHNA 6 KAPHAPITTAGHNA 7 DOSHAGHNA 8 DOSHALA The first nine verses of the Prakasha commentary - Navashloki gives an idea about basic principles of Ayurveda – Moulika Sidhanta. The author followed a peculiar method to arrive at a conclusion, esp in the contexts of scholarly difference with regard to the effect of the drug on dosha. 51
  • 52. BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY BHAVAMISHRA Author – Bhavamisra Vimarshakaara – Krishna Chandra Chunekar Detail – first name of the book – Haritakyaadi Nighantu This was written as an appendix to the Bhavaprakasha, one among the laghutrayi, written by the same author Commentary – Sivaprakashika – by Pt. Shivasharma Contents – 23 vargas 52
  • 53. BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY BHAVAMISHRA Name of the varga Number of Drugs Examples 1 Harithakyaadi 84 Haritaki, Vibhitaki 2 Karpooradi 52 Karpoora, Kasturi 3 Guduchyaadi 140 Guduchi, Nagavalli 4 Pushpa 32 Kamala, Ketaki 5 Phala 55 Amra, Bijapura 6 Vataadi 41 Vata, Aswatha 7 Suvarnaadi 64 Gandhaka, Suvarna 8 Dhanya 29 Shali, Vrihi 9 Shaaka 66 Vastuka, Shigru 10 Mamsa 57 Pratuda, Vishkira 11 Krtaanna 35 Mantha, Kaanji 53 Vargas of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
  • 54. BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY BHAVAMISHRA 12 Vari 13 Taushara, Kaupa 13 Dugdha 8 Go dugdha, Mahisha dugdha 14 Dadhi 8 Manda dadhi, Go dadhi 15 Takra 4 Ghola, Mathitha 16 Navaneeta 2 Go dugdhotta, Mahisha dugdhotta 17 Gruta 8 Go ghruta, Mahisha ghruta 18 Mutra 8 Go mutra, Khara mutra 19 Taila 9 Tila taila, Sarshapa taila 20 Sandhana 10 Sauveera, Arishta 21 Madhu 8 Makshika Kshoudra 22 Ikshu 13 Paudraka , Nilapora 54 Vargas of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
  • 55. BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU 16TH CENTURY BHAVAMISHRA 23 Anekartha Raktabeeja, Chandrahaasa, Vasuka, Sreyasi, Ambashta, Aksha Dwayartha 114 Trayartha 84 Chaturartha 3 Bahvartha 4 55 Vargas of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu
  • 56. MADANAPALA NIGHANTU 13TH CENTURY MADANAPALA Author –  Raja Madanapala, King belongs to Tika dynasty  Also the author of some other books – Yantraprakasha, Sidhanta garbha. The king patronized a team of scholars in the pursuit of writing these books. Details - Other name of the book – Madana vinoda 56
  • 57. RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU 18TH CENTURY RAJAVALLABHA Author Vaidyashiromani Rajavallabha – redacted by Narayanadas - 1760 AD. Contents Followed and exemplified shlokas of Madanapala and Bhavaprakasha nighantus Divided into 6 chapters or PARICCHEDAS PARICCHEDA CONTENTS 1 MANGALACHARANA, DINACHARYA 57
  • 58. RAJAVALLABHA NIGHANTU 18 TH CENTURY RAJAVALLABHA PARICCHEDA CONTENTS 2 ANULEPANA DRAVYAS – CHANDANA, AGARU, KUMKUMA, KASTOORI, TEJAPATRA, KANKOLA, SHATI, RAKTACHANDANA, USHIRA 3 DHANYAVARGA, SHAKAVARGA, KACHUKUNDAVARGA, PHALAVARGA, MATSYAVARGA, MAMSAVARGA MATSYAPUTA PAKAVIDHI IS DESCRIBED 4 BUDHIGUNA, DESHAGUNA, SHADRASA GUNA AND THEIR BASIC CONCEPTS 5 PUSHPAGUNA 6 NANAUSHADI VARGA 58
  • 59. MADHAVA DRAVYAGUNA 13TH CENTURY 1250 MADHAVA Author The scholars have identified him as the same person who composed Paryayaratnamala and Ruvinishchaya. Its in Devanagari script. Contents The peculiarities of these manuscripts with respect to their spelling are: Va has been used instead of Ba – Vala for Bala Sha has been used for Sa and vice versa – Kasha for Kasa & Saivala for Shaivala Ya for Ja such as Yushta and Jushta. 59
  • 60. KAIYYADEVA NIGHANTU 15TH CENTURY 1425 KAIYYADEVA Author – Belonged to Bharadwaja Gotra -Son of Sharnga - Kaiyadeva authored 2 books namely Pathyapathya vibhodhaka Namaratnakara Detail - The author has given importance to maintaining normal health and to prevent diseases. So has put forth principles of Ayurveda in his work. Hence was called Pathyapathya vibhodhaka. There are references to the name of Kaiyyadeva in Persian Medical Treatise - Madanu-i- Shifa Contents - Classified dravyas to 9 (8+1) vargas. Introduced new grouping – Vihara varga and Naanartha varga 60
  • 61. SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY SODHALA Author  Acharaya Shodhala, Son of Swaccha Paradas and different samskaras of parada mentioned indicating the period of the book post 10th century AD. Contents 27 classifications were made 61
  • 62. SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY SODHALA sl no Name of the varga No of drugs 1 Guduchyadi varga 115 2 Satapushpadi varga 59 Spices 3 Candanadi varga 79 Aroma 4 Karaviradi varga 88 Tikshna dravyas 5 Amradi varga 80 Fruit- bearing plants 6 Swarnadi varga 7 Lakshmanadi varga 68 8 Paniyadi varga Various liquids 9 Paniya varga 62 27 Vargas of Shodhala Nighantu
  • 63. SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY SODHALA 10 ksira varga 11 Dadhi varga Curds 12 Takra varga Buttermilk 13 Navanita varga Butter 14 Grta varga Ghee 15 Taila varga Oils 16 Madhu varga Honey 17 Iksu varga Sugarcane and its products 18 Madya varga Fermented beverages 19 Mutra varga Urine 63 27 Vargas of Shodhala Nighantu
  • 64. SHODHALA NIGHANTU 12TH CENTURY SODHALA 20 sukadhanya varga 21 Jurna varga 22 Trnadhanya varga 23 Simbi dhnaya varga 24 Krtanna varga 25 Anupa varga 26 Mamsa varga 27 Misraka varga 64 27 Vargas of Shodhala Nighantu
  • 65. SHALIGRAMA NIGHANTU 19TH CENTURY LALA SHALIGRAMA Author Lala Shaligrama vaidya - belongs to Moradabad,Uttarpradesh – Son of Anandarupa Khushal Ram. Also authored Shaligrama Oushadha Shabdasaagara. The work was published by Sri Venkateshwara Steam Press, Bombay in 1896. Contents The book has two khandas Prathama khanda- consists 24 vargas- Karpooradi, Haritakyaadi, Tailavargas etc. Dwitiya khanda - consists of 2 vargas – Anoopadi varga and Mishraka varga . 65
  • 66. NIGHANTU RATNAKARA 18TH CENTURY VISHNU VASUDEV GODBOLE Details Consits of 2 khandas Prathama khanda includes subjects of Dravyaguna, Shareera, Ashtastana pareeksha, Manaparibhasha, Rasashastra, Arkaprakasha, Ajirnamanjari etc. Dviteeya khanda explains subjects of Nidana and chikitsa. 66
  • 67. NIGHANTU RATNAKARA 18TH CENTURY VISHNU VASUDEV GODBOLE The author included Akaarakarabha, Peetakaraveera, Agnijara, Kankushta, Pudeena, Karpura, Taila, Sitaphala, Navasadara etc. He also included modern drugs like amaruda, anjra, kajootaka, tambaku etc. The work was initially published by Nirnaya Sagar Press in Bombay. In 1936 the work was edited by Srikrishna Shastri Navare with Marathi translation. Later in 1892, the second edition by Sri Ravidutta was published by Nawal Kishore Press,Lucknow 67
  • 68. NIGHANTU ADARSHA 20TH CENTURY (1928) BAPALAL VAIDYA Author Born on September 1896, hails from Sanasli – Panchmahal district of Gujarat.  He has published “Brihatrayini vanaspathiyon” in Gujarathi wherein he mentions complete list of plants in Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hrudaya. Very popularly known for his works on controversial drugs, “SOME CONTROVERSIAL DRUGS IN INDIAN MEDICINE” - 1982 Details Initially published the work in Gujarathi language in 2 volumes – 1928 Second edition 1966 Later translated to Hindi -1968 -published by Chaukhamba Sanskrit series, Varanasi 68
  • 69. NIGHANTU ADARSHA 20TH CENTURY (1928) BAPALAL VAIDYA The work deals with individual dravya, with their nirukti and properties. The book was presented in 2 volumes – basic principles of Dravyaguna in the 1st volume. Modern botanical discriptions have been included because of his knowledge in botany. Deals with 571 drugs in toto. The morphology, properties, posology, formulations are explained. Some Unani drugs are mentioned. Gives discriptions of 126 vargas. 69
  • 70. PRIYA NIGHANTU 20TH CENTURY (1983) P.V.SHARMA Author Reputed scholar, Prof Priya Vrata Sharma -Born on Nov 1st 1920, in Khagaul near Patna. Graduated in A.M.S degree from BHU. He also did M.A in Sanskrit and M.A in Hindi. He held highest positions in academic and administrative fields. Authored and edited about 50 books. Published and presented about 500 scientific papers. Details Second revised edition published in 1995 Anekartha paryayas had been deleted and only ekartha vachanam has been retained. 70
  • 71. PRIYA NIGHANTU 20TH CENTURY (1983) P.V.SHARMA VARGA NO. OF DRUGS 1 HARITHAKYAADI 115 2 PIPPALYAADI 38 3 SHATAPUSHPAADI 114 4 SARAAADI 78 5 KASTURYAADI 17 6 SUVARNAADI 36 7 SHAKA VARGA 54 8 PHALA VARGA 46 9 MAMSA VARGA 6 10 DHANYA VARGA 29 11 KRITANNA VARGA 47 PREPARATIONS 12 DRAVYAVARGA 23 VARIETIES 13 DRAVYAADI VARGA 40 71
  • 72. OTHER DRAVYAGUNA BOOKS BOOK AUTHOR TIMELINE PHARMACOGRAPHIA OF INDIA WILLIAM DYMOCK, WARDEN & HOOPER 1890 INDIAN MATERIA MEDICA K.N. NADKARNI 1908 INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS KIRTIKAR AND BASU 1913 POISONOUS PLANTS OF INDIA CHOPRA, BADHWAR & GHOSH 1949 INDIGENOUS DRUGS OF INDIA Col. R.N. CHOPRA 1954 VANASPATHIKA ANUSANDHANA DARSHIKA K.C. CHUNEKAR 1969 GLOSSARY OF VEGETABLE DRUGS IN BRUHATRAYI THAKUR BALWANT SINGH 1972 72
  • 73. DRAVYAGUNA TEXT BOOKS BOOK AUTHOR TIMELINE DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA Dr.J.L.N. SHASTRY 2002 A HANDBOOK OF DRAVYAGUNA Prof. J.K. OJHA 2004 DRAVYAGUNA SOOTRAMAALA Dr. J.L.N. SHASTRY 2005 DRAVYAGUNA VIJNAANA Prof. D. SHANTHA KUMAR LUCAS 2006 INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS – FORGOTTEN HEALERS Dr. PRAKASH PARANJAPE 2001 IMP- ORIENT LONGMAN P.K.W, V.P.K.N, C.R.K DATABASE ON MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA K.V. BELLORE, M.B. YELNE, T.J. DENNIS, B.G. CHAUDHARI 73
  • 74. SOME DRAVYAGUNA BOOKS IN KERALA BOOK AUTHOR AYURVEDIYA OSHADHI NIGHANTU THAYYIL KUMARAN KRISHNAN OSHADHI NIGHANTU KOCHU SHANKARAN VAIDYAN AYURVEDA NIGHANTU K.N. PANICKER TRAYEEKOSHAM MAANIKYA BHISHAGVARAN ASHTANGA HRUDAYAKOSHAM K.A. VAIDYAN PHARMACOGNOSY OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS IN KERALA Prof. K. NARAYANA IYER, Prof. K. KOLAMMAL Hortus Malabaricus, which is a work on plants of western ghats is also an essential contribution. 74
  • 75. CONCLUSION Study of nighantus is essential for knowledge regarding identification and administration of drugs which were used centuries ago. Though the synonyms were meant to aid in identification, repetition of names for different drugs based on its local utility leads to controversy in the identification of source plant. To solve these controversies, many new works have been undertaken, based on modern knowledge of botany and based on preclinical and clinical studies. Thus the evolution of dravyaguna is continuous process. Nighantus/ Glossaries of herbs are prepared and documented in systematic orders to meet the present challenges in the knowledge of dravyaguna vijnana. 75

Editor's Notes

  1. Yoga Vijnana – Action with respect to specific desha/ kala etc. The aspect of posology also comes in here Guna karma – properties Prayoga – Utilising these properties, which diseases can it be used in?/ Samyoga – how drugs can be used in a formulation, for eg. with respect to other drugs how can it be utilised
  2. Fresh drug has to be double the amount of dry drugs. Cressa cretica Acacia nilotica Cocculus hirsutus Ailanthus excelsa/ Melia azadiracta
  3. Narahari pandit laid emphasis on the importance of nighantus by stating this quotation.
  4. No mention of Authorship in introduction In suvarnadi varga – one line says “ thus dravyavali read as came from dhanwantari’s mouth.” introductory verses mentions the name of the book – Dravyaavali – description of only synonyms are mentioned.
  5. hence inherited rich medical tradition. Bopadeva- a well known grammarian, er and author of some religious textooks. preceeded Bhava Mishra by 2 and half centuries and therefore is considered to be a valuabe link btwn ancient and modern periods.
  6. After completion of the book,the author felt that it was the best of all the Nighantus available at that time ,so he changed its original name Abhidhan Cudamani or Dravya abhidhan gana- Sangraha to Raj Nighantu. Highlights the relevance of Nighantu - निघन्टुना विना वैद्यो विद्वान् व्याकरणम् विना: | अनभ्यासेन धानुष्कस्त्रयो हासस्य भाजनम्: || The writer has followed the pattern of Dhanwantari Nighantu which has been quoted by the writer himself at different places.
  7. Anoopaadi varga - Though R.N. selects D.N. as his parameters yet his very first chapter is a deviation from D.N.This varga is not there in D.N. This chapters covers some 16 major topics regarding land and vegetations Desa 3 types Anupa desa and jangala desa-3 types,mukhya,madhyama,kaniya Sadharana desa-2 types,anupa sadharana,jangala sadharana Soils are further classified on the anology of four varnas-brahma,ksatra,vaishiya,saudra and Properties of products of 4 soil types and deities
  8. Popularly called Simghana dynasty.
  9. Prakasha explains rasa, virya, vipaka.
  10. Followed Sharangadhara Samhita and Madanapala Nighantu belonging to 13th- 14th century.
  11. Jayapala is not mentioned. yasada is not mentioned bhanga,ahiphena,rumi mastangi etc are not mentioned.
  12. Amaruda - guava
  13. Great command in multiple languages and hence made him an accomplished Ayurvedacharya. These factors.