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DNA Barcoding
Talhia Escobar
Christina Motilall
Field Palmer
Louise Solis
Luciana Vega-Inghram
Most people in developing
countries continue to use
medicinal plants as a primary
source for their healthcare!
Reports are showing an
alarming decrease in certain
species and it’s becoming
more difficult to obtain them
in the wild
Efforts such as DNA
barcoding allow us to identify
and begin to take
conservative measures
Source: Antigua and Barbuda Population and Housing Census 2011
The Growing Importance of
Medicinal Plants
⚫ Herbal remedies and functional foods used by cancer
patients attending specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad
Clement, Yuri N et al. BMC complementary and alternative medicine vol. 16,1 399. 21 Oct. 2016,
doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1380-x
⚫ Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer
patients in Jamaica Foster, Kimberly et al. Cancer Causes Control (2017) 28: 1349
⚫ Use of contemporary and alternative medicine by
patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis
in Trinidad: A descriptive study. Bahall M. BMC Complement Alter. Med.
2017; 17 (1):250
Signal Hill in St.Mary
Second highest point in Antigua
Sample Collecting
⚫ Diversity
⚫ Preservation!
⚫ 19 samples collected
DNA Isolation
11 PCR products sent for sequencing
11 Identified via DNASubway
Success
Gel electrophoresis chamber
connected to power source
Cymbopogon goeringii
Lemon Grass
● Distribution: Asia, Africa and Tropical Islands
Medical Use:
● Fevers
● Coughs
● Colds and nasal congestion
● Antifungal properties.
Other Uses:
● Its essential oil has used in cosmetic products.
● Preservative and pesticide.
● Commonly cultivated as culinary herbs because of its
scent.
Reference: Soenarko, S. 1977. The genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Gramineae). Reinwardtia 9(3): 225–375
^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 624 xiang mao shuCymbopogon Sprengel, Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 14. 1815.
Sida acuta
Wire weed
● Distribution: Pantropical
Medical Use:
● Used in Indian medicine
● Teats : liver disorder, urinary diseases, liver, and
blood disorders.
● Animal studies demonstrated significant changes
in the nervous diseases with significant sedative
properties.
Abat, J. K., Kumar, S., & Mohanty, A. (2017). Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and
Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional
Medicines: A Review. Medicines (Basel, Switzerland), 4(4), 75. doi:10.3390/medicines4040075
"Sida acuta". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
Psychotria rubra
Red Psychotria/Chiu Chieh Mu
⚫ Used in Chinese medicine (1)
⚫ Naphthoquinone -- cytotoxic
(2)
⚫ Can induce neuropathy (3)
Desmodium psilocarpum
Hitch Hikers, beggar
lice, tick-trefoil
● “Push-Pull” pest repellent
● Repels stem borers and
witchweeds
● Its use has recently improved
cereal grain yield in western
Kenya
Scutia myrtina
● Gut motility activity & laxative effect
● Anti proliferative and antimalarial activity
● CNS Depression activity and Analgesic activity
● Antidiabetic activity and CNS stimulant activity
● Hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity
● Anti inflammatory, antimicrobial activity
● Antitumor and anticancer activity
http://ijpsr.com/bft-article/phytochemical-screening-and-gut-motility-activity-of-ethanolic-extract-of-
whole-plant-of-scutia-myrtina-kurz/?view=fulltext
● Alkaloid
● Glycosides
● Protein
● Flavonoids
● Anthraquinone
● Tannins
Bioactive compounds:
Medical use:
Chamaecrista fasciculata
⚫ Cherokee Drug (Sports Medicine): root
medicine used to keep ball players from
tiring.
⚫ Cherokee Drug (Stimulant): compound
infusion given for fainting spells.
⚫ Seminole Drug (Antiemetic): cold
decoction of plant used for nausea.
⚫ Showy partridge pea has been shown to
control Staphylococcus aureus in vitro
Partridge Pea
https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_chfa2.pdf
What could we have done
differently?
Thank you
Sources
Psychotria rubra
1. Yang Xinrong, Chen Anmin, Ma Yingfu, Gao Yuan, Gao Zhemin
Springer Science & Business Media, 7 Apr 2003
1. Antitumor agents. 89. Psychorubrin, a new cytotoxic naphthoquinone from Psychotria rubra and its
structure-activity relationships
Toshimitsu Hayashi, Forrest T. Smith, and Kuo Hsiung Lee
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1987 30 (11), 2005-2008
1. W Mak, SY Leung
Toxic neuropathy following ingestion of self-collected herbs Psychotria rubra
Neurol J Southeast Asia 1998; 3 : 41-44
Sources
Desmodium psilocarpum
1. https://www.revolvy.com/page/Desmodium
2. Midega, Charles A O et al. “Drought-tolerant Desmodium species effectively suppress
parasitic striga weed and improve cereal grain yields in western Kenya.” Crop protection
(Guildford, Surrey) vol. 98 (2017): 94-101. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2017.03.018
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seeds_of_Desmodium_sp._on_shoe.jpg
4. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/161747-Desmodium-psilocarpum

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Dna barcoding: Signal Hill

  • 1. DNA Barcoding Talhia Escobar Christina Motilall Field Palmer Louise Solis Luciana Vega-Inghram
  • 2. Most people in developing countries continue to use medicinal plants as a primary source for their healthcare! Reports are showing an alarming decrease in certain species and it’s becoming more difficult to obtain them in the wild Efforts such as DNA barcoding allow us to identify and begin to take conservative measures Source: Antigua and Barbuda Population and Housing Census 2011
  • 3. The Growing Importance of Medicinal Plants ⚫ Herbal remedies and functional foods used by cancer patients attending specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad Clement, Yuri N et al. BMC complementary and alternative medicine vol. 16,1 399. 21 Oct. 2016, doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1380-x ⚫ Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica Foster, Kimberly et al. Cancer Causes Control (2017) 28: 1349 ⚫ Use of contemporary and alternative medicine by patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis in Trinidad: A descriptive study. Bahall M. BMC Complement Alter. Med. 2017; 17 (1):250
  • 4. Signal Hill in St.Mary Second highest point in Antigua
  • 5. Sample Collecting ⚫ Diversity ⚫ Preservation! ⚫ 19 samples collected
  • 7. 11 PCR products sent for sequencing 11 Identified via DNASubway Success Gel electrophoresis chamber connected to power source
  • 8. Cymbopogon goeringii Lemon Grass ● Distribution: Asia, Africa and Tropical Islands Medical Use: ● Fevers ● Coughs ● Colds and nasal congestion ● Antifungal properties. Other Uses: ● Its essential oil has used in cosmetic products. ● Preservative and pesticide. ● Commonly cultivated as culinary herbs because of its scent. Reference: Soenarko, S. 1977. The genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Gramineae). Reinwardtia 9(3): 225–375 ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 624 xiang mao shuCymbopogon Sprengel, Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 14. 1815.
  • 9. Sida acuta Wire weed ● Distribution: Pantropical Medical Use: ● Used in Indian medicine ● Teats : liver disorder, urinary diseases, liver, and blood disorders. ● Animal studies demonstrated significant changes in the nervous diseases with significant sedative properties. Abat, J. K., Kumar, S., & Mohanty, A. (2017). Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review. Medicines (Basel, Switzerland), 4(4), 75. doi:10.3390/medicines4040075 "Sida acuta". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
  • 10. Psychotria rubra Red Psychotria/Chiu Chieh Mu ⚫ Used in Chinese medicine (1) ⚫ Naphthoquinone -- cytotoxic (2) ⚫ Can induce neuropathy (3)
  • 11. Desmodium psilocarpum Hitch Hikers, beggar lice, tick-trefoil ● “Push-Pull” pest repellent ● Repels stem borers and witchweeds ● Its use has recently improved cereal grain yield in western Kenya
  • 12. Scutia myrtina ● Gut motility activity & laxative effect ● Anti proliferative and antimalarial activity ● CNS Depression activity and Analgesic activity ● Antidiabetic activity and CNS stimulant activity ● Hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity ● Anti inflammatory, antimicrobial activity ● Antitumor and anticancer activity http://ijpsr.com/bft-article/phytochemical-screening-and-gut-motility-activity-of-ethanolic-extract-of- whole-plant-of-scutia-myrtina-kurz/?view=fulltext ● Alkaloid ● Glycosides ● Protein ● Flavonoids ● Anthraquinone ● Tannins Bioactive compounds: Medical use:
  • 13. Chamaecrista fasciculata ⚫ Cherokee Drug (Sports Medicine): root medicine used to keep ball players from tiring. ⚫ Cherokee Drug (Stimulant): compound infusion given for fainting spells. ⚫ Seminole Drug (Antiemetic): cold decoction of plant used for nausea. ⚫ Showy partridge pea has been shown to control Staphylococcus aureus in vitro Partridge Pea https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_chfa2.pdf
  • 14. What could we have done differently?
  • 16. Sources Psychotria rubra 1. Yang Xinrong, Chen Anmin, Ma Yingfu, Gao Yuan, Gao Zhemin Springer Science & Business Media, 7 Apr 2003 1. Antitumor agents. 89. Psychorubrin, a new cytotoxic naphthoquinone from Psychotria rubra and its structure-activity relationships Toshimitsu Hayashi, Forrest T. Smith, and Kuo Hsiung Lee Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1987 30 (11), 2005-2008 1. W Mak, SY Leung Toxic neuropathy following ingestion of self-collected herbs Psychotria rubra Neurol J Southeast Asia 1998; 3 : 41-44
  • 17. Sources Desmodium psilocarpum 1. https://www.revolvy.com/page/Desmodium 2. Midega, Charles A O et al. “Drought-tolerant Desmodium species effectively suppress parasitic striga weed and improve cereal grain yields in western Kenya.” Crop protection (Guildford, Surrey) vol. 98 (2017): 94-101. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2017.03.018 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seeds_of_Desmodium_sp._on_shoe.jpg 4. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/161747-Desmodium-psilocarpum