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Music Discovery:
Small-scale, Web-scale, Facets, and
Beyond
NASIG Annual Conference
Buffalo, NY
June 8, 2013
Rebecca Belford
University at Buffalo
 Music discovery defined
 Types of user needs
 How discovery tools can help (or hinder)
 Discovery beyond the ‘simple’ catalog
Performed music
Notated music
Discovery –
library context
 OPAC
 Discovery layers
 Web-scale products
 Database content
 Digital collections
 External collections
Why care about music?
A discovery tool that works for music will work well for
(almost) anything.*
*Please talk to your colleagues working with archives, rare
materials, and specialized cataloging rules, too!
What do music users (scholars, performers, casual users)
need?
For those needs that are reflected in cataloging practice, how
can they be met by discovery tools?
Music searches
User inquiries for notated & recorded music
(actual questions from the UB Music Library)
Score and recording of New World Symphony
Recording of a baroque-era minuet
Vocal score and original cast recording of
Brigadoon
Playing parts for a string quartet
Facsimile of Beethoven’s manuscript for the
Eroica symphony
Works by Brian Ferneyhough
The new Bärenreiter edition of Schubert’s Mass
in A flat major, vocal score
1970s rock on vinyl
DVD of Boulez conducting Wagner’s Ring cycle at
the Bayreuth festival
Known
works
Known
creators
Known
contrib-
utors
Medium
Record-
ings
Genre
Form
Scores
Music Library Association
Music Discovery Requirements
 Group convened by Music Library Association’s Emerging
Technologies and Services Committee
 Document released April 2012, free online publication
 Best practices and recommendations, not policy
 Primary audience not music catalogers
 MARC focused, but not exclusive
 Field-by-field and index-based display, indexing, and facet
guides appended
Music Discovery Requirements Document
What needs to be indexed, displayed, and linked in
a system in order for music users to
find, identify, and select materials?
Outline
I. Introduction
II. Musical Works
A. Introduction
B. Titles
C. Identifying Numbers
D. Medium of Performance
E. Musical Key/Range
F. Dates
G. Persons and Corporate Bodies
H. Topical Subjects
I. Genre/Form
J. Geographic Area
III. Expressions and Manifestations
A. Introduction
B. Format: Content and Carriers
C. Identifying Numbers
D. Musical Presentation
E. Edition
F. Language
G. Medium of Performance
H. Musical Key/Range
I. Dates
J. Persons and Corporate Bodies
K. Geographic Area
IV. Other Aspects of Music Discovery
A. Introduction
B. Authority Records
C. Compilations
D. Searching: Alphabetical and Keyword
E. Enhancements: Third-party content
F. Music-Specific Interface/View
Today’s highlights
Formats
Identifying works
&
Navigating among manifestations
Format (Content/Carrier/Media)
Scale: byte-sized
 Brief results
 Detailed records
 Pre-search limits
 Post-search facets
Format (MARC)
Broad content
LDR/06 (type of record)
006/00 (form of material)
More specific
007 (physical description)
34x fields
Maybe also…
RDA content, media, carrier (33x)
GMD (“legacy” records)
Content of MARC 538 notes
Format/MARC mapping:
Don’t reinvent the wheel
http://committees.musiclibraryassoc.org/ETSC/MDR
Music Discovery Requirements, Appendix C. MARC Bibliographic Record Mapping for Content and Carrier
http://committees.musiclibraryassoc.org/uploads/ETSC/MDRappendixC.xls
Format Icons/Labels
King County Library System
http://www.kcls.org/usingthelibrary/catalog_help/format_icons.cfm
Stanford University
http://searchworks.stanford.edu/
Pre-search limits
Single format Multiple options
Facets & brief results
University at Buffalo
Libraries
Facets & brief results
WorldCat.org
Single records
University at Buffalo Libraries
http://catalog.lib.buffalo.edu/vufind/Record/003156616
WorldCat.org
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/605114257
Notated music
Content/format
+
Expression-level
characteristics
Information in:
 Coded fields
 Physical description fields
 Title/responsibility
 Edition statements
 Notes
 Preferred/uniform titles
 Subject subdivisions
University at Buffalo Libraries
works
(works/expressions)
 Sufficient identifying information
&
 Associated names
 Linking/collocation
&
 Ability to navigate to other manifestations
 Typical generic title authorized access point:
Brahms, Johannes, 1833-1897. Symphonies, no. 4, op. 98, E minor
Identifying works
 Information: creator + title + contributors + coded
information for language, medium, format of music, etc. +
relevant notes
 Indexing: author, title, keyword, more?
 Long list of fields. MDR appendices list tags and indexes.
Telemann,
“Overture in D major for
strings and continuo”
Georg Philipp Telemann: thematisch-systematisches Verzeichnis
seiner Werke, Band 3, ed. Martin Ruhnke. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1999.
Title access points:
additional information beyond first title element
WorldCat.org
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2435569
Case Western Reserve University Libraries
http://catalog.cwru.edu/search/o?SEARCH=2435569
Some of Chopin’s piano music
Piano music. Selections
Everything Chopin wrote for piano
Piano music
University at Buffalo Libraries
http://catalog.lib.buffalo.edu/vufind/Record/002224269
Information after
preferred title/initial title element
(MARC 240 after $a / 700 after $t)
 Vocal score
 Sketches
 Selections
 Arranged
 Named parts of works
 Numbered parts of works
 Medium
 Key
 Opus numbers
 Serial numbers
 Thematic catalog numbers
 Language of translation
Compilations
 Contents notes
 Access points for contained
works
 Keep associated information
together (names + titles)
Contents note, with titles, composers, performers, and conductors
(only place in record with this information)
WorldCat.org
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/460115998
WorldCat.org
#795766605
Northwestern University Libraries (Primo)
University of Cincinnati Libraries
http://uclid.uc.edu/record=b5755846~S39
Navigating among manifestations of the same
work (a.k.a. FRBRization)
 Score  Recording
 Score  Parts
 Other editions are available?
(performers, editors, publishers)
 Contingent on indexing and display
 Linked authorized access points
 Sufficient identifying information for selection
Do you have a score…?
Scores, Schubert’s “Trout” quintet, in WorldCat
 Bärenreiter, mini score (74 p.)
 Bärenreiter, score and 4 parts,
 Belwin Mills, score and 4 parts
 Berandol Music, score
 Boosey & Hawkes, mini score
 Breitkopf und Härtel, score and 5 parts
 Breitkopf und Härtel, score and 4 parts
 C.F. Peters, condensed score and 4 parts
 C.F. Peters, score and 5 parts
 C.F. Peters, score and 4 parts
 Columbia, mini score
 Cranz, score and 4 parts
 Czerny, score and 4 parts
 Dover, mini score (94 p.)
 Dover, score (complete works)
 E. Eulenburg, mini score (54 p.)
 E. Eulenburg, mini score (86 p.)
 Eulenburg, mini score (86 p.), fwd.
Brown
 Gosudarstvennoe
tbo, score and 5 parts
 G. Henle, mini score (82 p.)
 G. Henle, score (82 p.) and 4 parts
 G. Henle, score (92 p.) and 4 parts
 Heugel, mini score (86 p.)
 International, score (51 p.) and 5 parts
 International, score (51 p.) and 4 parts
 Kalmus, mini score (94 p.)
 E.F. Kalmus, score (51 p.) and 4 parts
 Kalmus, score (51 p.) and 5 parts
 Lea pocket scores, mini score (p. 45-94)
 Litolff’s Verlag, score (52 p.) and 4 parts
 Ongaku no Tomo Sha, mini score
 A. Payne's Musikverlag, mini score
 Performers' Facsimiles, score and 4 parts
 Peters, mini score
 Peters, score and 5 parts
 Pro Art, mini score (86 p.)
 G. Ricordi & C., mini score (92 p.)
 Schott, score (65 p.)
 Universal, mini score
 Universal, score (69 p.) and 5 parts
 Weaner-Levant Publications, condensed
score (51 p.) and 5 parts
 Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag, mini
score (54 p.)
 Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag, mini
score (87 p.)
 A.O. Witzendorf, 4 parts
Schubert, Franz, 1797-1828.
Quintets, piano, violin, viola, cello, double bass, D. 667, A major
• Quintetti per pianoforte e archi
• Trout quintet
• Romantic piano quintets
• Forellen-Quintett D 667 = Trout quintet ; Notturno D 897 ;
Arpeggione-Sonate D 821
• Melos Ensemble : complete EMI recordings 1957-1972
• Arpeggione sonate ; Forellen quintet
• Piano quintet in A major : 'Trout'
• Schubert at home
• Piano quintet in A major, opus 114, 'The trout“ ; String quartet in A
minor, opus 29
CD titles proper, containing Schubert’s “Trout”
quintet, in WorldCat
Schubert, Franz, 1797-1828.
Quintets, piano, violin, viola, cello, double bass, D. 667, A major
Stanford University Libraries (Blacklight)
http://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/3401720
Why not . . .
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte. Hölle Rache
1. Works by Mozart
Author: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791
or any behind the scenes search, VIAF 32197206 , LCCN, etc.
2. Magic Flute
Author-title: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte
3. “Queen of the Night” aria from Magic Flute
Author-title: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte. Hölle Rache
1. Works by Mozart
2. Magic Flute
3. Vocal scores of Magic Flute
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte. Vocal score
Web scale
 Library content
 Subscription databases
Recorded music: Naxos, Alexander Street Press, DRAM
Notated music: ASP Classical Scores Library
 Digital collections / Institutional repositories (local)
 External digital collections
 Citations for non-subscribed/external resources
Web-scale challenges
 Metadata harmonization
 Consistent identifiers/access points across sources
 Navigating among manifestations, creators, contributors
 Ensuring format facets are both accurate and
comprehensive
 Correctly identifying formats
 Coverage & indexing
Web-scale:
external collection citations included in Summon
NSCU Libraries
http://ncsu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.q=piano+waltzes
Naxos in Summon
Title: Waltzes for piano
Naxos in Naxos
Web-scale database content
University at Buffalo LibrariesNaxos Music Library
WorldCat record
(same item)
Title: Man lebt nur einmal
FirstSearch WorldCat, OCLC #, 811246362
Beyond the Library
Australian Music Centre
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Elena Kats-Chernin, Eliza Aria, sample score, http://cdn.australianmusiccentre.com.au/documents/ds_33743_5016.pdf
http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/workversion/kats-chernin-elena-eliza-aria/22295
Repertoire navigator with hierarchy browser
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
Music Library Association, Emerging Technologies and Services Committee, “Music Discovery
Requirements” (2012) http://committees.musiclibraryassoc.org/ETSC/MDR
MLA Music Discovery Requirements Group
Nara Newcomer (leader), University of Missouri, Kansas City
Rebecca Belford, University at Buffalo
Deb Kulczak, University of Arkansas
Jennifer Matthews, University of Notre Dame
Misti Shaw, Depauw University
Kimmy Szeto, Baruch College, City University of New York
Discovery tool screenshots
Additional resources shown
Naxos Music Library, http://www.naxosmusiclibrary.com
Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
See also http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/about/websitedevelopment
Schubert score excerpts from the IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library, http://imslp.org/
Buffalo State College (Summon)
Case Western Reserve University (III)
Cornell University (WorldCat Local)
North Carolina State University (Summon)
Northwestern University (Primo)
Stanford University (Blacklight)
University at Buffalo (Aleph, VuFind)
University of Cincinnati Libraries (III)
WorldCat.org & FirstSearch (OCLC)
Credits & Links
Questions?
Rebecca Belford
rbelford@buffalo.edu

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Discovering music: small-scale, web-scale, facets, and beyond-Belford

  • 1. Music Discovery: Small-scale, Web-scale, Facets, and Beyond NASIG Annual Conference Buffalo, NY June 8, 2013 Rebecca Belford University at Buffalo
  • 2.  Music discovery defined  Types of user needs  How discovery tools can help (or hinder)  Discovery beyond the ‘simple’ catalog
  • 4. Discovery – library context  OPAC  Discovery layers  Web-scale products  Database content  Digital collections  External collections
  • 5. Why care about music? A discovery tool that works for music will work well for (almost) anything.* *Please talk to your colleagues working with archives, rare materials, and specialized cataloging rules, too!
  • 6. What do music users (scholars, performers, casual users) need? For those needs that are reflected in cataloging practice, how can they be met by discovery tools?
  • 8. User inquiries for notated & recorded music (actual questions from the UB Music Library) Score and recording of New World Symphony Recording of a baroque-era minuet Vocal score and original cast recording of Brigadoon Playing parts for a string quartet Facsimile of Beethoven’s manuscript for the Eroica symphony Works by Brian Ferneyhough The new Bärenreiter edition of Schubert’s Mass in A flat major, vocal score 1970s rock on vinyl DVD of Boulez conducting Wagner’s Ring cycle at the Bayreuth festival Known works Known creators Known contrib- utors Medium Record- ings Genre Form Scores
  • 9. Music Library Association Music Discovery Requirements  Group convened by Music Library Association’s Emerging Technologies and Services Committee  Document released April 2012, free online publication  Best practices and recommendations, not policy  Primary audience not music catalogers  MARC focused, but not exclusive  Field-by-field and index-based display, indexing, and facet guides appended
  • 10. Music Discovery Requirements Document What needs to be indexed, displayed, and linked in a system in order for music users to find, identify, and select materials?
  • 11. Outline I. Introduction II. Musical Works A. Introduction B. Titles C. Identifying Numbers D. Medium of Performance E. Musical Key/Range F. Dates G. Persons and Corporate Bodies H. Topical Subjects I. Genre/Form J. Geographic Area III. Expressions and Manifestations A. Introduction B. Format: Content and Carriers C. Identifying Numbers D. Musical Presentation E. Edition F. Language G. Medium of Performance H. Musical Key/Range I. Dates J. Persons and Corporate Bodies K. Geographic Area IV. Other Aspects of Music Discovery A. Introduction B. Authority Records C. Compilations D. Searching: Alphabetical and Keyword E. Enhancements: Third-party content F. Music-Specific Interface/View
  • 13. Format (Content/Carrier/Media) Scale: byte-sized  Brief results  Detailed records  Pre-search limits  Post-search facets
  • 14. Format (MARC) Broad content LDR/06 (type of record) 006/00 (form of material) More specific 007 (physical description) 34x fields Maybe also… RDA content, media, carrier (33x) GMD (“legacy” records) Content of MARC 538 notes
  • 15. Format/MARC mapping: Don’t reinvent the wheel http://committees.musiclibraryassoc.org/ETSC/MDR
  • 16. Music Discovery Requirements, Appendix C. MARC Bibliographic Record Mapping for Content and Carrier http://committees.musiclibraryassoc.org/uploads/ETSC/MDRappendixC.xls
  • 17. Format Icons/Labels King County Library System http://www.kcls.org/usingthelibrary/catalog_help/format_icons.cfm Stanford University http://searchworks.stanford.edu/
  • 19. Facets & brief results University at Buffalo Libraries
  • 20. Facets & brief results WorldCat.org
  • 21. Single records University at Buffalo Libraries http://catalog.lib.buffalo.edu/vufind/Record/003156616 WorldCat.org http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/605114257
  • 22. Notated music Content/format + Expression-level characteristics Information in:  Coded fields  Physical description fields  Title/responsibility  Edition statements  Notes  Preferred/uniform titles  Subject subdivisions University at Buffalo Libraries
  • 23. works (works/expressions)  Sufficient identifying information &  Associated names  Linking/collocation &  Ability to navigate to other manifestations  Typical generic title authorized access point: Brahms, Johannes, 1833-1897. Symphonies, no. 4, op. 98, E minor
  • 24. Identifying works  Information: creator + title + contributors + coded information for language, medium, format of music, etc. + relevant notes  Indexing: author, title, keyword, more?  Long list of fields. MDR appendices list tags and indexes.
  • 25. Telemann, “Overture in D major for strings and continuo”
  • 26. Georg Philipp Telemann: thematisch-systematisches Verzeichnis seiner Werke, Band 3, ed. Martin Ruhnke. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1999.
  • 27. Title access points: additional information beyond first title element
  • 28. WorldCat.org http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2435569 Case Western Reserve University Libraries http://catalog.cwru.edu/search/o?SEARCH=2435569
  • 29. Some of Chopin’s piano music Piano music. Selections Everything Chopin wrote for piano Piano music University at Buffalo Libraries http://catalog.lib.buffalo.edu/vufind/Record/002224269
  • 30. Information after preferred title/initial title element (MARC 240 after $a / 700 after $t)  Vocal score  Sketches  Selections  Arranged  Named parts of works  Numbered parts of works  Medium  Key  Opus numbers  Serial numbers  Thematic catalog numbers  Language of translation
  • 31. Compilations  Contents notes  Access points for contained works  Keep associated information together (names + titles)
  • 32. Contents note, with titles, composers, performers, and conductors (only place in record with this information) WorldCat.org http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/460115998
  • 35. University of Cincinnati Libraries http://uclid.uc.edu/record=b5755846~S39
  • 36. Navigating among manifestations of the same work (a.k.a. FRBRization)  Score  Recording  Score  Parts  Other editions are available? (performers, editors, publishers)  Contingent on indexing and display  Linked authorized access points  Sufficient identifying information for selection
  • 37. Do you have a score…?
  • 38. Scores, Schubert’s “Trout” quintet, in WorldCat  Bärenreiter, mini score (74 p.)  Bärenreiter, score and 4 parts,  Belwin Mills, score and 4 parts  Berandol Music, score  Boosey & Hawkes, mini score  Breitkopf und Härtel, score and 5 parts  Breitkopf und Härtel, score and 4 parts  C.F. Peters, condensed score and 4 parts  C.F. Peters, score and 5 parts  C.F. Peters, score and 4 parts  Columbia, mini score  Cranz, score and 4 parts  Czerny, score and 4 parts  Dover, mini score (94 p.)  Dover, score (complete works)  E. Eulenburg, mini score (54 p.)  E. Eulenburg, mini score (86 p.)  Eulenburg, mini score (86 p.), fwd. Brown  Gosudarstvennoe tbo, score and 5 parts  G. Henle, mini score (82 p.)  G. Henle, score (82 p.) and 4 parts  G. Henle, score (92 p.) and 4 parts  Heugel, mini score (86 p.)  International, score (51 p.) and 5 parts  International, score (51 p.) and 4 parts  Kalmus, mini score (94 p.)  E.F. Kalmus, score (51 p.) and 4 parts  Kalmus, score (51 p.) and 5 parts  Lea pocket scores, mini score (p. 45-94)  Litolff’s Verlag, score (52 p.) and 4 parts  Ongaku no Tomo Sha, mini score  A. Payne's Musikverlag, mini score  Performers' Facsimiles, score and 4 parts  Peters, mini score  Peters, score and 5 parts  Pro Art, mini score (86 p.)  G. Ricordi & C., mini score (92 p.)  Schott, score (65 p.)  Universal, mini score  Universal, score (69 p.) and 5 parts  Weaner-Levant Publications, condensed score (51 p.) and 5 parts  Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag, mini score (54 p.)  Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag, mini score (87 p.)  A.O. Witzendorf, 4 parts Schubert, Franz, 1797-1828. Quintets, piano, violin, viola, cello, double bass, D. 667, A major
  • 39. • Quintetti per pianoforte e archi • Trout quintet • Romantic piano quintets • Forellen-Quintett D 667 = Trout quintet ; Notturno D 897 ; Arpeggione-Sonate D 821 • Melos Ensemble : complete EMI recordings 1957-1972 • Arpeggione sonate ; Forellen quintet • Piano quintet in A major : 'Trout' • Schubert at home • Piano quintet in A major, opus 114, 'The trout“ ; String quartet in A minor, opus 29 CD titles proper, containing Schubert’s “Trout” quintet, in WorldCat Schubert, Franz, 1797-1828. Quintets, piano, violin, viola, cello, double bass, D. 667, A major
  • 40. Stanford University Libraries (Blacklight) http://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/3401720
  • 41. Why not . . . Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte. Hölle Rache 1. Works by Mozart Author: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791 or any behind the scenes search, VIAF 32197206 , LCCN, etc. 2. Magic Flute Author-title: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte 3. “Queen of the Night” aria from Magic Flute Author-title: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte. Hölle Rache 1. Works by Mozart 2. Magic Flute 3. Vocal scores of Magic Flute Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791. Zauberflöte. Vocal score
  • 42. Web scale  Library content  Subscription databases Recorded music: Naxos, Alexander Street Press, DRAM Notated music: ASP Classical Scores Library  Digital collections / Institutional repositories (local)  External digital collections  Citations for non-subscribed/external resources
  • 43. Web-scale challenges  Metadata harmonization  Consistent identifiers/access points across sources  Navigating among manifestations, creators, contributors  Ensuring format facets are both accurate and comprehensive  Correctly identifying formats  Coverage & indexing
  • 44. Web-scale: external collection citations included in Summon NSCU Libraries http://ncsu.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.q=piano+waltzes
  • 45. Naxos in Summon Title: Waltzes for piano Naxos in Naxos Web-scale database content University at Buffalo LibrariesNaxos Music Library
  • 46. WorldCat record (same item) Title: Man lebt nur einmal FirstSearch WorldCat, OCLC #, 811246362
  • 48. Australian Music Centre Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 49. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 50. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 51. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 52. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 53. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 54. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 55. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 56. Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 57. Elena Kats-Chernin, Eliza Aria, sample score, http://cdn.australianmusiccentre.com.au/documents/ds_33743_5016.pdf
  • 59. Repertoire navigator with hierarchy browser Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/
  • 60. Music Library Association, Emerging Technologies and Services Committee, “Music Discovery Requirements” (2012) http://committees.musiclibraryassoc.org/ETSC/MDR MLA Music Discovery Requirements Group Nara Newcomer (leader), University of Missouri, Kansas City Rebecca Belford, University at Buffalo Deb Kulczak, University of Arkansas Jennifer Matthews, University of Notre Dame Misti Shaw, Depauw University Kimmy Szeto, Baruch College, City University of New York Discovery tool screenshots Additional resources shown Naxos Music Library, http://www.naxosmusiclibrary.com Australian Music Centre, http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/ See also http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/about/websitedevelopment Schubert score excerpts from the IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library, http://imslp.org/ Buffalo State College (Summon) Case Western Reserve University (III) Cornell University (WorldCat Local) North Carolina State University (Summon) Northwestern University (Primo) Stanford University (Blacklight) University at Buffalo (Aleph, VuFind) University of Cincinnati Libraries (III) WorldCat.org & FirstSearch (OCLC) Credits & Links

Editor's Notes

  1. What I mean by “music” today is basically performed music and notated music: music that can be discovered via a library search tool is limited to that which has been fixed in notation orperformed and recorded, including scores, parts, sheet music, audio recordings, and video recordings. 
  2. “Discovery” related to music can mean many things to different people, including uncovering a manuscript in an attic, finding new music to listen to with a service like Pandora or Spotify, or browsing for music in iTunes. In a library context, “discovery” happens in discovery tools such astraditional OPACs, next-generation discovery layers such as VuFind, web scale products such as Summonor WorldCat Local, subscription databases such as Naxos Music Library, digital collections, and content outside of a library’s holdings such as a digital sheet music collection.Shown:OPAC, University at Buffalo (Aleph); Layer,University at Buffalo (VuFind); Web-scale, Buffalo State (Summon),Cornell (WorldCat Local);database, Naxos Music Library;digital collections, University at Buffalo (CONTENTdm); external, Library of Congress, American Memory: Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, 1820-1860 & 1870-1885
  3. Why focus on music? Music description is sufficiently complex that it can serve as a test of how well a tool functions at the extremes. A tool that excels at ingesting, indexing, searching, and displaying music records will be an excellent tool for most items in a general collection. The reverse is not necessarily true—just because a system works well for a known subject or literary title doesn’t mean it will work for all materials and users.
  4. Music searches can be complicated. The needs of music users may actually be a cluster of queries, which can, but do not necessarily, overlap. These include known works, known creators, or known contributors, which for recorded music usually means performers, and for notated music means editors or arrangers. Users may also seek works with a particular medium of performance, form, or genre. For medium, form, and genre searches, specific composers or works may be purely incidental, meaning the FRBR “drill down” model that starts with a Work and then narrows down does not fit. Additional search needs are highlighted at the right; these might include specific texts used for vocal works, era of composition, or attributes of composers, such as works written by women. Format is included here because it is often integrated in queries.
  5. Typical user queries include multiple categories, combine work-expression-manifestation levels, and may focus on criteria like genre or form that are attributes but not FRBR Group entities. These are all real questions and are representative of typical patron requests for scores and recordings. The basic “known work” score and recording question format is quite common, but users may also make highly specific requests for a manifestation of a known work, such as “the new Bärenreiter edition of Schubert’s Mass in A flat major--the vocal score, not the full score.” In contrast, the student seeking classic rock LPs and the dance instructor looking for a CD of a baroque minuet to play for her class are not looking for any particular works. Assuming full, well-crafted catalog records, these can all be answered using data in a well-constructed library discovery tool.
  6. In order to facilitate configuration of tools to optimize discovery of music, the Music Library Association’s Emerging Technologies and Services Committee convened a group to create a document detailing best practices and recommendations for indexing and display. The document, titled “Music Discovery Requirements,” was made freely available online in 2012, and, though technical, is written for catalogers or programmers who do not necessarily have any subject expertise in music. It is also useful for music librarians to have as a reference when working with institutional implementation processes and decisions.
  7. The document describes characteristics of music works and materials, with explanations of the characteristics and their importance to music discovery. Following brief explanations, the document addresses what elements of catalog records need to be indexed, displayed, and linked in a system in order for music users to find, identify, and select materials.
  8. The document has “FRBR-ish” structure, with a section on works, a section on expressions and manifestations, and a third section that covers additional aspects of discovery. The document recommends display and indexing for bibliographic records, and it also notes corresponding authority data. The document was put out for immediate usage, so even though the future of discovery tools lies in leveraging authority data, it isn’t a big part of this document.
  9. For anyone using media materials, including performed music on audio or video, format--DVD, CD, streaming file, etc--may be the determining factor in selecting a resource, sometimes for aesthetic reasons and sometimes because of the availability of playback equipment. Discovery tools excel for media materials when users are able search for desired formats and identify formats when looking at search results and single records.
  10. Content--sound or video, for example--is an excellent starting point, and narrower formats should be accounted for as well. For most media, codes in the leader, 006, and 007 fields in a MARC record provide sufficient information for indexing. The newer 34x fields offer additional information that previously was not recorded in controlled or coded form, such as SACD.  The example shown at left is for a score accompanied by a CD. Coding in the record is sufficient to provide icons, labels, and filters for notated music, recorded music, CD, print score, and audio, combined and labeled however an institution or vendor sees fit.
  11. There are many options for format types and corresponding icons and labels that can be used for filters or limits. These may reflect a mixture of content, media, and carrier.
  12. Options for pre-search limits usually either require a user to select one format, or limits can be set up so users can apply multiple options, in these cases combined to increase results. For music users, who often want a score AND a recording, the option to select multiple formats at the same time, as shown in examples on the right, can be a time saver. Shown: Single: VuFind at UB, Summon at Buffalo State, WorldCat.org. Multiple: Bibliocommons and III WebPAC PRO at New York Public, Blacklight at Stanford.
  13. Here is an example of icons and the format facet in UB’s VuFind. The CD formats include redundancies—sound recording + audio CD + music recording. However, these terms do not conflict, and when we customized the format definitions, we felt that the post-coordinated carrier/content options allowed us to shorten the list while still allowing users to arrive at the format they want.
  14. Here is another approach in a different tool, WorldCat. Format options are organized under content type and repeated where necessary, and users may select multiple formats, combined with “OR” to increase results.
  15. These same two discovery tools index and display accompanying formats differently. This is a multi-part resource consisting of a CD and DVD. At left, the filter options and labeled icons represent both CD and DVD. At right, the filter options and labeled icons represent only the CD. Music books and scores are increasingly arriving with media, so the MLA mappings--and my own recommendations--include accounting for accompanying formats. 
  16. Unlike audio recordings, where carriers may be interchangeable provided a user has access to the proper equipment, types of notated music coded in fixed fields or represented elsewhere in a record actually serve different purposes and can represent significant contributions at the expression level. After the road content “notated music” is selected, further “format” distinctions are usually needed. Neither current MARC fixed field codes nor LCSH form subdivisions are perfect in representing format in controlled form, but the inclusion of the form subdivisions under the Genre facet enhances selection. For this reason, the MLA MDR recommends including these subdivisions somewhere in a subject or genre facet.
  17. Even before FRBR and RDA, the heart of music cataloging has been the identification of works to support collocation, indexing, and identification. The principles behind uniform titles and RDA’s authorized access points for works and expressions are basically the same. RDA chapter 6.0 states that “AAPs bring together all descriptions of resources embodying a work when various manifestations have appeared under various titles, … and differentiate between two or more works with the same title.” Music materials rely heavily on AAPs for titles because of: generic titles, such as “symphony”; prolific composers writing similar works; multiple expressions and manifestations of a work, with various titles on resources; and compilations.
  18. Information supporting identification of works and navigation may appear in many parts of cataloging records.
  19. An extreme example of a generic title: Overture in D major for strings and continuo, by Telemann, and one such overture. At right,from the thematic catalog of Telemann’s works, a partial list of overtures includes five overtures in D major for strings and continuo.
  20. In the thematic catalog, works are uniquely numbered, grouped by work and key. Show here is the 12th overture in D major in work group 55, known by its thematic catalog number TWV 55:D12. Without being able to identify the work from the music itself, the assigned number is essential.
  21. These are all AAPs for Telemann overtures in D major in the authority file--only $n with the TWV number changes.
  22. For identification and linking, all of the elements of AAP are important. In the catalog record on the left, only the first element of the uniform title displays, grouped with and identified as “other title.”The TWV number and key—essential identifying information—do not appear anywhere in the record. In the record on the right, the uniform/preferred title is clearly identified; more importantly, sufficient identifying information is included, and the headings function as links.
  23. Suppressing subfields from collective titles can also be misleading. Hiding “Selections,” recorded in $k, removes the difference between ALL and SOME.
  24. Indexing and display of the following information that is contained in title AAPs in subfields other than $a or $t is recommended. All of these subfields can be indexed as titles, and possibly other indexes. Much of this information will be indicated in titles proper or notes in a bibliographic record, but the inclusion in AAPs enables linking and consistent identification. All of the fields in the MARC21 format boxed here are important for music AAPs, and three are completely unique to music. If you are involved in configuring or assessing a discovery tool, please don’t forget about these.
  25. Compilations are commonplace for music materials, particularly recordings; score anthologies are not uncommon. Contained works and associated creators/contributors may be reflected in contents notes, controlled access points, or both.
  26. In some cases, contents notes may be the only place that contained works and their composers and performers are indicated. Notes that code titles and responsibility separately can be indexed in title and author indexes; general non-enhanced contents notes can be indexed in keyword indexes, but the advisability of including the whole note in an author or title index is debatable, and in fact was a topic of debate as the MDR was drafted.
  27. A cautionary tale: Contents note displays, uniform title in 240 displays only partially, and missing here are all of the analytic entries with AAPs for contained works, making identification difficult (though less so than with a batch of generic titles in German) and making precise navigation to other versions of individual works on the compilation impossible.
  28. Another cautionary tale: Contents note displays, uniform title in 240 displays, no display at all of additional access points/analytic entries.
  29. Preferable setup, at least for academic setting. Label of added entries debatable. Linking works well: clicking on title leads to author/title search
  30. Once works are displayed and indexed, discovery tools must go a step further and use information to allow navigation among different expressions and manifestations of the same work, such as from a score to a recording or from a score to performance parts.
  31. Back to the example from the beginning, Schubert’s “Trout” quintet. “Do you have a score…?”
  32. Yes. If you are buying, you can purchase a score, a study score, and a set parts. If you are borrowing, you have quite a few more options. In WorldCat, there are--erring on the side of matching conservatively--44 separate manifestations of notated music of the complete quintet in its original instrumentation.
  33. CDs containing this work are also numerous, and the album titles do not necessarily indicate that the work is on the CD. What this means is that it may be difficult for a casual user to guess how best to search for a resource with this work, though “trout quintet” is a really good strategy, and it can be difficult to confirm that a resource contains the work from its title. However, a tool set up to display and link the access points in added entries will let a user navigate to additional versions even if an initial search attempt had low recall.
  34. Example of tool that: identifies the work and displays the authorized access point; links on the authorized access point to lead the user to other records containing the AAP; binds associated names to titles. The link on title searches for name+title in author-title index (Work). Ideally, there would be a way for this link to search in a hierarchy of collective titles, too: complete quintets, complete chamber music, and complete works—all of which, by definition, contain this work.
  35. Without going too far afield from our current discovery tools, I would like to figure out a way to increase options available in linked authorized access points, to the point where users can select the broadness or narrowness of the search generated. As access points are currently structured, this would require first making sure names are bound to titles for author-title searches, and utilizing separating punctuation. For example, in a visible AAP for the vocal score or the “Queen of the night” aria from Mozart’s opera Magic Flute, a user might click on the name (1) to generate a search for all works by Mozart. Currently this would be using the string in the author index, but an identifier would work just as well—the point is to generate a useful search. If a user were to click farther out along the string (2), on the name of the opera, a search could be generated for that work. Continuing, a click on the name of the individual aria (3) or expression such as “vocal score” would generate a still narrower search. A feature like would provide navigation to larger works from component works or to the original work from an expression.
  36. What about web scale discovery tools?
  37. Challenges with web scale products are by no means special for music.Metadata harmonizationConsistent identifiers/access points across sourcesNavigating among manifestations, creators, contributorsEnsuring format facets are both accurate and comprehensiveCorrectly identifying formatsCoverage & indexing
  38. One of the main streaming audio databases, Naxos Music Library, can be searched using the Summon web scale discovery tool.
  39. The record for this album in Summon, on the right, demonstrates what can go wrong when titles and authors are separated in display. It is impossible to tell from viewing this record what “author” is associated with each work, and no way to tell that “Smirnova, Lisa” is the name of the pianist. Furthermore, the works are not linked and are not associated with any unique identifiers or titles, meaning there is no way to navigate to other recordings of the same works. The native interface visually connects composer and works and identifiers the roles of the arranger and performer. It also includes an information button that gives details for each work and links to other recordings of that work.
  40. This is a cataloger-created bibliographic record for the streaming album. Incorporating database content into a discovery tool theoretically means that different records for the same item but from different sources can coexist in the pool of records indexed by a discovery tool. Because of how headings are constructed and linked, however, it may be impossible to navigate between records for the same item or from a desired piece of information of one record, such as performer, to other records from different sources. This is hardly a unique challenge, but the varying titles that make construction of AAPs for musical works both challenging and essential are compounded when multiple sources are combined in a search.
  41. So now that I have shown you a few examples of how music discovery is encountered in library discovery tools, I want to highlight some very interesting developments in music discovery from outside the traditional library.
  42. The Australian Music Centre offers an amazing introduction to Australian music and is a fantastic reference source for contemporary Australian music. From a discovery perspective, it is also an excellent example of FRBR in action.
  43. Demonstration of beginning to single record and features along the way.“Introductions to Australian music” is an option under ”find music.” Under explore music, I selected Bass Clarinet from Instrumental Music Overviews
  44. Skipping some steps, record for a work from 2002, where it is possible for a user to preview score or hear an audio clip. For users that can read music, the score preview is incredibly helpful. In library tools, Google Books preview fulfills a similar purpose for text.
  45. View of sample score
  46. FRBR in action:Eliza aria is a derivative of Wild swans suite by Elena Kats-CherninEliza aria has as a derivative Naive interlude by Elena Kats-CherninThese may not be the most user-friendly terms, but the relationships are clear, and the related works are each linked from this record.
  47. Credits.I’d like to acknowledge the MDR group and the ETSC, and in particular Nara Newcomer, who led the creation of the document and suggested a session at NASIG.