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TPM activities at the shop floor are dedicated to the
elimination of equipment related waste, The activities
described in this module are dedicated to waste
prevention. [ Concept of COPQ]
Today, companies must continue to grow in an
environment where competition and consumer needs
change at an accelerating pace. To develop and
maintain the organizational and technological
strength to keep pace with changes required for
advanced product and equipment development
programs.
INTRODUCTION
Product can be sold
Product is easy to manufacture
Product is easy to use
Product does not cause defects
QA+4M
Market survey
Product
development
Test manufacture
Equipment planning
Initial production
control
Start of production
Product
Equipment
INITIAL CONTROL OF PRODUCT AND EQUIPMENT
Pursuit for ultimate man-machine system
“Hinshitsu - Hozen”
Planned Maintenance
“Jishu - Hozen”
Education & Training
“Kobetsu
-
Kaizen”
Initial control
Equipment Product
INITIAL PRODUCTION CONTROL IN TPM DEVELOPMENT
Product planning
and concept
design
Initial
system design
Detailed
design and
development
Production,
construction and
evaluation
System / product
usage and
logistical support
Market analysis, feasibility study, operational requirements, concept of
maintenance, and others
System analysis, evaluation of substitute
plan (trade off), system decision, and other
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
75%
Composition
of
life
cycle
cost
Detailed design and development
66%
85%
95%
JOBS AFFECTING LIFE CYCLE COST
Cost of Purchases
(R&D, Production)
Test, Support
and Equipment
Costs
Training
Cost
Service
(Personnel)
Cost
Facility and
Equipment
Cost
Transport and
Handling Cost
Technical
Information
Cost
Replacement
and Scrap
Cost
Logistical
Support Cost
(Supplies, Transport)
CONCEPT OF LIFE CYCLE COST
The economical efficiency can be decided and evaluation can be made by determining what reductions
could be obtained or are going to be obtained in the total cost (temporary aspect at present of life cycle
cost) paid equipment at present by investing a certain additional amount.
True maintenance activities are activities to reduce the processing cost and defects without confining them
to failure or maintenance cost. Activities to smooth equipment flow and initial control are the most
important to minimize LCC (Life Cycle Cost). The results are affected by concentration and demonstration
of equipment planning and plan, production engineering, production, maintenance, sales and marketing
and vendor technologies.
Planning
Stage
Design
Stage
Installation
Stage
Test
Run
and
Debugging
State
Depreciation
Personnel Cost
Operation (Maint.) Stage
A
Replacement
Defective Material Cost
Miscellaneous Cost
Auxiliary
Material Cost
Motive
Power Cost
Maintenance
Cost
Fabrication and
Purchasing Stage
Basic Elements Definition Description
Reliability Elements that does
not cause function
deterioration and
stoppage
Low frequency of
equipment failures
Low frequency of
minor stoppages
Low frequency of
defects
Infrequent and
small adjustments
Stable machine
cycle time
Ease in static and
dynamic accuracy
measurement
Maintainability Elements that
expresses ease of
deterioration
measurement and
restoration.
Quickness in finding
failed parts
Ease of replacing
parts and quick
function resetting
check time
Quickness in finding
deteriorated parts
Easy oiling and oil
change
Easy overhaul
Table VII-6
“Jishu-Hozen”
ability
Elements allowing
operating department
to quickly and easily
accomplish
maintenance activities
such as cleaning,
oiling and inspection.
Easy cleaning,
oiling and inspection
Easy chip
recovering
Degree of
localization of
generating sources
and splashing
Ease of checking
lube oil terminal
Ease of performing
“Hinshitsu-Hozen”
work (ease of
measuring accuracy,
etc.)
Operability Elements allowing
right operation,
quickly and
accurately, during
equipment operation
and set-up change.
Ease of set-up and
adjustment
Ease of changing
cutting blades, jigs
and grinding wheels
and of adjustments of
them.
Ease of operating
buttons (height,
layout, number,
shape, color, etc.)
Ease to carry and
install.
Material and
energy saving
Elements to express
high efficiency of
resources needed for
equipment operation
such as energy,
cutting blades and
jigs, grinding wheels
and oil.
Low standard
material and energy
Degree of resource
recycling
Safety Elements that does
not inflict harm to
physical bodies
directly or indirectly.
Minimal exceptional
work for taking actions in
failure minor stoppages
and quality defects
Minimal in exposure of
rotating and drive parts.
Few protrusions
and hooks
Good shelter
Low frequency in
flow of dangerous
articles and toxic
substances and in
splashing.
Flexibility Elements to express
ease in equipment
change when product
changes by
forecasting future
product changes.
Largeness in
tolerances of presently
processed products and
change products
Low cost in equipment
improvement cost to
change tolerance.
Short equipment
improvement period to
change tolerance.
Concept
Planning
Product
Planning
Prototype
Design
Mass
Production
Design
Pre-
Production
Manufacturing
Mass
Production
Number
of
“Fuguai”
Actual
Could have
been prevented
0 cases
0 cases
0 cases
0 cases
12 cases
14 cases
3cases
2cases
4cases
21 cases
No. Problem
(Fuguai) Description
Stage
Occurred
How was it
dealed with?
Why
Processed?
Preventive
Measure (will not
let it happen
again)
Prevention
Stage
“Fuguai” in Initial Control and Preventive Measures
The two greatest challenges for future product and equipment
development will be
1. Shortening lead time from development to
production and
2. Building higher quality in both products and
production equipment.
Consequently, all technical fields related to equipment design
and development will become increasingly important in
coming years.
Management activities that can be improved to reduce lead-
time include:
 The approach to product development and design
 Setting of design goals
 Preliminary evaluation
 Cost effective automation design, and
 Safety assurance design
[CONCEPT OF QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT]
TECHNICAL ISSUES:
In view of these factors, what technical issues must companies must address
to keep pace with the changing environment?
Product Development:: Also easier to produce : cost effective
manufacturability design, shortening development and production
lead times, stabilizing quality etc.
Production Engineering: Production engineering for the future
should generate new methods for building equipment that are
flexible enough to produce diverse product models economically, It
should also result in low-cost automation, optimal life cycle costs,
greater equipment precision, and more innovative detailed
equipment design
Manufacturing Technology:: Companies need the technological
base to develop more automated, sophisticated and advanced
manufacturing processes, and they must ensure a steady flow of
feedback on current problems relating to design and technology.
EQUIPMENT PLANNING FOR TPM
Upto 75% of life cycle costs are attributable to
operations and maintenance, but most of these are
result of decisions made at the design stage.
Excellent preventive maintenance combined with
judicious modifications for reliability and
maintainability can reduce running cost somewhat.
But today's shop floor improvement must be carried
out with one eye focussed on the opportunity for
further cost reduction through better equipment
designs.
EQUIPMENT PLANNING FOR TPM
Many companies are developing team approaches:
 To improve preventive maintenance
 Raise performance of the equipment
 Lengthen mean time between failure, and
 Breakdown long- standing barriers between
production and maintenance personnel
[ Increasing use of CBM for more precise and cost effective
prediction of the periods between failures]
MAINTENANCE PREVENTION
What Is Maintenance Prevention?
Equipment management can be roughly
divided into project engineering and maintenance
engineering.
Maintenance Prevention (MP) is significant
aspect of project engineering that serves as the
interface between project and maintenance
engineering
MAINTENANCE PREVENTION [M.P]
Early management: Product mgt. &
Equipment mgt.
Equipment management: Project engg. +
Maint. Engg.
Maintenance prevention is the part of project
engineering interfacing with maintenance
engineering
Scope: initial design to full scale
production
The goal of maintenance prevention
activities is to reduce maintenance costs
and deterioration losses in new equipment
by considering past maintenance data and
latest technology while designing for
higher reliability, maintainability,
operability, safety, and other requirements
Study on the manner of using equipment
STUDY ON THE MANNER OF USING EQUIPMENT
Technology for optimal
use of equipment
Desirable basic state
of equipment
Technology for skillful
use of equipment
Role of persons
handling equipment
Equipment reliability;
Equipment safety (for stable quality)
Equipment operability
Equipment maintainability’
Compatibility of equipment and parts
Maintenance method
Operators skillful in equipment operation & Maint.
Capable of conducting proper operation & adjusmt.
Capable of identifying equipment abnormalities;
Capable of preventing equipment deterioration
Study of dynamic and static accuracy
Study of utilization conditions
Study of equipt. Weakness and remodeling
Extension of parts life
Study of environmental conditions
Failure analysis
Study of skills required
Study of methods to upgrade skills
Checking skills of individual persons
Study of written operating procedures
At setup time
When abnormalities occur
Maintenance
Note-1: Study on expertise = Display of maximum status
Note-2: Equipment conditions for obtaining maximum status
MAINTENANCE PREVENTION [M.P]
Equipment Engineering is systematized using the following
four subdivisions:
1. Equipment Investment Planning (techniques for evaluating
the economics of equipment investment)
2. Early equipment management (MP design technology)
3. Operation & Maintenance (technology of maintaining and
improving existing equipment)
4. Rationalization measures (technology for equipment
development and modification)
Evaluation of
equipment
investment
Managerial Planning Equipment Investment
Planning (Cost Plang.
Equipment
investment budgets
for priority projects
Plan equipment
investment
Compile equipment
investment budgets
Set specifications,
basis design, rough
cost estimates
Evaluate investment
Cost standards
Economic evaluation
Criteria
Draft
countermeasures
and
budget
application
Important annual targets for quality, productivity, running cost reduction and safety
Early Equipment
Mgmt. (Cost control)
Design and debut
Fabricate and debug
Install, test run,
and debug
Commission and
debugging
Design standards
Feedback
to design
standards
Record of
investment
evaluation
Early equipment
management targets
(cost, capacity, applicable
technology. Etc.
Feedback
to cost
standards
and
evaluatio
n criteria
Consider outside
technical information
& feedback to equip.
dev. & modification
Maintenance
Prevention
(MP) design
Production and maintenance
(Cost reduction)
Equipment
Improvement
Equipment
Performance and
efficiency logs
Maintenance
records
Maintain and Improve
Measurement accuracy
Product quality
Energy consumption
Production output
Take measures to
Increase operability
and reliability
Reduce equipment
breakdowns
Increase maintainability
Rationalize Countermeasures
(equipment development
and modification)
Outside technical
information
Document effect on
equipment performance
and efficiency
Maintain
normal
operation
Feedback to operation
and maintenance stndrs.
Operation and
maintenance
standards
Early equipment
management
records
To normal production
based on operation and
maintenance standards
Identify current
Operating conditions
Feedback
to design
standards
Under this M.P design activities are integral to early
equipment management. Stages:
 Design
 Fabrication
 Installation
 Commissioning
M.P design activities are subjected to the following
constraints, established at equipment planning stage:
 Technology [design, production]
 Quantitative and qualitative capacity
 Basic equipment specifications
 Capital budgets
 Running cost.
The objective of the Early Management Activity of TPM
is to achieve the following goals within the above
constraints:
1. Reduce the time taken from design to stable mode of
production
2. Accomplish the transition smoothly with minimum
labour and a balanced workload.
3. Ensure that the equipment is designed to be highly
reliable, maintainable, economical, operable and safe.
Why Is MP Important
Without maintenance prevention activities, problems emerge
when equipment is installed during test-run and
commissioning, even if design, fabrication, ad installation
appear to have gone smoothly.
Normal operation is difficult to establish, and production and
maintenance engineers may have to make changes before
achieving full-scale operation
BRIDGING THE INFORMATION GAP
The quality of company’s M.P program depends
on the following three factors:
1. Technical skills and design sense of
engineering and design engineers.
2. Quality and quantity of technical data available
3. Ease with which technical data can be used.
This further depends upon
BRIDGING THE INFORMATION GAP
3. Ease with which technical data can be used. This further
depends upon
A). Increasing technical skill
B) increasing availability of technical data
C) Collecting and using M.P data
D) Classifying maintenance data
E) Various types of maintenance records
F) Feedback record during equipment fabrication
START WITH SETTING UP DESIGN
MISSION
EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION
The design must provide answers to several key
questions. What kind of equipment is needed? What
target values must be met, and what measures must be
taken to meet them?
Equipment design is a problem solving process. Once
design targets are clarified, there is a gap between the
initial design plan and the target values. The next step is
to devise several specific measures to close that gap.
The equipment design must therefore include several
important functions that support such measures.
WHAT IS EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION?
In general, the equipment designer must accomplish the
following three main tasks:
1. Establish process quality and sort out technical issues to
provide the quality characteristics needed in the final
product.
2. Establish an equipment investment estimate and
manufacturing cost margin and sort out cost-related
technical issues to meet the planned cost of the final
product.
3. Establish equipment capacity and sort out technical issues
to provide the planned production output.
EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION
If equipment designers perform these three key tasks with
only vague ideas about target values and technical
issues, they may be able to come up with some kind of
final product. This lackadaisical approach will result in
higher costs and additional problems along the way,
however. Moreover, this swill not give designers the
challenge they need to improve their engineering skills.
APPROACH TO ESTABLISHING AN EQUIPMENT DESIGN
MISSION
The 3 main tasks in the equipment designers' mission concern
 Process quality
 Costs, and
 Production capacity
Processes: Process planning ( the sequence of processes) must be set up
to establish production that supports the product design
Process Quality: Equipment is designed for each of the planned processes,
and the quality that is built in at each process must culminate in the desired
quality characteristics for the final product. Accordingly one absolute
requirement is that the equipment be designed to provide the required
process quality reliably. Specific means for establishing process quality in the
equipment design generally include quality deployment, setting process
quality standards, setting tolerances, and so on.
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION [DESIGN REVIEW]
Once the mission and measures for fulfilling it are established, the next steps
are drawing up the equipment deign and finalizing the specifications. Quality
and cost factors often conflict directly, but equipment designers must design
equipment that solves the problems created by conflicting factors.
The preliminary evaluation is not a matter of judging whether the design is
good or bad, Instead, the results of the evaluation guide the development of
the design mission by giving a clearer picture of its direction and measures.
TWO STEPS IN THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION:
This should include the following two steps, each oriented toward a particular
goal:
1. Determining fabrication methods, and
2. Determining equipment specifications
COMMON APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT
1. The first step is to establish precise design goals for both quality and cost
2. A second approach is to consider equipment development and design at
the product development and design stage. Once a product has been
designed, the range of possible equipment design elements is limited and
major improvements in equipment design are much more difficult to achieve.
3. A third approach is to address equipment problems that have been
identified in the factory. We must acquire a clear understanding of the
problems and other conditions on the shop floor and incorporate the solutions
into new equipment development and design.
4. The fourth approach is to conduct thorough preliminary evaluation and
debugging of the equipment during the development, design, and post
installation stages. The goal is to anticipate problems and prevent their
occurrence at the earliest step in the development and design ladder.
EARLY EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT ISSUES:
 Design for quality assurance
 Design for life cycle cost
 Design for flexibility
 Low cost automation design
 Intrinsic safety design
EARLY EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT ISSUES:
 Basic approaches to intrinsic safety design are as
follows;
 Mistake proof design (poka yoke design to catch or
prevent operator errors and other abnormalities)
 Failsafe design (designs to return to safe position)
 Non mechanical design (designed for fewer moving
parts)
 Derating design (designs for higher maximum rated
load)
 Independent overlapping systems design (several
independently operating devices)
 Redundant design (several similar devices, effectively
spaced)
CHECK POINTS:
 Equipment FMEA
 Capacity
 Reliability
 Flexibility
 Operability
 Maintainability
 Safety
 Economical efficiency
THE ENGINEER'S TWO PITFALLS:
Equipment Ergonomics & Cost Efficiency
Equipment Design and System Orientation
(ergonomics)
Designing the visible equipment (the hardware) is
not the chief concern of equipment design during
early equipment management. Launching
prematurely into equipment design only produces
equipment with built-in-high cost and low
reliability.
What is system orientation?
The process includes a function that converts the input (I)
into output (O). This function consists of operators (Mn),
machines (Mc), and measurement (Mt) that link the input
and output.
It is best to start with a clearly defined function since the
entire design is conceived as building a system that fulfills
the function.
Next make sure that the various elements (I, O, Mt, Mn,
and Mc) do not conflict with each other, and they are
designed to interact harmoniously within the overall
system.
APPROACH TO LIFE CYCLE COST
LIFE CYCLE COST [LCC]
What? :
LCC is the cost incurred during the whole life of a product
or system (equipment). The U.S Federal Budget Bureau
defines LCC as follows:
“LCC is direct, indirect, recurring, non-recurring and other
related costs during the scheduled effective period of a
system. LCC is the total of cost generated in the process
of design, development, production, operation,
maintenance and support including cost forecasted to
generate.”
APPROACH TO LIFE CYCLE COST
What is Life Cycle Costing (LCCing)
The LCC committee of JIPM defined it as follows:
“Life cycle costing is a systematic decision making
method to thoroughly conduct various trade-offs in the
system development stage using the life cycle cost as a
design parameter to economize the life cycle costs of
systems (designs) used by the user”
APPROACH TO LIFE CYCLE COST
The following is the general procedures for life cycle costing:
Step.1: Define the mission of the system to be analyzed
Step.2: List alternative plans that can accomplish the mission
Step.3: Define system evaluation factors and their quantification method
Step.4: Evaluate alternate plans
Step.5: Put the analytical results and process in documents
Professor Branchard has stated as follows regarding the life cycle costing
“Life cycle cost analysis is a systematic analytical method to evaluate
various alternative schemes to be taken to select a method of
responsibility to use poor resources
The following procedures are recommended for thorough and effective kick off of
product and equipment initial control activities.
Step-1: Survey and analysis of present status - Survey and analyze the status (initial
control status in the past 1 or 2 years) by the following procedure and identify problems:
Define present job flow of initial control
Extract problems in the present flow
Grasp incorporation of measures to prevent troubles forecasted for each stage in
initial control periods
Grasp process delay status of test manufacture, test run and initial production
periods
Grasp status of information gathering, accumulation and utilization for design of
products and equipment that are easy to use and manufacture, do not generate
defects, easy to maintain, high in reliability, safe and corporate competitive.
Steps - 2: Establish initial control system - Build a new system pursuing what
the initial control must based on the problems identified in 1st step.
Study and establish a basic system for initial control and set system application
scope
Study and establish a system to gather, accumulate and utilize information
needed for initial control
Establish and revise standards and documents needed for operation of the
system mentioned in (1) and (2).
Steps - 3: Debugging and training of new system - Set models (number of themes
enough for all designers to experience and themes suiting designer levels are set) for
level up of all and for system enhancement and implement the activities.
Kick-off activities for each theme and for each stage of initial control
Provide training of various standards techniques needed for implementation in
parallel
Evaluate understanding of new system, techniques and processes through the
various steps. (By using deburgging as diagnosis)
Supplementing and revision of the system, standards and documents based on
implementation results
Summarize system utilization effects
Steps - 4: Full utilization and fixation of the new system
Full utilization of the new system.(Expansion of application scope to all themes)
Further enhance LCC optimization and utilization of information in MP design as
initial control
Extract problems for each initial control stage for each theme, grasp numbers of
units built and troubles occurred, as well as evaluation and numbers of months
delayed, summarize every 6 months or one year and compile results. Analyze
troubles after initial flow control, study methods to rectify in the initial stage, and
carry out standardization to accomplish minimizing of run-up time as scheduled.
Prepare block diagram for initial flow control
Establish initial flow control criteria
Building Initial Flow Control System
Problem Extraction, Study Improvement Program
Business flow analysis
Work fault-finding
Clarification of design functions
Survey, Comprehending and
Analysis of Current Status
System Debut Training
Root Initial Flow Control
July 1985 1986 1987 1988 Sept. 1989
Year &
Month
Step
Initial
Flow
Control
Activities
Steps -1 and 2 Steps -3 Steps -4
Design know-how collection
Review and prepare technical standards
“Fuguai” extraction information in
debugging
Routine corrective maintenance information
Maintainability and reliability of “Fuguai”
information on delivered products and
machines
“Kaizen” information in “Jishu-Hozen” and
“Kobetsu-Kaizen
Establish trouble management criteria
and carry out activities
Prepare trouble management system
diagrams
Issue trouble sheets (1), (2) and (3)
Open TM markets (morning, noon and
special markets)
Standardization by measures to prevent
recurrence
Enhanced Analysis Technology
Establish MP Design
FMEA
Check lists
PM analysis Improvement design technology
Design high in reliability and maintainability
Cost reduction design, VA and VE design
Build Trouble Management System
Gathering and utilization of MP information
Number
of
problems
extracted
Development
Design
Example of Results in Utilizing Product Initial Control System
0
10
20
50
~
~ Test
Manufacture
Evaluation
Pre-production
Test
Manufacture
Full
Production
~
~ ~
~
Development
Design
Test
Manufacture
Evaluation
Pre-production
Test Manufacture
Full
Production
Results
Usage
Procedure
Usage by
User User Re-
quirements
Our
Approach
User
Characteristics
Requirements
Status of
Competitor
Products
Our
Approach
Characteristic Value of
Developed Product and
Competitor Product
Characteristics Chart of Developed Product
EXAMPLE OF CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPED PRODUCT
Sticking 1) Bonding
workability Disassembl
y of user
product
Must stick
well on PP
1)
lackiness,
low
temperature
adhesivene
ss
Confirmatio
n of parts
and
members
used
2) Olefine
adhesivene
ss
Punching
Degassing
(2)
Processing
Fitness
(3) Excels
in
degassing
property
PET Increase in
lateral
strength of
unwoven
fabric
Strong in
lateral
direction
Non-
directional
based
material
Plastic
Fitness
Glue not
left during
punching
Non-
migrating
property
Sticks well
on PP
Deve
lopm
ent
Prod
uct
Com
petit
or
Prod
uct
1500
1300
1300
1300
1100
800
X X X
During
Machining
Steps - 2: Plan execution stage
Equipment design and manufacturing specifications are decided based on
individual plans prepared in the preceding step, after the equipment investment
plan is approved. Check omissions in equipment design and manufacturing
specifications at a second Dr. Reflect omissions in the equipment concept
specifications to improve the plan accuracy.
Process Chart
QA matrix
4M analysis
Process FMEA
Equipment
specification
concept
Equipment
specification
concept evalu.
Individual
Plan
2nd DR
a
b
c
d
Reflection on equipment design and processing records
The various analysis methods are described below:-
Manufacturing process chart
Define process sequences and boundaries
Process QA matrix
Define relationship between product quality and process
4M analysis
The relationship between the process, strongly related to defects found in
the process QA matrix and 4M, is defined and equipment requirements that
prevent defects from occurring are made clear.
Process FMEA
The danger level of the problems found in 4M analysis is decided by the
FMEA of this process. The danger level will become powerful information for
equipment concept evaluation. Countermeasures must be taken with the
problems that have surpassed the evaluation criteria and must be reevaluated
Reflection on equipment design and processing records
The problems found in the equipment specification concept evaluation and
second DR must be reflected on equipment design specification for thorough
reflection.
Steps - 3: Design Stage
This design step spans budget approval and preparations before manufacture
Conduct basic design based on equipment specifications and obtain an
execution budget
If a failure occurs with the equipment, system, subsystem or part during this
Step, execute equipment FMEA to determine impacts on system operation, safety
and product quality. Problems found are reflected in design. Problems on
equipment installation must be studied in detail such as shipping style of
materials, storage yard, transport routes, product movement paths, crates,
storage and motive power supply.
Equipment reliability, maintainability, operability, safety, economical efficiency,
flexibility and omissions in conceptual design requirements are checked in DR
after “basic design” to enhance “basic design.”
Make detailed design based on “basic design”
Conduct FMEA of equipment composite parts at this time to enhance
reliability of the parts and study how to easily manufacture. Reflect the study
results on the detailed design. Use design standards, know-how books and
common specifications to enhance the design accuracy to prevent omission
of MP information and to eliminate individual differences.
Suppliers and contractors are used in this stage, including design in the
scope of work. Thorough DR under a mutual-trust relationship to provide the
knowledge and experience of both parties are important.
After completing detailed design, persons directly involved are gathered
from maintenance, production, safety and environment and engineering
departments to check omissions in basic design requirements regarding
reliability, maintainability, operability and safety in the 4th DR to enhance
design.
Outline of MP design in Steps 2nd and 3rd Steps
What is MP? - MP (Maintenance Prevention) design is activities to design
equipment, which is highly functional, easy to use, easy to maintain and that does not
fail to achieve maximum life cycle profit (LCP) in the introduction stage of new
equipment.
They are the activities to study weaknesses of present equipment and to feed
the information back to design to enhance equipment reliability and
maintainability. They aim at no maintenance as an ultimate goal. Forecasting
product future, equipment is designed to obtain maximum life cycle profit (LCP)
by high functions and ease of use (operability and flexibility).
Design Checklist (Preconditions)
Tackle the task positively. Use sound technical knowledge and a scientific
approach to achieve the best results
Work in active collaboration and cooperation with other departments concerned
TPM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Design standard: Y-0302
Planning and design:
Do you know the object of the design? (reason, conditions set by originator of
design request relevant conditions)
Are the design procedures appropriate? (method of execution, completion date,
priority schedule planning)
Is there satisfactory contact with the originator of the design request?
Check Details
Has the site been thoroughly investigated?
Are reference materials adequate? (technical data, introduction of new technology
use of existing technology)
Are the most suitable and optimal methods and systems being applied? Has
complacency been avoided?
Are design calculations error-free? (strength, functions, capacity) Have all
problems been fully considered?
Check Details
Are maintenance prevention considerations adequate? (Was the maintenance
department consulted and did they confirm in advance; will they check the design
afterward?)
Will the design be cost-efficient? (within budget, operating costs) is operability
good; has safety been considered?
Has the optical sensitivity of materials been checked? (Has a request for the
photographic characteristics test been issued?)
Have related departments been contacted? (maintenance engineering, electrical
and instrumental, packing engineering, fabrication departments, safety department)
Check Details
Drawings
Have the drawings been reviewed? Are they error-free? (dimensions, number of
parts, accuracy, materials, procurement of spare parts, use of checklists to prevent
design errors)
Has microfilming been considered?
Have the drawings been checked and approved?
Check Details
Purchasing
Are specifications of equipment to be purchased satisfactory? (use of standard
documents, selection of equipment)
Are purchasing arrangements satisfactory? (No mistakes in the arrangements,
delivery times, prices, selection of manufacturers)
Have vendor’s estimates been thoroughly reviewed? (prices, delivery times,
details)
Check Details
Items to be performed by manufacturer
In principle, the parts used in lubricating devices must be those specified in
DMS standards
Installation
(1) (a) Lubricating devices must be installed or protected so that they
cannot be damaged by falling objects, careless material handling, or
careless actions of workers.
Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B
4.1
(3)
4.2
Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969
4th revision: March 19, 1977
__th confirmation: ___________
Lubricating devices must not be installed where they may overheat
Lubricating devices must be installed where they can be easily
adjusted, repaired or replaced.
All lubricating devices must be installed so that they do not interfere
with the adjustment or maintenance of plant equipment. They must also
not be installed were they may hinder normal work
Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B
Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969
4th revision: March 19, 1977
__th confirmation: ___________
(2) Lubricating devices must not be installed in locations where operators
will have to reach over rotating main shafts or tools in operation to supply oil
or otherwise
Unless specifically required by their dimensions or function, control devices
must be installed between 30 cm and 180 cm from the work floor
Installation of pumps
Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B
Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969
4th revision: March 19, 1977
__th confirmation: ___________
4.2.2
5.1
Pumps and associated equipment must be installed in easily-accessible
positions for maintenance
Pumps should be installed on the outside of lubricating reservoirs
Piping
Piping joints must be designed and installed for rapid assembly and
disassembly using hand tools
Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B
Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969
4th revision: March 19, 1977
__th confirmation: ___________
6.3
6.3.1
Piping from the end of one lubrication part to the next must not be jointed on the
way by welding or any other method. Joints must not be used except when
required for length adjustment or assembly. Piping must also be removable without
removing any plant equipment parts
Piping must not be installed where it will interfere with normal operation,
adjustment and repair of equipment or with replacement of lubricating devices and
cleaning of oil reservoirs.
Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B
Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969
4th revision: March 19, 1977
__th confirmation: ___________
6.3.2
6.3.3
Construction of oil reservoirs
Oil reservoirs must be constructed so as to prevent the ingress of water or other
foreign particles and to prevent oil leaks and bleeding
Oil reservoirs must be constructed for easy cleaning and draining
Oil reservoirs must have an oil supply port. Oil supply ports must be fitted with a
strainer and have a suitable cap or cover. Methods must be devised to prevent the
cap or cover from being lost.
Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B
Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969
4th revision: March 19, 1977
__th confirmation: ___________
7.1
7.1.3
7.1.1
7.1.2
Measuring
instrument
A(m/min.)
Measuring
instrument
B(rpm)
Measuring
instrument
A(m/min.)
Measuring
instrument
B(rpm)
Measuring
instrument
A(m/min.)
Measuring
instrument
B(rpm)
1 120 (38.6-38.7) 105-106 -67.5 185-186
2 318 39.3 39-40 69.2 69-70
3 120 - 105-106 - 185-186
4 120 39.3-39.4 105-106 68.7-68.8 185-186
5 - - - - -
6 80 39.3-39.4 158-159 69.1-69.2 278-279
7 120 38.9-39.0 105-106 68.5-68.6 185-186
8 120 38.8-38.9 105-106 69.0-69.1 185-186
9 120 39.3-39.4 105-106 68.5-68.6 185-186
10 100 (39.5-39.6) 126-127 69.0-69.1 222-223
11 120 39.3-39.6 105-106 (69.3-69.4) 185-186
12 120 (38.6-38.7) 105-106 68.5-68.6 185-186
13 120 39.0-39.1 105-106 68.7-68.9 185-186
14 100 39.3-39.4 126-127 69.2-69.3 222-223
15 120 39.2-39.3 105-106 69.2-69.3 185-186
16
17
( ): Minimum Value
[ ]: Maximum Value
39.6-40.1m/min 70.0-70.1m/min. (m/min)
Counter
Speed
Roller
Dia.
Roller Speed Check Sheet Date of measurement: November 20, 1975
Are screws fitted with locking
aid?
Are welds of satisfactory
strength?
Are shock-absorbing devices
effective?
Are parts adequately finished?
Can parts be replaced?
Are there any easily-fatigued or
damaged parts?
Item Points of interest and method of checking
MAINTENANCE PREVENTION
Are lockouts, spring lock washers, and locking
compounds in use?
Is weld overlay adequate? Examine cut welded
portion with special care
Is there any shock that will affect parts lifetimes?
Do shock absorbers work, and are they controlled?
Is there any chance of scuffing or defective
movement through inadequate finishing? Compare
with drawings and modify if necessary
Give priority to examining areas where deteriorated
parts or consumable items must be replaced
Have any such parts or dangerous parts become
obvious during test run?
Are any geared belts subject to
pitching?
Are positioning methods
adequate?
Are any parts rusting?
Are springs properly
assembled?
Are arms, brackets, and studs
properly attached?
Hydraulic cylinder assembly, oil
leaks
Installation and locking of speed
controllers
Item Points of interest and method of checking
Check during test running
Can positioning be secured accurately through the
use of positioning notches, guides; and so on?
Check rusted parts or parts that seem likely to rust.
Is surface treatment adequate?
Are any springs subject to unreasonable strain due
to assembly method, compression, or tension?
Is any bending or twisting observed during test
run? Are these parts securely assembled?
Is there any oil leakage from hydraulic cylinder? Is
assembly method as designated and of adequate
strength?
Are speed controllers installed properly? Are speed
gauges and locks attached?
Roller and bearing replacement
Are there any places where tools
cannot be used?
Are covers easy to handle?
Is wiring securely fixed?
Are all cable connectors properly
prevented from loosening?
Are brush and commutator
properly contacted?
Item Points of interest and method of checking
Can rollers and bearings be replaced?
Can tools be used in places where adjustments are
required? (guides, arm positions, shearing machines,
packing machines, etc.) Or are special tools needed?
Are the safety covers of drive mechanisms and
edged parts securely fixed, safe, and easily handled?
Is all wiring inside machinery securely, out of
contact with moving parts, and properly sheathed?
Are all cable connectors firmly inserted and not
loose?
Are commutator surfaces, brush contacts and
attachment methods satisfactory? Is there any
slackness?
Are foreign particles being thrown
up by gears and belts?
Limit switches
Are shafts and couplings easily
replaced?
Replacement of clutches and
brakes
Item Points of interest and method of checking
Is any powder or other foreign matter being thrown
onto the workpiece from plastic gears, synchronous
belts, etc.?
Are limit switches installed in easily visible
positions? Is there proper contact with the toggles?
Can these be dismantled and assembled without
affecting other parts or their accuracy?
As above. Is the wiring securely fixed?

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DM Pillar Training Manual.ppt will be useful in deploying TPM in project

  • 1. TPM activities at the shop floor are dedicated to the elimination of equipment related waste, The activities described in this module are dedicated to waste prevention. [ Concept of COPQ] Today, companies must continue to grow in an environment where competition and consumer needs change at an accelerating pace. To develop and maintain the organizational and technological strength to keep pace with changes required for advanced product and equipment development programs. INTRODUCTION
  • 2. Product can be sold Product is easy to manufacture Product is easy to use Product does not cause defects QA+4M Market survey Product development Test manufacture Equipment planning Initial production control Start of production Product Equipment INITIAL CONTROL OF PRODUCT AND EQUIPMENT
  • 3. Pursuit for ultimate man-machine system “Hinshitsu - Hozen” Planned Maintenance “Jishu - Hozen” Education & Training “Kobetsu - Kaizen” Initial control Equipment Product INITIAL PRODUCTION CONTROL IN TPM DEVELOPMENT
  • 4. Product planning and concept design Initial system design Detailed design and development Production, construction and evaluation System / product usage and logistical support Market analysis, feasibility study, operational requirements, concept of maintenance, and others System analysis, evaluation of substitute plan (trade off), system decision, and other 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 75% Composition of life cycle cost Detailed design and development 66% 85% 95% JOBS AFFECTING LIFE CYCLE COST
  • 5. Cost of Purchases (R&D, Production) Test, Support and Equipment Costs Training Cost Service (Personnel) Cost Facility and Equipment Cost Transport and Handling Cost Technical Information Cost Replacement and Scrap Cost Logistical Support Cost (Supplies, Transport) CONCEPT OF LIFE CYCLE COST
  • 6. The economical efficiency can be decided and evaluation can be made by determining what reductions could be obtained or are going to be obtained in the total cost (temporary aspect at present of life cycle cost) paid equipment at present by investing a certain additional amount. True maintenance activities are activities to reduce the processing cost and defects without confining them to failure or maintenance cost. Activities to smooth equipment flow and initial control are the most important to minimize LCC (Life Cycle Cost). The results are affected by concentration and demonstration of equipment planning and plan, production engineering, production, maintenance, sales and marketing and vendor technologies. Planning Stage Design Stage Installation Stage Test Run and Debugging State Depreciation Personnel Cost Operation (Maint.) Stage A Replacement Defective Material Cost Miscellaneous Cost Auxiliary Material Cost Motive Power Cost Maintenance Cost Fabrication and Purchasing Stage
  • 7. Basic Elements Definition Description Reliability Elements that does not cause function deterioration and stoppage Low frequency of equipment failures Low frequency of minor stoppages Low frequency of defects Infrequent and small adjustments Stable machine cycle time Ease in static and dynamic accuracy measurement Maintainability Elements that expresses ease of deterioration measurement and restoration. Quickness in finding failed parts Ease of replacing parts and quick function resetting check time Quickness in finding deteriorated parts Easy oiling and oil change Easy overhaul Table VII-6
  • 8. “Jishu-Hozen” ability Elements allowing operating department to quickly and easily accomplish maintenance activities such as cleaning, oiling and inspection. Easy cleaning, oiling and inspection Easy chip recovering Degree of localization of generating sources and splashing Ease of checking lube oil terminal Ease of performing “Hinshitsu-Hozen” work (ease of measuring accuracy, etc.) Operability Elements allowing right operation, quickly and accurately, during equipment operation and set-up change. Ease of set-up and adjustment Ease of changing cutting blades, jigs and grinding wheels and of adjustments of them. Ease of operating buttons (height, layout, number, shape, color, etc.) Ease to carry and install.
  • 9. Material and energy saving Elements to express high efficiency of resources needed for equipment operation such as energy, cutting blades and jigs, grinding wheels and oil. Low standard material and energy Degree of resource recycling Safety Elements that does not inflict harm to physical bodies directly or indirectly. Minimal exceptional work for taking actions in failure minor stoppages and quality defects Minimal in exposure of rotating and drive parts. Few protrusions and hooks Good shelter Low frequency in flow of dangerous articles and toxic substances and in splashing.
  • 10. Flexibility Elements to express ease in equipment change when product changes by forecasting future product changes. Largeness in tolerances of presently processed products and change products Low cost in equipment improvement cost to change tolerance. Short equipment improvement period to change tolerance.
  • 12. No. Problem (Fuguai) Description Stage Occurred How was it dealed with? Why Processed? Preventive Measure (will not let it happen again) Prevention Stage “Fuguai” in Initial Control and Preventive Measures
  • 13. The two greatest challenges for future product and equipment development will be 1. Shortening lead time from development to production and 2. Building higher quality in both products and production equipment. Consequently, all technical fields related to equipment design and development will become increasingly important in coming years.
  • 14. Management activities that can be improved to reduce lead- time include:  The approach to product development and design  Setting of design goals  Preliminary evaluation  Cost effective automation design, and  Safety assurance design [CONCEPT OF QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT]
  • 15. TECHNICAL ISSUES: In view of these factors, what technical issues must companies must address to keep pace with the changing environment? Product Development:: Also easier to produce : cost effective manufacturability design, shortening development and production lead times, stabilizing quality etc. Production Engineering: Production engineering for the future should generate new methods for building equipment that are flexible enough to produce diverse product models economically, It should also result in low-cost automation, optimal life cycle costs, greater equipment precision, and more innovative detailed equipment design Manufacturing Technology:: Companies need the technological base to develop more automated, sophisticated and advanced manufacturing processes, and they must ensure a steady flow of feedback on current problems relating to design and technology.
  • 16. EQUIPMENT PLANNING FOR TPM Upto 75% of life cycle costs are attributable to operations and maintenance, but most of these are result of decisions made at the design stage. Excellent preventive maintenance combined with judicious modifications for reliability and maintainability can reduce running cost somewhat. But today's shop floor improvement must be carried out with one eye focussed on the opportunity for further cost reduction through better equipment designs.
  • 17. EQUIPMENT PLANNING FOR TPM Many companies are developing team approaches:  To improve preventive maintenance  Raise performance of the equipment  Lengthen mean time between failure, and  Breakdown long- standing barriers between production and maintenance personnel [ Increasing use of CBM for more precise and cost effective prediction of the periods between failures]
  • 18. MAINTENANCE PREVENTION What Is Maintenance Prevention? Equipment management can be roughly divided into project engineering and maintenance engineering. Maintenance Prevention (MP) is significant aspect of project engineering that serves as the interface between project and maintenance engineering
  • 19. MAINTENANCE PREVENTION [M.P] Early management: Product mgt. & Equipment mgt. Equipment management: Project engg. + Maint. Engg. Maintenance prevention is the part of project engineering interfacing with maintenance engineering Scope: initial design to full scale production
  • 20. The goal of maintenance prevention activities is to reduce maintenance costs and deterioration losses in new equipment by considering past maintenance data and latest technology while designing for higher reliability, maintainability, operability, safety, and other requirements
  • 21. Study on the manner of using equipment STUDY ON THE MANNER OF USING EQUIPMENT Technology for optimal use of equipment Desirable basic state of equipment Technology for skillful use of equipment Role of persons handling equipment Equipment reliability; Equipment safety (for stable quality) Equipment operability Equipment maintainability’ Compatibility of equipment and parts Maintenance method Operators skillful in equipment operation & Maint. Capable of conducting proper operation & adjusmt. Capable of identifying equipment abnormalities; Capable of preventing equipment deterioration Study of dynamic and static accuracy Study of utilization conditions Study of equipt. Weakness and remodeling Extension of parts life Study of environmental conditions Failure analysis Study of skills required Study of methods to upgrade skills Checking skills of individual persons Study of written operating procedures At setup time When abnormalities occur Maintenance Note-1: Study on expertise = Display of maximum status Note-2: Equipment conditions for obtaining maximum status
  • 22. MAINTENANCE PREVENTION [M.P] Equipment Engineering is systematized using the following four subdivisions: 1. Equipment Investment Planning (techniques for evaluating the economics of equipment investment) 2. Early equipment management (MP design technology) 3. Operation & Maintenance (technology of maintaining and improving existing equipment) 4. Rationalization measures (technology for equipment development and modification)
  • 23. Evaluation of equipment investment Managerial Planning Equipment Investment Planning (Cost Plang. Equipment investment budgets for priority projects Plan equipment investment Compile equipment investment budgets Set specifications, basis design, rough cost estimates Evaluate investment Cost standards Economic evaluation Criteria Draft countermeasures and budget application Important annual targets for quality, productivity, running cost reduction and safety Early Equipment Mgmt. (Cost control) Design and debut Fabricate and debug Install, test run, and debug Commission and debugging Design standards Feedback to design standards Record of investment evaluation Early equipment management targets (cost, capacity, applicable technology. Etc. Feedback to cost standards and evaluatio n criteria Consider outside technical information & feedback to equip. dev. & modification
  • 24. Maintenance Prevention (MP) design Production and maintenance (Cost reduction) Equipment Improvement Equipment Performance and efficiency logs Maintenance records Maintain and Improve Measurement accuracy Product quality Energy consumption Production output Take measures to Increase operability and reliability Reduce equipment breakdowns Increase maintainability Rationalize Countermeasures (equipment development and modification) Outside technical information Document effect on equipment performance and efficiency Maintain normal operation Feedback to operation and maintenance stndrs. Operation and maintenance standards Early equipment management records To normal production based on operation and maintenance standards Identify current Operating conditions Feedback to design standards
  • 25. Under this M.P design activities are integral to early equipment management. Stages:  Design  Fabrication  Installation  Commissioning M.P design activities are subjected to the following constraints, established at equipment planning stage:  Technology [design, production]  Quantitative and qualitative capacity  Basic equipment specifications  Capital budgets  Running cost.
  • 26. The objective of the Early Management Activity of TPM is to achieve the following goals within the above constraints: 1. Reduce the time taken from design to stable mode of production 2. Accomplish the transition smoothly with minimum labour and a balanced workload. 3. Ensure that the equipment is designed to be highly reliable, maintainable, economical, operable and safe.
  • 27. Why Is MP Important Without maintenance prevention activities, problems emerge when equipment is installed during test-run and commissioning, even if design, fabrication, ad installation appear to have gone smoothly. Normal operation is difficult to establish, and production and maintenance engineers may have to make changes before achieving full-scale operation
  • 28. BRIDGING THE INFORMATION GAP The quality of company’s M.P program depends on the following three factors: 1. Technical skills and design sense of engineering and design engineers. 2. Quality and quantity of technical data available 3. Ease with which technical data can be used. This further depends upon
  • 29. BRIDGING THE INFORMATION GAP 3. Ease with which technical data can be used. This further depends upon A). Increasing technical skill B) increasing availability of technical data C) Collecting and using M.P data D) Classifying maintenance data E) Various types of maintenance records F) Feedback record during equipment fabrication
  • 30. START WITH SETTING UP DESIGN MISSION
  • 31. EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION The design must provide answers to several key questions. What kind of equipment is needed? What target values must be met, and what measures must be taken to meet them? Equipment design is a problem solving process. Once design targets are clarified, there is a gap between the initial design plan and the target values. The next step is to devise several specific measures to close that gap. The equipment design must therefore include several important functions that support such measures.
  • 32. WHAT IS EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION? In general, the equipment designer must accomplish the following three main tasks: 1. Establish process quality and sort out technical issues to provide the quality characteristics needed in the final product. 2. Establish an equipment investment estimate and manufacturing cost margin and sort out cost-related technical issues to meet the planned cost of the final product. 3. Establish equipment capacity and sort out technical issues to provide the planned production output.
  • 33. EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION If equipment designers perform these three key tasks with only vague ideas about target values and technical issues, they may be able to come up with some kind of final product. This lackadaisical approach will result in higher costs and additional problems along the way, however. Moreover, this swill not give designers the challenge they need to improve their engineering skills.
  • 34. APPROACH TO ESTABLISHING AN EQUIPMENT DESIGN MISSION The 3 main tasks in the equipment designers' mission concern  Process quality  Costs, and  Production capacity Processes: Process planning ( the sequence of processes) must be set up to establish production that supports the product design Process Quality: Equipment is designed for each of the planned processes, and the quality that is built in at each process must culminate in the desired quality characteristics for the final product. Accordingly one absolute requirement is that the equipment be designed to provide the required process quality reliably. Specific means for establishing process quality in the equipment design generally include quality deployment, setting process quality standards, setting tolerances, and so on.
  • 35. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION [DESIGN REVIEW] Once the mission and measures for fulfilling it are established, the next steps are drawing up the equipment deign and finalizing the specifications. Quality and cost factors often conflict directly, but equipment designers must design equipment that solves the problems created by conflicting factors. The preliminary evaluation is not a matter of judging whether the design is good or bad, Instead, the results of the evaluation guide the development of the design mission by giving a clearer picture of its direction and measures. TWO STEPS IN THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION: This should include the following two steps, each oriented toward a particular goal: 1. Determining fabrication methods, and 2. Determining equipment specifications
  • 36. COMMON APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT 1. The first step is to establish precise design goals for both quality and cost 2. A second approach is to consider equipment development and design at the product development and design stage. Once a product has been designed, the range of possible equipment design elements is limited and major improvements in equipment design are much more difficult to achieve. 3. A third approach is to address equipment problems that have been identified in the factory. We must acquire a clear understanding of the problems and other conditions on the shop floor and incorporate the solutions into new equipment development and design. 4. The fourth approach is to conduct thorough preliminary evaluation and debugging of the equipment during the development, design, and post installation stages. The goal is to anticipate problems and prevent their occurrence at the earliest step in the development and design ladder.
  • 37. EARLY EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT ISSUES:  Design for quality assurance  Design for life cycle cost  Design for flexibility  Low cost automation design  Intrinsic safety design
  • 38. EARLY EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT ISSUES:  Basic approaches to intrinsic safety design are as follows;  Mistake proof design (poka yoke design to catch or prevent operator errors and other abnormalities)  Failsafe design (designs to return to safe position)  Non mechanical design (designed for fewer moving parts)  Derating design (designs for higher maximum rated load)  Independent overlapping systems design (several independently operating devices)  Redundant design (several similar devices, effectively spaced)
  • 39. CHECK POINTS:  Equipment FMEA  Capacity  Reliability  Flexibility  Operability  Maintainability  Safety  Economical efficiency
  • 40. THE ENGINEER'S TWO PITFALLS: Equipment Ergonomics & Cost Efficiency Equipment Design and System Orientation (ergonomics) Designing the visible equipment (the hardware) is not the chief concern of equipment design during early equipment management. Launching prematurely into equipment design only produces equipment with built-in-high cost and low reliability.
  • 41. What is system orientation? The process includes a function that converts the input (I) into output (O). This function consists of operators (Mn), machines (Mc), and measurement (Mt) that link the input and output. It is best to start with a clearly defined function since the entire design is conceived as building a system that fulfills the function. Next make sure that the various elements (I, O, Mt, Mn, and Mc) do not conflict with each other, and they are designed to interact harmoniously within the overall system.
  • 42. APPROACH TO LIFE CYCLE COST LIFE CYCLE COST [LCC] What? : LCC is the cost incurred during the whole life of a product or system (equipment). The U.S Federal Budget Bureau defines LCC as follows: “LCC is direct, indirect, recurring, non-recurring and other related costs during the scheduled effective period of a system. LCC is the total of cost generated in the process of design, development, production, operation, maintenance and support including cost forecasted to generate.”
  • 43. APPROACH TO LIFE CYCLE COST What is Life Cycle Costing (LCCing) The LCC committee of JIPM defined it as follows: “Life cycle costing is a systematic decision making method to thoroughly conduct various trade-offs in the system development stage using the life cycle cost as a design parameter to economize the life cycle costs of systems (designs) used by the user”
  • 44. APPROACH TO LIFE CYCLE COST The following is the general procedures for life cycle costing: Step.1: Define the mission of the system to be analyzed Step.2: List alternative plans that can accomplish the mission Step.3: Define system evaluation factors and their quantification method Step.4: Evaluate alternate plans Step.5: Put the analytical results and process in documents Professor Branchard has stated as follows regarding the life cycle costing “Life cycle cost analysis is a systematic analytical method to evaluate various alternative schemes to be taken to select a method of responsibility to use poor resources
  • 45. The following procedures are recommended for thorough and effective kick off of product and equipment initial control activities. Step-1: Survey and analysis of present status - Survey and analyze the status (initial control status in the past 1 or 2 years) by the following procedure and identify problems: Define present job flow of initial control Extract problems in the present flow Grasp incorporation of measures to prevent troubles forecasted for each stage in initial control periods Grasp process delay status of test manufacture, test run and initial production periods
  • 46. Grasp status of information gathering, accumulation and utilization for design of products and equipment that are easy to use and manufacture, do not generate defects, easy to maintain, high in reliability, safe and corporate competitive. Steps - 2: Establish initial control system - Build a new system pursuing what the initial control must based on the problems identified in 1st step. Study and establish a basic system for initial control and set system application scope Study and establish a system to gather, accumulate and utilize information needed for initial control Establish and revise standards and documents needed for operation of the system mentioned in (1) and (2).
  • 47. Steps - 3: Debugging and training of new system - Set models (number of themes enough for all designers to experience and themes suiting designer levels are set) for level up of all and for system enhancement and implement the activities. Kick-off activities for each theme and for each stage of initial control Provide training of various standards techniques needed for implementation in parallel Evaluate understanding of new system, techniques and processes through the various steps. (By using deburgging as diagnosis) Supplementing and revision of the system, standards and documents based on implementation results Summarize system utilization effects
  • 48. Steps - 4: Full utilization and fixation of the new system Full utilization of the new system.(Expansion of application scope to all themes) Further enhance LCC optimization and utilization of information in MP design as initial control Extract problems for each initial control stage for each theme, grasp numbers of units built and troubles occurred, as well as evaluation and numbers of months delayed, summarize every 6 months or one year and compile results. Analyze troubles after initial flow control, study methods to rectify in the initial stage, and carry out standardization to accomplish minimizing of run-up time as scheduled.
  • 49. Prepare block diagram for initial flow control Establish initial flow control criteria Building Initial Flow Control System Problem Extraction, Study Improvement Program Business flow analysis Work fault-finding Clarification of design functions Survey, Comprehending and Analysis of Current Status System Debut Training Root Initial Flow Control July 1985 1986 1987 1988 Sept. 1989 Year & Month Step Initial Flow Control Activities Steps -1 and 2 Steps -3 Steps -4
  • 50. Design know-how collection Review and prepare technical standards “Fuguai” extraction information in debugging Routine corrective maintenance information Maintainability and reliability of “Fuguai” information on delivered products and machines “Kaizen” information in “Jishu-Hozen” and “Kobetsu-Kaizen Establish trouble management criteria and carry out activities Prepare trouble management system diagrams Issue trouble sheets (1), (2) and (3) Open TM markets (morning, noon and special markets) Standardization by measures to prevent recurrence Enhanced Analysis Technology Establish MP Design FMEA Check lists PM analysis Improvement design technology Design high in reliability and maintainability Cost reduction design, VA and VE design Build Trouble Management System Gathering and utilization of MP information
  • 51. Number of problems extracted Development Design Example of Results in Utilizing Product Initial Control System 0 10 20 50 ~ ~ Test Manufacture Evaluation Pre-production Test Manufacture Full Production ~ ~ ~ ~ Development Design Test Manufacture Evaluation Pre-production Test Manufacture Full Production Results
  • 52. Usage Procedure Usage by User User Re- quirements Our Approach User Characteristics Requirements Status of Competitor Products Our Approach Characteristic Value of Developed Product and Competitor Product Characteristics Chart of Developed Product EXAMPLE OF CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPED PRODUCT Sticking 1) Bonding workability Disassembl y of user product Must stick well on PP 1) lackiness, low temperature adhesivene ss Confirmatio n of parts and members used 2) Olefine adhesivene ss Punching Degassing (2) Processing Fitness (3) Excels in degassing property PET Increase in lateral strength of unwoven fabric Strong in lateral direction Non- directional based material Plastic Fitness Glue not left during punching Non- migrating property Sticks well on PP Deve lopm ent Prod uct Com petit or Prod uct 1500 1300 1300 1300 1100 800 X X X During Machining
  • 53. Steps - 2: Plan execution stage Equipment design and manufacturing specifications are decided based on individual plans prepared in the preceding step, after the equipment investment plan is approved. Check omissions in equipment design and manufacturing specifications at a second Dr. Reflect omissions in the equipment concept specifications to improve the plan accuracy. Process Chart QA matrix 4M analysis Process FMEA Equipment specification concept Equipment specification concept evalu. Individual Plan 2nd DR a b c d Reflection on equipment design and processing records
  • 54. The various analysis methods are described below:- Manufacturing process chart Define process sequences and boundaries Process QA matrix Define relationship between product quality and process 4M analysis The relationship between the process, strongly related to defects found in the process QA matrix and 4M, is defined and equipment requirements that prevent defects from occurring are made clear.
  • 55. Process FMEA The danger level of the problems found in 4M analysis is decided by the FMEA of this process. The danger level will become powerful information for equipment concept evaluation. Countermeasures must be taken with the problems that have surpassed the evaluation criteria and must be reevaluated Reflection on equipment design and processing records The problems found in the equipment specification concept evaluation and second DR must be reflected on equipment design specification for thorough reflection.
  • 56. Steps - 3: Design Stage This design step spans budget approval and preparations before manufacture Conduct basic design based on equipment specifications and obtain an execution budget If a failure occurs with the equipment, system, subsystem or part during this Step, execute equipment FMEA to determine impacts on system operation, safety and product quality. Problems found are reflected in design. Problems on equipment installation must be studied in detail such as shipping style of materials, storage yard, transport routes, product movement paths, crates, storage and motive power supply.
  • 57. Equipment reliability, maintainability, operability, safety, economical efficiency, flexibility and omissions in conceptual design requirements are checked in DR after “basic design” to enhance “basic design.” Make detailed design based on “basic design” Conduct FMEA of equipment composite parts at this time to enhance reliability of the parts and study how to easily manufacture. Reflect the study results on the detailed design. Use design standards, know-how books and common specifications to enhance the design accuracy to prevent omission of MP information and to eliminate individual differences.
  • 58. Suppliers and contractors are used in this stage, including design in the scope of work. Thorough DR under a mutual-trust relationship to provide the knowledge and experience of both parties are important. After completing detailed design, persons directly involved are gathered from maintenance, production, safety and environment and engineering departments to check omissions in basic design requirements regarding reliability, maintainability, operability and safety in the 4th DR to enhance design.
  • 59. Outline of MP design in Steps 2nd and 3rd Steps What is MP? - MP (Maintenance Prevention) design is activities to design equipment, which is highly functional, easy to use, easy to maintain and that does not fail to achieve maximum life cycle profit (LCP) in the introduction stage of new equipment. They are the activities to study weaknesses of present equipment and to feed the information back to design to enhance equipment reliability and maintainability. They aim at no maintenance as an ultimate goal. Forecasting product future, equipment is designed to obtain maximum life cycle profit (LCP) by high functions and ease of use (operability and flexibility).
  • 60. Design Checklist (Preconditions) Tackle the task positively. Use sound technical knowledge and a scientific approach to achieve the best results Work in active collaboration and cooperation with other departments concerned TPM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Design standard: Y-0302
  • 61. Planning and design: Do you know the object of the design? (reason, conditions set by originator of design request relevant conditions) Are the design procedures appropriate? (method of execution, completion date, priority schedule planning) Is there satisfactory contact with the originator of the design request? Check Details
  • 62. Has the site been thoroughly investigated? Are reference materials adequate? (technical data, introduction of new technology use of existing technology) Are the most suitable and optimal methods and systems being applied? Has complacency been avoided? Are design calculations error-free? (strength, functions, capacity) Have all problems been fully considered? Check Details
  • 63. Are maintenance prevention considerations adequate? (Was the maintenance department consulted and did they confirm in advance; will they check the design afterward?) Will the design be cost-efficient? (within budget, operating costs) is operability good; has safety been considered? Has the optical sensitivity of materials been checked? (Has a request for the photographic characteristics test been issued?) Have related departments been contacted? (maintenance engineering, electrical and instrumental, packing engineering, fabrication departments, safety department) Check Details
  • 64. Drawings Have the drawings been reviewed? Are they error-free? (dimensions, number of parts, accuracy, materials, procurement of spare parts, use of checklists to prevent design errors) Has microfilming been considered? Have the drawings been checked and approved? Check Details
  • 65. Purchasing Are specifications of equipment to be purchased satisfactory? (use of standard documents, selection of equipment) Are purchasing arrangements satisfactory? (No mistakes in the arrangements, delivery times, prices, selection of manufacturers) Have vendor’s estimates been thoroughly reviewed? (prices, delivery times, details) Check Details
  • 66. Items to be performed by manufacturer In principle, the parts used in lubricating devices must be those specified in DMS standards Installation (1) (a) Lubricating devices must be installed or protected so that they cannot be damaged by falling objects, careless material handling, or careless actions of workers. Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B 4.1 (3) 4.2 Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969 4th revision: March 19, 1977 __th confirmation: ___________
  • 67. Lubricating devices must not be installed where they may overheat Lubricating devices must be installed where they can be easily adjusted, repaired or replaced. All lubricating devices must be installed so that they do not interfere with the adjustment or maintenance of plant equipment. They must also not be installed were they may hinder normal work Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969 4th revision: March 19, 1977 __th confirmation: ___________
  • 68. (2) Lubricating devices must not be installed in locations where operators will have to reach over rotating main shafts or tools in operation to supply oil or otherwise Unless specifically required by their dimensions or function, control devices must be installed between 30 cm and 180 cm from the work floor Installation of pumps Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969 4th revision: March 19, 1977 __th confirmation: ___________ 4.2.2 5.1
  • 69. Pumps and associated equipment must be installed in easily-accessible positions for maintenance Pumps should be installed on the outside of lubricating reservoirs Piping Piping joints must be designed and installed for rapid assembly and disassembly using hand tools Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969 4th revision: March 19, 1977 __th confirmation: ___________ 6.3 6.3.1
  • 70. Piping from the end of one lubrication part to the next must not be jointed on the way by welding or any other method. Joints must not be used except when required for length adjustment or assembly. Piping must also be removable without removing any plant equipment parts Piping must not be installed where it will interfere with normal operation, adjustment and repair of equipment or with replacement of lubricating devices and cleaning of oil reservoirs. Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969 4th revision: March 19, 1977 __th confirmation: ___________ 6.3.2 6.3.3
  • 71. Construction of oil reservoirs Oil reservoirs must be constructed so as to prevent the ingress of water or other foreign particles and to prevent oil leaks and bleeding Oil reservoirs must be constructed for easy cleaning and draining Oil reservoirs must have an oil supply port. Oil supply ports must be fitted with a strainer and have a suitable cap or cover. Methods must be devised to prevent the cap or cover from being lost. Nippondenso Mechanical Engineering Standard DMS 1-025001B Lubrication Device Standard Issued: August 25, 1969 4th revision: March 19, 1977 __th confirmation: ___________ 7.1 7.1.3 7.1.1 7.1.2
  • 72. Measuring instrument A(m/min.) Measuring instrument B(rpm) Measuring instrument A(m/min.) Measuring instrument B(rpm) Measuring instrument A(m/min.) Measuring instrument B(rpm) 1 120 (38.6-38.7) 105-106 -67.5 185-186 2 318 39.3 39-40 69.2 69-70 3 120 - 105-106 - 185-186 4 120 39.3-39.4 105-106 68.7-68.8 185-186 5 - - - - - 6 80 39.3-39.4 158-159 69.1-69.2 278-279 7 120 38.9-39.0 105-106 68.5-68.6 185-186 8 120 38.8-38.9 105-106 69.0-69.1 185-186 9 120 39.3-39.4 105-106 68.5-68.6 185-186 10 100 (39.5-39.6) 126-127 69.0-69.1 222-223 11 120 39.3-39.6 105-106 (69.3-69.4) 185-186 12 120 (38.6-38.7) 105-106 68.5-68.6 185-186 13 120 39.0-39.1 105-106 68.7-68.9 185-186 14 100 39.3-39.4 126-127 69.2-69.3 222-223 15 120 39.2-39.3 105-106 69.2-69.3 185-186 16 17 ( ): Minimum Value [ ]: Maximum Value 39.6-40.1m/min 70.0-70.1m/min. (m/min) Counter Speed Roller Dia. Roller Speed Check Sheet Date of measurement: November 20, 1975
  • 73. Are screws fitted with locking aid? Are welds of satisfactory strength? Are shock-absorbing devices effective? Are parts adequately finished? Can parts be replaced? Are there any easily-fatigued or damaged parts? Item Points of interest and method of checking MAINTENANCE PREVENTION Are lockouts, spring lock washers, and locking compounds in use? Is weld overlay adequate? Examine cut welded portion with special care Is there any shock that will affect parts lifetimes? Do shock absorbers work, and are they controlled? Is there any chance of scuffing or defective movement through inadequate finishing? Compare with drawings and modify if necessary Give priority to examining areas where deteriorated parts or consumable items must be replaced Have any such parts or dangerous parts become obvious during test run?
  • 74. Are any geared belts subject to pitching? Are positioning methods adequate? Are any parts rusting? Are springs properly assembled? Are arms, brackets, and studs properly attached? Hydraulic cylinder assembly, oil leaks Installation and locking of speed controllers Item Points of interest and method of checking Check during test running Can positioning be secured accurately through the use of positioning notches, guides; and so on? Check rusted parts or parts that seem likely to rust. Is surface treatment adequate? Are any springs subject to unreasonable strain due to assembly method, compression, or tension? Is any bending or twisting observed during test run? Are these parts securely assembled? Is there any oil leakage from hydraulic cylinder? Is assembly method as designated and of adequate strength? Are speed controllers installed properly? Are speed gauges and locks attached?
  • 75. Roller and bearing replacement Are there any places where tools cannot be used? Are covers easy to handle? Is wiring securely fixed? Are all cable connectors properly prevented from loosening? Are brush and commutator properly contacted? Item Points of interest and method of checking Can rollers and bearings be replaced? Can tools be used in places where adjustments are required? (guides, arm positions, shearing machines, packing machines, etc.) Or are special tools needed? Are the safety covers of drive mechanisms and edged parts securely fixed, safe, and easily handled? Is all wiring inside machinery securely, out of contact with moving parts, and properly sheathed? Are all cable connectors firmly inserted and not loose? Are commutator surfaces, brush contacts and attachment methods satisfactory? Is there any slackness?
  • 76. Are foreign particles being thrown up by gears and belts? Limit switches Are shafts and couplings easily replaced? Replacement of clutches and brakes Item Points of interest and method of checking Is any powder or other foreign matter being thrown onto the workpiece from plastic gears, synchronous belts, etc.? Are limit switches installed in easily visible positions? Is there proper contact with the toggles? Can these be dismantled and assembled without affecting other parts or their accuracy? As above. Is the wiring securely fixed?