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Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                                                                    1

               When in Rome…
                            Doing Business Abroad




                                  Different cultures




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                   Introduction
                                                                                    2


To be successful in doing business abroad we have to learn about the customs and
practices of other countries. Here we look at some of the areas where such
differences are most noticeable. We also ask students to think about their own
country and what is normal for them.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                Table of Contents


       Reading                 Common cultural differences
                                                                                    3



       Exercise 1              Vocabulary


       Grammar                 Adjectives


       Exercise 2               Adjectives


       Reading                 Focus on your country




       Exercise 3              Vocabulary


       Grammar                 Adjectives from verbs and nouns


       Exercise 4              Adjectives


       Grammar                 Proper nouns


       Exercise 5              Proper nouns


       Exercise 6              Questions about your company's culture


       Final exercise 1        Choose the correct form of the adjective
       Final exercise 2        Describe your country




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                     Common Cultural Differences



                                                                                             4




    With English as the language of international business, communication between
    people of different nationalities may seem more straightforward now than ever
    before. But language is only a part of communication. We also send out powerful
    unspoken signals from the way we dress, the expressions on our face and our
    gestures. How can we be sure that these messages have been correctly
    interpreted? To make sure that we are not sending out the wrong signals, we have
    to learn about the culture and customs of the country we are visiting.


    For example, some cultures, especially Latin ones, use a lot of physical contact:
    shaking hands, putting a hand on the shoulder, even kissing. But in              other
    countries such informality would seem much too familiar among business
    colleagues and would be inappropriate behaviour.


    The main areas in which countries and businesses have different cultural practices
    are:
    - in the extent to which messages are openly expressed or more subtle,
    - in attitudes to time,
    - levels of formality,


Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas

    - levels of individual freedom,
    -all the patterns of behaviour that are associated with the religious or social
    traditions of the region.


    Plain Speaking
                                                                                            5
    Countries with what are called ‘low context’ cultures prefer plain speaking. Here,
    people say what they mean and there are no hidden messages. But to people from
    ‘high context’ cultures, such directness can seem abrupt, even rude. Typically,
    Scandinavian business people are likely to be more direct than, say, British
    people, who often use understatement and hints rather than say clearly what they
    mean. If a British person says ‘there could be a slight problem with deliveries’, he
    or she will expect you to understand that it is really serious!


    Always Late?




    Some cultures are ruled by the clock while others don’t really notice time. In some
    countries it is fine to be 15 minutes late for meetings – it is even expected, but if
    you go to Switzerland or Germany, for example, punctuality is essential.


    You Can Call Me Al
    People from cultures with fewer social hierarchies are usually more informal in
    the way they address each other. They will probably use first names immediately
    they meet someone. In many countries, however, this is considered disrespectful,
    especially to more senior staff or older people, who will expect to be addressed by
    their title and their family name.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas

    Who makes the decisions round here?
    Levels of individual freedom vary greatly from culture to culture. If decisions are
    normally taken collectively, then you cannot expect your business contact to sign
    a deal on the spot. He or she will have to report back to the wider team so that a
    full discussion can take place and a group decision can be taken.
                                                                                            6


    Doing As the Romans
    The English expression, ‘when in Rome, do as the Romans,’ is good advice for
    travellers thinking about dealing with a culture that has strong religious or
    traditional values. If dress codes are very strict, if certain foods are taboo, it is
    important to respect these customs in order not to offend your business partners.


    Finding out about different cultures is very helpful in business. Although each of
    us usually believes our personal perspective is the normal one, in the wider world
    there are many different attitudes and points of view. This diversity can
    complicate business deals but it is also what makes the world such a fascinating
    arena.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas



                                         Exercise 1
    Choose the best answers: A, B, C, D

    1. Another word or phrase for ‘the way we dress, the expressions on our face and
        our gestures’ is:                                                              7


    A. signals
    B. illustrations
    C. body language
    D. feelings

   2. ‘informality’ means:

   A. lack of respect
   B. rudeness
   C. friendliness
   D. a relaxed and casual attitude

    3. ‘Plain speaking’ means

    A. using jargon
    B. saying exactly what you mean
   C. telling lies
   D. making long speeches


    4. Choose the best idiom to complete the sentence, ‘British people are more
        likely than Scandinavian people to’:
    A. beat about the bush
    B. hit the nail on the head
    C. call a spade a spade
    D. make a mountain out of a molehill



    5. Punctuality means:
    A. arriving on time
    B. arriving late
    C. arriving early
    D. postponing
Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas



    6. Disrespectful is:
    A. an adverb
    B. an adjective
    C. a verb
                                                                                      8
    D. a pronoun


    7. A ‘deal’ is:
    A. a bargain
    B. a business transaction
    C. a sale
    D. a purchase


    8. ‘When in Rome, do as the Romans,’ means:
    A. learn from the past
    B. try to be clever
    C. behave like a tourist
    D. try to copy local customs


   9.    To offend means:
    A. to help
    B. to deceive
    C. to displease
    D. to cheat


   10.   Diversity means:
    A. Variety
    B. eccentricity
    C. uniformity
    D. strangeness




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas



                                       Grammar
                                       Adjectives


Adjectives tell us more about nouns and have the following characteristics:              9




               most adjectives may be used before or after the noun (a sick man/the
               man [he] is sick)

               most adjectives can be graded
               (small/smaller/smallest; beautiful/more beautiful/most beautiful)




               many adjectives are derived from verbs or nouns (enjoyable, attractive,
               distant)
               most adjectives can themselves be modified (very late, quite pretty)




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas



                                 Grammar Guide

       • To grade adjectives we can add these suffixes to words of one syllable:

-er (comparative); -est (superlative)
                                                                                      10
tall      taller the tallest


       • With adjectives that end in –y, we add –ier and –iest

happy             happier        the happiest


       • With multi-syllabic adjectives we use more and the most

Interesting:      more interesting        the most interesting


       • Some adjectives have irregular forms:

good better the best

bad       worse the worst


       • We use the definite article with superlative forms:

It is the tallest building in the world

       • To make comparisons using negatives we use not/as/as for single syllable
         adjectives:

my office is not as big as yours

       • We can use the same structure for multi-syllable adjectives, or we can use
         less/than:

my computer is not as powerful as yours vs my computer is less powerful than yours.

       • For superlatives we use the least preceded by the definite article:

this must be the least interesting job in the wor




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                       Exercise 2
                Fill in the gap with the correct form of the adjective.

1. Companies with dress codes are ……….(formal) than companies that allow casual
                                                                                        11
    clothes.


2. Many western people find Japanese is the ……. (hard) language to learn.


3. Northern European cultures are ……. (direct) in their way of speaking than Asian
    cultures.


4. Latin people tend to be ……(punctual) than Northern European people.


5. Mediterranean people often speak ……. (loud) than British people.


6. You can travel by air, coach or train; the air service is the most frequent with
    several flights a day; coaches are less frequent and, with only one train a week,
    the train service is …….


7. I prefer my office chair because it is ………. (comfortable) than yours.


8. This model is not only the biggest it is also …..(expensive) costing almost twice
    as much as the others.


9. I think he finds foreign travel…….. (interesting) than he did in the past.


10. I regret taking this new job, the salary is ……(bad) than in my previous one.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                  Focus on Your Own Country and Culture
        How would you describe your own country and its customs? When we think
        of a particular country we often think first about its capital city:              12

        Brussels, Rome, Moscow, Tokyo. For many visitors, the capital, with its
        famous landmarks such as Big Ben, the Eiffel Tower, or the Coliseum, may
        be the only place they see but sometimes the capital city is not typical of the
        rest of the country. In big cities, such as London or Paris, life can be very
        stressful and people are often in a hurry and not always relaxed and friendly.
        Is your capital city like that?
        But cities are not the heart of a country. What people do, the way they think
        and their general attitudes to life are what make each country unique. We can
        think about the clothes people wear, especially in their jobs. Does the bank
        manager wear a suit and tie or can he wear casual clothes? Do women wear
        western dress or more traditional forms of clothing? The food people eat quite
        literally helps give us a flavour of the country: raw fish, spicy food, rice,
        potatoes, croissants? What are the favourite foods in your country?
        Climate is another feature that influences a country’s way of life. Think of
        Spain and the way that people have a long break in the middle part of the day,
        when it is hottest. It is a time to relax and to enjoy a good lunch.
        In more northerly countries, working people often take a much shorter lunch
        break and perhaps just eat a sandwich in the office.
        How do people in your country spend their leisure time and their holidays?
        How much free time do they have? In many countries public holidays, such as
        Christmas, Easter, are based on events connected to religion, but important
        historical and social events are often marked by holidays too. What events
        does your country celebrate?
        When we do business with other countries we have to observe and understand
        and respect the differences between cultures in order to be successful. In the
        words of Mark Twain: ‘Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-
        mindedness, and many of our people need it solely on these accounts. Broad,
        wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by
        vegetating in one corner of the earth all one's lifetime.’

Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                       Exercise 3
    Choose the best answer: A,B, C or D.

    1. Brussels, Paris, London, Tokyo are all examples of:                          13

    A. common nouns
    B. collective nouns
    C. abstract nouns
    D. proper nouns


    2. We associate croissants with which country?
    A. Japan
    B. France
    C. Germany
    D. Saudi Arabia


    3. Christmas and Easter are examples of:
    A. Christian holidays
    B. Muslim holidays
    C. Hindu holidays
    D. celebrations of political events


    4. In Spain
    A. workers do not take lunch breaks
    B. workers take short lunch breaks
    C. workers stay in the office and eat a sandwich
    D. workers take a long, leisurely lunch break




    5. Mark Twain believes travel is important because…
    A. we need holidays abroad
    B. it helps us to understand other cultures and customs
    C. we have to speak foreign languages
    D. we can try different foods.

Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas



                                       Grammar
                         Forming adjectives from verbs and nouns



               We can make adjectives from verbs and nouns in the following ways:      14


               By using the present participle;
               examples are:

               cooking pots, writing paper, running water, a boring film


               By using the past participle;
               examples are:

               I am interested in languages; he was surprised by the food;


               By adding or changing suffixes;
               examples are:

               enjoy/enjoyable, permit/permissible, hope/hopeful, attract/attractive
               history/historic, distance/distant.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas



                                   Grammar Guide
The choice of present participle or past participle as an adjective has an
important effect on meaning.


       The –ing form is used to describe activities, events or objects.                   15


Examples:

a boring meeting; an interesting journey; a tiring job


       The –ed form is used to describe the reactions of the people to an activity,
event or object.

Examples:

he was bored by the meeting; she was interested in the journey; they are tired of their
jobs.


       A change of suffix alters the meaning of an adjective.

Examples:

Latin people are often more excitable than northern people.

Discovering new countries is exciting.

My boss said she was impressed by my excellent report.

Landmarks such as Big Ben are very impressive.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                        Exercise 4


Select the correct form of the adjective:                                            16


1. Travelling can be very tiring/tired.

2. It is exciting/excitable to travel to new places

3. He was pleasing/pleased to win the new contract.

4. The bright new offices are delightful/delighted.

5. It is illegitimate/illegal to travel without a ticket.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                           Grammar
                                          Proper Nouns


                                                                                         17
   Proper nouns are unique names rather than general names always have a
   capital first letter. Proper nouns include:


       continents, countries, states, cities and town, seas, lakes, mountains, rivers:


   Asia, Turkey, Virginia, Berlin, the Mediterranean, Lake Windermere, Everest,
   the Tagus river


       Personal names with or without titles:
   Romano Prodi, President Bush, Paul McCartney, Dr Watson, Professor Jones


      Calendar events including festivals, names of months and days of the week:
   Christmas, Passover, January, Tuesday


      Names of books, newspapers, films, magazines:
   Great Expectations, The Times, Gone with the Wind, The Economist


       Institutions:
   The Bank of England, the Houses of Parliament




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas

                                         Exercise 5
    Match the proper nouns below with their definitions by writing the correct number
    next to the name:


    a.   The Stock Exchange
                                                                                        18
    b.   The Royal Mint
    c.   Bank Holiday
    d.   The Budget
    e.   The Financial Times
    f.   Wall Street
    g.   Copenhagen
    h.   The House of Commons
    i.   Whitsun
    j.   The Trevi Fountain


i)       site of the New York Stock Exchange
ii)      a place where stocks and shares are traded
iii)     a public holiday in the UK
iv)      a UK daily newspaper focusing on business
v)       the capital city of Denmark
vi)      the seventh Sunday after Easter
vii)     tourist attraction in Rome
viii)    one of the Chambers of the houses of Parliament in the UK
ix)      the UK’s annual announcement of its financial plans
x)       where money is coined in Britain




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                         Exercise 6


    Answer the questions below to build a picture of your country’s company
    culture. Try to give explanations of your answers wherever possible.             19



1 Do you address colleagues, superiors and subordinates by their first names?

2 How seriously is punctuality taken in your company?

3 What procedures exist for appraising people's work?

4 Are meetings usually formal, with an agenda, or more casual?

5 Do people make personal telephone calls from the office?

6 Are individuals encouraged to make suggestions to improve the way the company is
run?

7 Are workers consulted before major decisions are taken?

8 Are flexible working hours permitted?

9 Are employees encouraged to acquire new skills?

10 Is your company open to change and innovation?

11 Does your company rely heavily on computerized systems?

12 Is the relationship between management and employees co-operative or
combative?

13 Does you company organize social events for its staff?

14 Do people stay with your company for a long time?

15 Do staff understand and participate willingly in the company's administrative
systems?




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                 Final exercise 1
                                                                                            20

    Insert the best form of the adjective in the text.


   When you travel abroad on business it is a good idea to carry a few small gifts

   to give to your overseas business partners. Your new/newer/newest contacts

   will be very appreciative/appreciable of such gestures and this helps to create a

   relaxed/relaxing      atmosphere.      Always       be    willing     to     try   the

   traditional/traditionalist foods of your host country, even if you are not sure if

   you will like them or not; your hosts will be delightful/delighted that you are

   interested/interesting in their cuisine. Of course you will find some customs

   difficult/more difficult/most difficult than others to accept. But don’t forget

   that you often practise some of them before your trip. For example, if you will

   have to use chopsticks, try a few visits to your near/nearer/nearest China town

   so that you can learn how to use them. Even if you use English for business,

   will seem very polite/politer/politest if you can say a few words in the

   language of your hosts. And don’t worry if your pronunciation is

   funny/funnier/funniest. If you make your business partners laugh, you well

   help create a much friendly/friendlier/friendliest atmosphere.




Formador: Pedro Vargas
Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas




                                 Final exercise 2


Read text 2. Then write a description of your country, its customs and traditions
(250 - 300 words).                                                                  21




Formador: Pedro Vargas

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Doing business abroad

  • 1. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas 1 When in Rome… Doing Business Abroad Different cultures Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 2. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Introduction 2 To be successful in doing business abroad we have to learn about the customs and practices of other countries. Here we look at some of the areas where such differences are most noticeable. We also ask students to think about their own country and what is normal for them. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 3. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Table of Contents Reading Common cultural differences 3 Exercise 1 Vocabulary Grammar Adjectives Exercise 2 Adjectives Reading Focus on your country Exercise 3 Vocabulary Grammar Adjectives from verbs and nouns Exercise 4 Adjectives Grammar Proper nouns Exercise 5 Proper nouns Exercise 6 Questions about your company's culture Final exercise 1 Choose the correct form of the adjective Final exercise 2 Describe your country Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 4. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Common Cultural Differences 4 With English as the language of international business, communication between people of different nationalities may seem more straightforward now than ever before. But language is only a part of communication. We also send out powerful unspoken signals from the way we dress, the expressions on our face and our gestures. How can we be sure that these messages have been correctly interpreted? To make sure that we are not sending out the wrong signals, we have to learn about the culture and customs of the country we are visiting. For example, some cultures, especially Latin ones, use a lot of physical contact: shaking hands, putting a hand on the shoulder, even kissing. But in other countries such informality would seem much too familiar among business colleagues and would be inappropriate behaviour. The main areas in which countries and businesses have different cultural practices are: - in the extent to which messages are openly expressed or more subtle, - in attitudes to time, - levels of formality, Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 5. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas - levels of individual freedom, -all the patterns of behaviour that are associated with the religious or social traditions of the region. Plain Speaking 5 Countries with what are called ‘low context’ cultures prefer plain speaking. Here, people say what they mean and there are no hidden messages. But to people from ‘high context’ cultures, such directness can seem abrupt, even rude. Typically, Scandinavian business people are likely to be more direct than, say, British people, who often use understatement and hints rather than say clearly what they mean. If a British person says ‘there could be a slight problem with deliveries’, he or she will expect you to understand that it is really serious! Always Late? Some cultures are ruled by the clock while others don’t really notice time. In some countries it is fine to be 15 minutes late for meetings – it is even expected, but if you go to Switzerland or Germany, for example, punctuality is essential. You Can Call Me Al People from cultures with fewer social hierarchies are usually more informal in the way they address each other. They will probably use first names immediately they meet someone. In many countries, however, this is considered disrespectful, especially to more senior staff or older people, who will expect to be addressed by their title and their family name. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 6. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Who makes the decisions round here? Levels of individual freedom vary greatly from culture to culture. If decisions are normally taken collectively, then you cannot expect your business contact to sign a deal on the spot. He or she will have to report back to the wider team so that a full discussion can take place and a group decision can be taken. 6 Doing As the Romans The English expression, ‘when in Rome, do as the Romans,’ is good advice for travellers thinking about dealing with a culture that has strong religious or traditional values. If dress codes are very strict, if certain foods are taboo, it is important to respect these customs in order not to offend your business partners. Finding out about different cultures is very helpful in business. Although each of us usually believes our personal perspective is the normal one, in the wider world there are many different attitudes and points of view. This diversity can complicate business deals but it is also what makes the world such a fascinating arena. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 7. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Exercise 1 Choose the best answers: A, B, C, D 1. Another word or phrase for ‘the way we dress, the expressions on our face and our gestures’ is: 7 A. signals B. illustrations C. body language D. feelings 2. ‘informality’ means: A. lack of respect B. rudeness C. friendliness D. a relaxed and casual attitude 3. ‘Plain speaking’ means A. using jargon B. saying exactly what you mean C. telling lies D. making long speeches 4. Choose the best idiom to complete the sentence, ‘British people are more likely than Scandinavian people to’: A. beat about the bush B. hit the nail on the head C. call a spade a spade D. make a mountain out of a molehill 5. Punctuality means: A. arriving on time B. arriving late C. arriving early D. postponing Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 8. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas 6. Disrespectful is: A. an adverb B. an adjective C. a verb 8 D. a pronoun 7. A ‘deal’ is: A. a bargain B. a business transaction C. a sale D. a purchase 8. ‘When in Rome, do as the Romans,’ means: A. learn from the past B. try to be clever C. behave like a tourist D. try to copy local customs 9. To offend means: A. to help B. to deceive C. to displease D. to cheat 10. Diversity means: A. Variety B. eccentricity C. uniformity D. strangeness Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 9. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Grammar Adjectives Adjectives tell us more about nouns and have the following characteristics: 9 most adjectives may be used before or after the noun (a sick man/the man [he] is sick) most adjectives can be graded (small/smaller/smallest; beautiful/more beautiful/most beautiful) many adjectives are derived from verbs or nouns (enjoyable, attractive, distant) most adjectives can themselves be modified (very late, quite pretty) Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 10. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Grammar Guide • To grade adjectives we can add these suffixes to words of one syllable: -er (comparative); -est (superlative) 10 tall taller the tallest • With adjectives that end in –y, we add –ier and –iest happy happier the happiest • With multi-syllabic adjectives we use more and the most Interesting: more interesting the most interesting • Some adjectives have irregular forms: good better the best bad worse the worst • We use the definite article with superlative forms: It is the tallest building in the world • To make comparisons using negatives we use not/as/as for single syllable adjectives: my office is not as big as yours • We can use the same structure for multi-syllable adjectives, or we can use less/than: my computer is not as powerful as yours vs my computer is less powerful than yours. • For superlatives we use the least preceded by the definite article: this must be the least interesting job in the wor Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 11. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Exercise 2 Fill in the gap with the correct form of the adjective. 1. Companies with dress codes are ……….(formal) than companies that allow casual 11 clothes. 2. Many western people find Japanese is the ……. (hard) language to learn. 3. Northern European cultures are ……. (direct) in their way of speaking than Asian cultures. 4. Latin people tend to be ……(punctual) than Northern European people. 5. Mediterranean people often speak ……. (loud) than British people. 6. You can travel by air, coach or train; the air service is the most frequent with several flights a day; coaches are less frequent and, with only one train a week, the train service is ……. 7. I prefer my office chair because it is ………. (comfortable) than yours. 8. This model is not only the biggest it is also …..(expensive) costing almost twice as much as the others. 9. I think he finds foreign travel…….. (interesting) than he did in the past. 10. I regret taking this new job, the salary is ……(bad) than in my previous one. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 12. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Focus on Your Own Country and Culture How would you describe your own country and its customs? When we think of a particular country we often think first about its capital city: 12 Brussels, Rome, Moscow, Tokyo. For many visitors, the capital, with its famous landmarks such as Big Ben, the Eiffel Tower, or the Coliseum, may be the only place they see but sometimes the capital city is not typical of the rest of the country. In big cities, such as London or Paris, life can be very stressful and people are often in a hurry and not always relaxed and friendly. Is your capital city like that? But cities are not the heart of a country. What people do, the way they think and their general attitudes to life are what make each country unique. We can think about the clothes people wear, especially in their jobs. Does the bank manager wear a suit and tie or can he wear casual clothes? Do women wear western dress or more traditional forms of clothing? The food people eat quite literally helps give us a flavour of the country: raw fish, spicy food, rice, potatoes, croissants? What are the favourite foods in your country? Climate is another feature that influences a country’s way of life. Think of Spain and the way that people have a long break in the middle part of the day, when it is hottest. It is a time to relax and to enjoy a good lunch. In more northerly countries, working people often take a much shorter lunch break and perhaps just eat a sandwich in the office. How do people in your country spend their leisure time and their holidays? How much free time do they have? In many countries public holidays, such as Christmas, Easter, are based on events connected to religion, but important historical and social events are often marked by holidays too. What events does your country celebrate? When we do business with other countries we have to observe and understand and respect the differences between cultures in order to be successful. In the words of Mark Twain: ‘Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow- mindedness, and many of our people need it solely on these accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one corner of the earth all one's lifetime.’ Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 13. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Exercise 3 Choose the best answer: A,B, C or D. 1. Brussels, Paris, London, Tokyo are all examples of: 13 A. common nouns B. collective nouns C. abstract nouns D. proper nouns 2. We associate croissants with which country? A. Japan B. France C. Germany D. Saudi Arabia 3. Christmas and Easter are examples of: A. Christian holidays B. Muslim holidays C. Hindu holidays D. celebrations of political events 4. In Spain A. workers do not take lunch breaks B. workers take short lunch breaks C. workers stay in the office and eat a sandwich D. workers take a long, leisurely lunch break 5. Mark Twain believes travel is important because… A. we need holidays abroad B. it helps us to understand other cultures and customs C. we have to speak foreign languages D. we can try different foods. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 14. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Grammar Forming adjectives from verbs and nouns We can make adjectives from verbs and nouns in the following ways: 14 By using the present participle; examples are: cooking pots, writing paper, running water, a boring film By using the past participle; examples are: I am interested in languages; he was surprised by the food; By adding or changing suffixes; examples are: enjoy/enjoyable, permit/permissible, hope/hopeful, attract/attractive history/historic, distance/distant. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 15. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Grammar Guide The choice of present participle or past participle as an adjective has an important effect on meaning. The –ing form is used to describe activities, events or objects. 15 Examples: a boring meeting; an interesting journey; a tiring job The –ed form is used to describe the reactions of the people to an activity, event or object. Examples: he was bored by the meeting; she was interested in the journey; they are tired of their jobs. A change of suffix alters the meaning of an adjective. Examples: Latin people are often more excitable than northern people. Discovering new countries is exciting. My boss said she was impressed by my excellent report. Landmarks such as Big Ben are very impressive. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 16. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Exercise 4 Select the correct form of the adjective: 16 1. Travelling can be very tiring/tired. 2. It is exciting/excitable to travel to new places 3. He was pleasing/pleased to win the new contract. 4. The bright new offices are delightful/delighted. 5. It is illegitimate/illegal to travel without a ticket. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 17. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Grammar Proper Nouns 17 Proper nouns are unique names rather than general names always have a capital first letter. Proper nouns include: continents, countries, states, cities and town, seas, lakes, mountains, rivers: Asia, Turkey, Virginia, Berlin, the Mediterranean, Lake Windermere, Everest, the Tagus river Personal names with or without titles: Romano Prodi, President Bush, Paul McCartney, Dr Watson, Professor Jones Calendar events including festivals, names of months and days of the week: Christmas, Passover, January, Tuesday Names of books, newspapers, films, magazines: Great Expectations, The Times, Gone with the Wind, The Economist Institutions: The Bank of England, the Houses of Parliament Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 18. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Exercise 5 Match the proper nouns below with their definitions by writing the correct number next to the name: a. The Stock Exchange 18 b. The Royal Mint c. Bank Holiday d. The Budget e. The Financial Times f. Wall Street g. Copenhagen h. The House of Commons i. Whitsun j. The Trevi Fountain i) site of the New York Stock Exchange ii) a place where stocks and shares are traded iii) a public holiday in the UK iv) a UK daily newspaper focusing on business v) the capital city of Denmark vi) the seventh Sunday after Easter vii) tourist attraction in Rome viii) one of the Chambers of the houses of Parliament in the UK ix) the UK’s annual announcement of its financial plans x) where money is coined in Britain Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 19. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Exercise 6 Answer the questions below to build a picture of your country’s company culture. Try to give explanations of your answers wherever possible. 19 1 Do you address colleagues, superiors and subordinates by their first names? 2 How seriously is punctuality taken in your company? 3 What procedures exist for appraising people's work? 4 Are meetings usually formal, with an agenda, or more casual? 5 Do people make personal telephone calls from the office? 6 Are individuals encouraged to make suggestions to improve the way the company is run? 7 Are workers consulted before major decisions are taken? 8 Are flexible working hours permitted? 9 Are employees encouraged to acquire new skills? 10 Is your company open to change and innovation? 11 Does your company rely heavily on computerized systems? 12 Is the relationship between management and employees co-operative or combative? 13 Does you company organize social events for its staff? 14 Do people stay with your company for a long time? 15 Do staff understand and participate willingly in the company's administrative systems? Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 20. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Final exercise 1 20 Insert the best form of the adjective in the text. When you travel abroad on business it is a good idea to carry a few small gifts to give to your overseas business partners. Your new/newer/newest contacts will be very appreciative/appreciable of such gestures and this helps to create a relaxed/relaxing atmosphere. Always be willing to try the traditional/traditionalist foods of your host country, even if you are not sure if you will like them or not; your hosts will be delightful/delighted that you are interested/interesting in their cuisine. Of course you will find some customs difficult/more difficult/most difficult than others to accept. But don’t forget that you often practise some of them before your trip. For example, if you will have to use chopsticks, try a few visits to your near/nearer/nearest China town so that you can learn how to use them. Even if you use English for business, will seem very polite/politer/politest if you can say a few words in the language of your hosts. And don’t worry if your pronunciation is funny/funnier/funniest. If you make your business partners laugh, you well help create a much friendly/friendlier/friendliest atmosphere. Formador: Pedro Vargas
  • 21. Forcet – TGCV – Língua Inglesa Aplicada à negociação e vendas Final exercise 2 Read text 2. Then write a description of your country, its customs and traditions (250 - 300 words). 21 Formador: Pedro Vargas