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Marcus Botacin
Federal University of Paraná, Brazil
@MarcusBotacin
Does Your Threat Model
Consider Country and Culture?
A Case Study of Brazilian Internet Banking
Security to Show that it Should!
ENIGMA 2021, SECURITY AND PRIVACY IDEAS THAT MATTER
FEB 1–3, 2021, OAKLAND, CA
1
1
The Year of...
2
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Companies will invest billions in...
3
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
In Brazil...
4
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Years Later...
5
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
The Brazilian
Banking System
6
● Desktop-based Apps
● Web-based Apps
● Mobile-based Apps
Let’s Move Banking to
Computers!
7
Internet Banking Desktop Clients
● Local Background: Daily price changes due
to high inflation. Hard to manually keep up
with it.
● Technical Solution: Banks created Internet
Banking Desktop apps with security
configurations under their control.
● Attacker’s Decision: Phishing Applications.
8
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Internet Banking Desktop Clients
9
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
A Predictable Future
10
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
The Boleto’s case
11
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Boleto’s Malware
● Local Background: Banks were computerized, but
the population was not.
● Technical Solution: A new payment method
accessible both via digital and physical means.
● Attacker’s Decision: Attackers created malware
samples that modify the boleto’s bar code before
they are printed.
12
BOLETO
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Let’s Move Banking
to the Web!
13
Source: 40K payloads collected from Brazilian bank user’s by a bank’s CSIRT.
Paper: “One Size Does Not Fit All: A Longitudinal Analysis of Brazilian Financial Malware” ACM TOPS. 2020.
A Profusion of File Formats
14
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Web-based Internet Banking
● Local Background: Not all bank customers have their own
desktops, although some have access to the Internet via
third party’s computers.
● Technical Solution: Internet Banking moved to the Web via
Java applets.
● Attacker’s Decision: Attackers can now assume all
computers have Java installed, so they developed Java
malware.
15
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Tracking the Attackers
16
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Let’s Move Banking
to Mobile!
17
The case of WhatsApp
● Local Background: Unrestricted
data plans are expensive. Limited
plans with unlimited Whatsapp
access.
● Technical Solution: Let’s support
bank operations via Whatsapp
messages.
● Attacker’s Decision: Let’s attack
Whatsapp directly.
Paper: “The Internet Banking [in]Security Spiral: Past, Present, and Future of Online Banking Protection
Mechanisms based on a Brazilian case study”. ACM ARES 2019.
18
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Implications
19
A Scenarios Comparison
20
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
A Real Dataset
21
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Brazilian Malware vs. Antiviruses
Paper: “We need to talk about antiviruses: challenges & pitfalls of AV evaluations” Computers & Security. 2020.
22
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Brazilian Malware vs. Machine Learning
Paper: “ The Need for Speed: An Analysis of Brazilian Malware Classifiers” IEEE S&P Magazine 2018.
23
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
Recommendations
24
Recommendations
● Develop threat models that consider the regional and socio-cultural
aspects of the targeted populations.
○ Representativity & Reproducibility guidelines
● Incentivize localized and focused research work with specific datasets.
○ More focused venues (e.g., ENIGMA)
● Promote security companies’ local teams.
○ Easier when we are all Working From Home (WFH).
● Share local information with the World.
○ Where is your paper about the threat scenario in your country?
25
Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
ENIGMA 2021, SECURITY AND PRIVACY IDEAS THAT MATTER
FEB 1–3, 2021, OAKLAND, CA
26
Does Your Threat Model Consider Country and Culture?
A Case Study of Brazilian Internet Banking Security to Show that it Should!
Thank you!
Contact: mfbotacin@inf.ufpr.br or @MarcusBotacin
Our Website: secret.inf.ufpr.br
Marcus Botacin
Federal University of Paraná, Brazil
@MarcusBotacin

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Does Your Threat Model Consider Country and Culture? A Case Study of Brazilian Internet Banking Security to Show that it Should!

  • 1. Marcus Botacin Federal University of Paraná, Brazil @MarcusBotacin Does Your Threat Model Consider Country and Culture? A Case Study of Brazilian Internet Banking Security to Show that it Should! ENIGMA 2021, SECURITY AND PRIVACY IDEAS THAT MATTER FEB 1–3, 2021, OAKLAND, CA 1 1
  • 2. The Year of... 2 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 3. Companies will invest billions in... 3 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 4. In Brazil... 4 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 5. Years Later... 5 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 6. The Brazilian Banking System 6 ● Desktop-based Apps ● Web-based Apps ● Mobile-based Apps
  • 7. Let’s Move Banking to Computers! 7
  • 8. Internet Banking Desktop Clients ● Local Background: Daily price changes due to high inflation. Hard to manually keep up with it. ● Technical Solution: Banks created Internet Banking Desktop apps with security configurations under their control. ● Attacker’s Decision: Phishing Applications. 8 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 9. Internet Banking Desktop Clients 9 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 10. A Predictable Future 10 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 11. The Boleto’s case 11 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 12. Boleto’s Malware ● Local Background: Banks were computerized, but the population was not. ● Technical Solution: A new payment method accessible both via digital and physical means. ● Attacker’s Decision: Attackers created malware samples that modify the boleto’s bar code before they are printed. 12 BOLETO Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 13. Let’s Move Banking to the Web! 13
  • 14. Source: 40K payloads collected from Brazilian bank user’s by a bank’s CSIRT. Paper: “One Size Does Not Fit All: A Longitudinal Analysis of Brazilian Financial Malware” ACM TOPS. 2020. A Profusion of File Formats 14 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 15. Web-based Internet Banking ● Local Background: Not all bank customers have their own desktops, although some have access to the Internet via third party’s computers. ● Technical Solution: Internet Banking moved to the Web via Java applets. ● Attacker’s Decision: Attackers can now assume all computers have Java installed, so they developed Java malware. 15 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 16. Tracking the Attackers 16 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 18. The case of WhatsApp ● Local Background: Unrestricted data plans are expensive. Limited plans with unlimited Whatsapp access. ● Technical Solution: Let’s support bank operations via Whatsapp messages. ● Attacker’s Decision: Let’s attack Whatsapp directly. Paper: “The Internet Banking [in]Security Spiral: Past, Present, and Future of Online Banking Protection Mechanisms based on a Brazilian case study”. ACM ARES 2019. 18 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 20. A Scenarios Comparison 20 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 21. A Real Dataset 21 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 22. Brazilian Malware vs. Antiviruses Paper: “We need to talk about antiviruses: challenges & pitfalls of AV evaluations” Computers & Security. 2020. 22 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 23. Brazilian Malware vs. Machine Learning Paper: “ The Need for Speed: An Analysis of Brazilian Malware Classifiers” IEEE S&P Magazine 2018. 23 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 25. Recommendations ● Develop threat models that consider the regional and socio-cultural aspects of the targeted populations. ○ Representativity & Reproducibility guidelines ● Incentivize localized and focused research work with specific datasets. ○ More focused venues (e.g., ENIGMA) ● Promote security companies’ local teams. ○ Easier when we are all Working From Home (WFH). ● Share local information with the World. ○ Where is your paper about the threat scenario in your country? 25 Introduction Let’s Move Banking to Computers! Let’s Move Banking to the Web! Let’s Move Banking to Mobile! Implications Recommendations
  • 26. ENIGMA 2021, SECURITY AND PRIVACY IDEAS THAT MATTER FEB 1–3, 2021, OAKLAND, CA 26 Does Your Threat Model Consider Country and Culture? A Case Study of Brazilian Internet Banking Security to Show that it Should! Thank you! Contact: mfbotacin@inf.ufpr.br or @MarcusBotacin Our Website: secret.inf.ufpr.br Marcus Botacin Federal University of Paraná, Brazil @MarcusBotacin