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Do employers want what
    schools create?

       Hernán Araneda
       Fundación Chile



                         1
1.Competencies for the work-life:
 What skills are a priority?
2.Quality of education and
 competencies for the work life
3.Implications and challenges for
 the school system

                                    2
1.Competencies for the work-life:
 What skills are a priority?

Labour market trends
Employers surveys
Transitions from education to the workplace
Lifelong learning and lifelong employability




                                               3
4
SCANS Competencies
Resources
Allocates Time
Allocates Money
Allocates Material and Facility
Resources Allocates Human Resources

Information
Acquires and Evaluates Information
Organizes and Maintains Information
Interprets and Communicates Information
Uses Computers to Process Information

Interpersonal
Participates as a Member of a Team
Teaches Others
Serves Clients/Customers
Exercises Leadership
Negotiates to Arrive at a Decision
Works with Cultural Diversity

Systems
Understands Systems
Monitors and Corrects Performance
Improves and Designs Systems

Technology
Selects Technology
Applies Technology to Task
Maintains and Troubleshoots Technology

                                          5
SCANS Foundation Skills

Basic Skills
Reading Writing
Arithmetic & Mathematics
Listening Speaking

Thinking Skills
 Creative Thinking
Decision Making Problem
Solving Seeing Things in
the Mind's Eye Knowing
How to Learn Reasoning

Personal Qualities
Responsibility
 Self-Esteem Social Self-
Management
Integrity/Honesty

                            6
Basic competence:
50% of the population in performance level 1

            Adult Functional Literacy Survey (1998)

     100%
      90%
      80%
      70%
      60%                                             PERFORMANCE LEVEL
      50%
      40%
                                                           Level 4/5
      30%
                                                           Level 3
      20%
                                                           Lever 2
      10%
      0%
                                                           Level 1
                         y



                        es




                                      ile
                       en




                                     a ry
                                      lic




                                         l
                        m




                                     ga
                      an




                     do




                                  ub
                                  Ch
                    tat
                    ed




                                 rt u
                                 ng
                   rm




                 ing




                                ep
                dS
                 Sw




                              Hu

                              Po
               Ge




                             cR
            dK
             ite




                                e
        Un

         ite



                             Cz
      Un




                                                                       7
A systemic view from
the National Competency System

                                           Labour Market
                                          Intermediation /
                                             Information
                                               Services




                                   Industry            Competency
  HR Management                   Endorsed             Assessment &
  (recruitment, selection,                                                 National
                                 Competency            Certification
   performance appraisal,                                              Training System
 training, sucession plans,       Standards               System
        rewards, etc.)


                              NATIONAL LABOUR COMPETENCY SYSTEM



                                            Technical
                                       Vocational Education
                                           (secondary,
                                         postsecondary)
                                                                                         8
Where we stand
                                                15 industry specific associations,
                                                “clusters”, 380 leading companies

                                            MOBILIZE
                                        2.STAKEHOLDERS
                                          Movilizar Actores DEFINE                   500 occup
      15 economic                           Claves       OCCUPATIONAL                standards, +
      sectors                                           3.Definir Estándares
                         SELECT AND
                        1.Seleccionar e
                                                       AND EMPLOYABILITY             employability skills
                                                             SKILLS
                           IDENTIFY                                                  models (8
                       Identificar Sector                  STANDARDS
                          INDUSTRY
                         Productivo                                                  competencies)

                                                 UPDATE
                                          8. Actualizar Estándares      VALIDATE
                                                STANDARDS
                                               según Necesidades       STANDARDS
                                                 AS NEEDED
                                                                        4.WITH
                                                                          Validar
                              PROMOTE                                 STAKEHOLDERS
                                                                        Estándares
-Web site competency
                                 AND                                   con Actores
standards                   7.Promover y
                             DISSEMINATE         KEEPING               Claves
-New regulation                Difundir        MANTENIENDO LA
                                                   THE
                                                   VENTAJA
                                               COMPETITIVE
-Media coverage                                  COMPETITIVA
                                                   EDGE

                                                           ADAPT CURRICULA
                                     EVALUATE AND       5.Adaptar Currículum y
                                                           AND TRAINING TO
                                   6.Evaluar y Certificar Formación según
                                   CERTIFY WORKERS /          STANDARDS          Methodology
                                      Trabajadores
                                       STUDENTS              Estándares          transfer to
80.000 workers certified                                                         300 VET
                                                                                                   9
(labour competencies,                                                            providers
Employability skills, IT skills)
1.Competencies for the work-life:
  What skills are a priority?
Employers views
Labour market dynamics and outcomes




                                      10
Key messages
• Career guidance is not compulsory for around one in three 15
  year-olds
• Access to career guidance is less for:
   –   Lower ability students
   –   Those in small towns
   –   Those in public schools
   –   Those who are not tertiary-bound

• Business involvement in the curriculum is linked to wider
  access to career guidance
• Perhaps one in three 15 year-olds or more have little contact
  with the world of work
• Schools are closest to the world of work if specific teachers are
  responsible for career guidance, and least close where the
  school employs counsellors to provide it

                                                                  11
Schools in which career guidance is
     compulsory for 15 year olds, 2006
    100

     90

     80

     70
          JAPAN                    CZECH REPUBLIC
          NORWAY                   PORTUGAL
     60   GREECE                   QATAR
          FINLAND       CHILE      ISRAEL
%




     50   UK                       BRAZIL
          NETHERLANDS              LITHUANIA
          ROMANIA                  MACAO
     40   SPAIN                    AZERBAIJAN
          DENMARK                  TUNISIA
     30   AUSTRALIA                LATVIA
          SWEDEN

     20

     10

      0

                                               12
Less able students have less access
Mean PISA 2006 scores
470


460


450


440


430


420


410


400
            Science               Reading           Mathematics


                 Guidance voluntary   Guidance compulsory

                                                                  13
Access is lower in small towns
                Per cent of schools in which guidance is
100
                     compulsory by school location

 80



 60



 40



 20



  0
       Small town           Town               City        Large city


                                                                        14
Students in public schools have less access

          Per cent of public and private schools in
100
         which guidance is voluntary or compulsory
 90

 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20

 10

  0
            Voluntary                          Compulsory

                            Public   Private


                                                            15
Schools without a strong tertiary
                   focus have less access
               100   To what extent do you feel that
                90   teachers in your school
                80   concentrate on developing in
                     students the skills and
% compulsory




                70   knowledge that will help them in
                60   tertiary education?”

                50
                40
                30
                20
                10
                 0
                             Low                        Integrated       Central

                                                        Tertiary focus

                                                                                   16
Business involvement in the
      curriculum increases access
100       Per cent of schools in which guidance is compulsory
              and business influence over the curriculum
 90

 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20

 10

  0
        None                    Minor or indirect               Considerable


                                                                               17
Schools where 15 year-olds never visit local
                        businesses

    80

    70

    60

    50
%




    40                                              SWEDEN
                                                    ROMANIA
                             CHILE                  JORDAN
                                                    DENMARK
    30                                              AUSTRIA
                                                    FINLAND
                                                    GERMANY
    20                                              RUSSIA


    10

     0


                                                              18
Schools where 15 year-olds never have lectures by
              business or industry

    80

    70

    60
                                            GERMANY
    50                                      HONG KONG
                                            FINLAND
                                            JORDAN
%




    40                                      DENMARK
                                            UK
                                            AUSTRALIA
                                            RUSSIA
    30                        CHILE         CANADA
                                            AUSTRIA

    20

    10

     0


                                                        19
Schools where 15 year-olds are not offered training in
                 local businesses

    100   FINLAND
          UK
          DENMARK
     90   SWEDEN                                   KOREA
          GERMANY                         CHILE    IRELAND
     80   NORWAY                                   SPAIN
          MONTENEGRO                               LITHUANIA
          CROATIA                                  GREECE
     70   AUSTRALIA
          AUSTRIA
          NETHERLANDS
     60   NEW ZEALAND
          LUXEMBOURG
%




     50   SERBIA
          ICELAND
     40

     30

     20

     10

      0


                                                       20
How is career guidance provided?

               50
                               45
               45
               40
               35                                  31
% of schools




               30
               25
               20                                                 16
               15
               10
                5
                0
                    Specific teachers   All teachers    Counsellors employed



                                                                               21
Does this matter?




                    22
Industry visits a normal part of schooling?

            50                                      Weighted index:
            45          43                          >Once a year=3
                                                    Once a year=2
            40                           35
                                                    Never=1
                                                    Maximum=100
            35
Index/100




            30
            25                                                  20
            20
            15
            10
             5
             0
                 Specific teachers   All teachers        Counsellors

                                                                       23
Industry lectures a normal part of schooling?

            45          41                          Weighted index:
                                                    >Once a year=3
            40                           37         Once a year=2
                                                    Never=1
            35
                                                    Maximum=100
            30
Index/100




            25                                                  22
            20
            15
            10
            5
            0
                 Specific teachers   All teachers        Counsellors

                                                                       24
Industry influence on the curriculum?

            60                                        Weighted index:
                          52                          Considerable=3
                                                      Minor=2
            50                                        None=1
                                                      Maximum=100
            40
                                           34
Index/100




            30

            20                                                    15

            10

            0
                   Specific teachers   All teachers        Counsellors

                                                                         25

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Do employers want what schools create? Hernán Araneda, gerente de Innovum, Fundación Chile

  • 1. Do employers want what schools create? Hernán Araneda Fundación Chile 1
  • 2. 1.Competencies for the work-life: What skills are a priority? 2.Quality of education and competencies for the work life 3.Implications and challenges for the school system 2
  • 3. 1.Competencies for the work-life: What skills are a priority? Labour market trends Employers surveys Transitions from education to the workplace Lifelong learning and lifelong employability 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. SCANS Competencies Resources Allocates Time Allocates Money Allocates Material and Facility Resources Allocates Human Resources Information Acquires and Evaluates Information Organizes and Maintains Information Interprets and Communicates Information Uses Computers to Process Information Interpersonal Participates as a Member of a Team Teaches Others Serves Clients/Customers Exercises Leadership Negotiates to Arrive at a Decision Works with Cultural Diversity Systems Understands Systems Monitors and Corrects Performance Improves and Designs Systems Technology Selects Technology Applies Technology to Task Maintains and Troubleshoots Technology 5
  • 6. SCANS Foundation Skills Basic Skills Reading Writing Arithmetic & Mathematics Listening Speaking Thinking Skills Creative Thinking Decision Making Problem Solving Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye Knowing How to Learn Reasoning Personal Qualities Responsibility Self-Esteem Social Self- Management Integrity/Honesty 6
  • 7. Basic competence: 50% of the population in performance level 1 Adult Functional Literacy Survey (1998) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% PERFORMANCE LEVEL 50% 40% Level 4/5 30% Level 3 20% Lever 2 10% 0% Level 1 y es ile en a ry lic l m ga an do ub Ch tat ed rt u ng rm ing ep dS Sw Hu Po Ge cR dK ite e Un ite Cz Un 7
  • 8. A systemic view from the National Competency System Labour Market Intermediation / Information Services Industry Competency HR Management Endorsed Assessment & (recruitment, selection, National Competency Certification performance appraisal, Training System training, sucession plans, Standards System rewards, etc.) NATIONAL LABOUR COMPETENCY SYSTEM Technical Vocational Education (secondary, postsecondary) 8
  • 9. Where we stand 15 industry specific associations, “clusters”, 380 leading companies MOBILIZE 2.STAKEHOLDERS Movilizar Actores DEFINE 500 occup 15 economic Claves OCCUPATIONAL standards, + sectors 3.Definir Estándares SELECT AND 1.Seleccionar e AND EMPLOYABILITY employability skills SKILLS IDENTIFY models (8 Identificar Sector STANDARDS INDUSTRY Productivo competencies) UPDATE 8. Actualizar Estándares VALIDATE STANDARDS según Necesidades STANDARDS AS NEEDED 4.WITH Validar PROMOTE STAKEHOLDERS Estándares -Web site competency AND con Actores standards 7.Promover y DISSEMINATE KEEPING Claves -New regulation Difundir MANTENIENDO LA THE VENTAJA COMPETITIVE -Media coverage COMPETITIVA EDGE ADAPT CURRICULA EVALUATE AND 5.Adaptar Currículum y AND TRAINING TO 6.Evaluar y Certificar Formación según CERTIFY WORKERS / STANDARDS Methodology Trabajadores STUDENTS Estándares transfer to 80.000 workers certified 300 VET 9 (labour competencies, providers Employability skills, IT skills)
  • 10. 1.Competencies for the work-life: What skills are a priority? Employers views Labour market dynamics and outcomes 10
  • 11. Key messages • Career guidance is not compulsory for around one in three 15 year-olds • Access to career guidance is less for: – Lower ability students – Those in small towns – Those in public schools – Those who are not tertiary-bound • Business involvement in the curriculum is linked to wider access to career guidance • Perhaps one in three 15 year-olds or more have little contact with the world of work • Schools are closest to the world of work if specific teachers are responsible for career guidance, and least close where the school employs counsellors to provide it 11
  • 12. Schools in which career guidance is compulsory for 15 year olds, 2006 100 90 80 70 JAPAN CZECH REPUBLIC NORWAY PORTUGAL 60 GREECE QATAR FINLAND CHILE ISRAEL % 50 UK BRAZIL NETHERLANDS LITHUANIA ROMANIA MACAO 40 SPAIN AZERBAIJAN DENMARK TUNISIA 30 AUSTRALIA LATVIA SWEDEN 20 10 0 12
  • 13. Less able students have less access Mean PISA 2006 scores 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 Science Reading Mathematics Guidance voluntary Guidance compulsory 13
  • 14. Access is lower in small towns Per cent of schools in which guidance is 100 compulsory by school location 80 60 40 20 0 Small town Town City Large city 14
  • 15. Students in public schools have less access Per cent of public and private schools in 100 which guidance is voluntary or compulsory 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Voluntary Compulsory Public Private 15
  • 16. Schools without a strong tertiary focus have less access 100 To what extent do you feel that 90 teachers in your school 80 concentrate on developing in students the skills and % compulsory 70 knowledge that will help them in 60 tertiary education?” 50 40 30 20 10 0 Low Integrated Central Tertiary focus 16
  • 17. Business involvement in the curriculum increases access 100 Per cent of schools in which guidance is compulsory and business influence over the curriculum 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 None Minor or indirect Considerable 17
  • 18. Schools where 15 year-olds never visit local businesses 80 70 60 50 % 40 SWEDEN ROMANIA CHILE JORDAN DENMARK 30 AUSTRIA FINLAND GERMANY 20 RUSSIA 10 0 18
  • 19. Schools where 15 year-olds never have lectures by business or industry 80 70 60 GERMANY 50 HONG KONG FINLAND JORDAN % 40 DENMARK UK AUSTRALIA RUSSIA 30 CHILE CANADA AUSTRIA 20 10 0 19
  • 20. Schools where 15 year-olds are not offered training in local businesses 100 FINLAND UK DENMARK 90 SWEDEN KOREA GERMANY CHILE IRELAND 80 NORWAY SPAIN MONTENEGRO LITHUANIA CROATIA GREECE 70 AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA NETHERLANDS 60 NEW ZEALAND LUXEMBOURG % 50 SERBIA ICELAND 40 30 20 10 0 20
  • 21. How is career guidance provided? 50 45 45 40 35 31 % of schools 30 25 20 16 15 10 5 0 Specific teachers All teachers Counsellors employed 21
  • 23. Industry visits a normal part of schooling? 50 Weighted index: 45 43 >Once a year=3 Once a year=2 40 35 Never=1 Maximum=100 35 Index/100 30 25 20 20 15 10 5 0 Specific teachers All teachers Counsellors 23
  • 24. Industry lectures a normal part of schooling? 45 41 Weighted index: >Once a year=3 40 37 Once a year=2 Never=1 35 Maximum=100 30 Index/100 25 22 20 15 10 5 0 Specific teachers All teachers Counsellors 24
  • 25. Industry influence on the curriculum? 60 Weighted index: 52 Considerable=3 Minor=2 50 None=1 Maximum=100 40 34 Index/100 30 20 15 10 0 Specific teachers All teachers Counsellors 25