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DISCOURSE
TEXT AS CONNECTED
DISCOURSE
DEFINITION OF A DISCOURSE
It is a formal and often lengthy discussion of a topic,
where concepts and insights are arranged in an
organized and logical manner.
It refers to the way how language is used to convey
meanings to propel action or provoke a specific
response.
It is often associated with speech, but it may also be
written.
It usually serves as a writer’s or a scholar’s analysis
of a concept or theory proposed by another writer.
PURPOSES OF A DISCOURSE
1. To persuade
aims to persuade
tries to convince the
readers that the
proposed claim or
solution is better than
any other proposal.
2. To inform
aims to inform
provides a descriptive
and comprehensive
discussion on the
topic
it points out what one
should know about a
topic or subject.
3. To entertain
aims to amuse
provides a source of
entertainment for its
readers
FACTORS AFFECTING A DISCOURSE
1. Culture
The beliefs, customs,
attitudes, language,
and other things that
define culture may
influence the author’s
perspective on several
issues.
Knowing about the
culture the author
belongs to, the reader
may understand his or
her biases.
2. Social
Environment
The author’s physical
surroundings and
social relationships,
as well as the culture
of the time may have
influenced his or her
writing.
3. Experiences
Personal accounts or
first-hand experience
of events, though
subjective, establish
credibility and
reliability of
information
presented in any
discourse.
TYPES OF DISCOURSE
1. Argumentation
The writer aims
to persuade the
audience or
readers.
He or she
presents valid
claims or
counterclaims,
each supported
by evidence, to
prove a point.
In proving
claims, the
writer presents
studies,
experts’
opinions, and
statistical data,
among others.
Argumentative
discourse
should appeal
to logic or
reason instead
of emotion.
A recent study confirmed that playing video games may
cause children to become violent. However, this is only
true for some children. Dr. Charlotte Cooper and Dr.
Markey Vitasa of ABC University explained that
children who manifest a combination of three
personality traits―high neuroticism, disagreeableness,
and low levels of conscientiousness―are more likely to
be aggressive toward others after playing video games.
1. Argumentation
TYPES OF DISCOURSE
2. Description
Based on the main
impression of the
author about the
topic or subject.
His or her
impression is
influenced by prior
knowledge,
culture,
environment, and
experiences,
among others.
As the writer
describes his or
her observations,
it triggers sensory
images among
readers.
When I first saw my childhood friend Margarette, she
was about my younger sister Viv’s height. Her hair was
curly and dark, and her skin was pale. But what really
struck me when I first saw her was her big round blue
eyes.
2. Description
TYPES OF DISCOURSE
3. Exposition
Aims to inform,
clarify, and explain
a phenomenon.
It defines what
something is and
provides an in-
depth discussion
about topics that
are usually less
explored.
It gives reader
instructions on
how something is
done.
HOW TO SET UP AN EMAIL ACCOUNT:
1. Choose the web host.
2. Look for the sign up button. Click it.
3. Provide the required information.
4. Think of a unique username and password.
(Tip: For the password, type in uppercase or add
characters.)
5. Start using the newly set up email account.
3. Exposition
TYPES OF DISCOURSE
4. Narration
It is like
storytelling. It
recalls events
chronologically.
It is told in the
first, second, or
third person
point of view.
Its structure may be linear
or nonlinear.
LINEAR
STRUCTURE
follows a
typical format:
beginning,
middle, end.
NONLINEAR
STRUCTURE
may start
from the end
or in the
middle.
I remember the time when I learned how to swim. I was
only eight years old and afraid to bathe in a pool. I
envied the kids who played with inflatable balls and
animals. Whenever my family would visit the
clubhouse, I would sit beside the pool and never really
jump in to join them. A summer camp opened in our
neighborhood, and my mom thought of enrolling my
brother and me in a swimming class. Two days before
the class started, my mom gave me a pep talk; that
made me realize that I did not want to miss out on the
fun just because I was afraid.
4. Narration
LITERARY DISCOURSE
focused on creative works, including
nonfiction.
it includes texts that are used strictly for
business communication
TYPES OF LITERARY DISCOURSE
1. Poetic
commonly found in creative works like poems, novels, short
stories, and plays
it focuses on how language is used to form themes and
convey ideologies
ordinary words, especially those used in a poem, are made
appealing through sound patterns.
TYPES OF LITERARY DISCOURSE
2. Expressive
commonly found in academic journals, letters, diaries, and
blogs
it is a personal narrative and is typically written in the first
person point of view
the writer reveals something about his or her identity
expressive discourses are referred to as creative nonfiction
TYPES OF LITERARY DISCOURSE
3. Transactional
commonly found in instructional materials, advertisements,
and editorial articles
it is directive in nature as it provides detailed information on
how something is done or achieved
it encourages the reader to do something or to take action
ACADEMIC DISCOURSE
expository or argumentative in nature
it presents an individual’s insights regarding a concept or
method in a scholarly way
uses formal language and the third-person point of view
it maintains an objective tone
it avoids using figures of speech and idiomatic expressions,
including biased or stereotyped and sexist language
its examples include essays, journals, book reviews,
synthesis, literature review, and research
Medea is portrayed as an empowered woman in the Euripides’ play. It is a
far cry from how women were viewed and represented in the Ancient
Greece. Women then were mainly portrayed as in charge of producing
children, taking care of them, and being a mistress of the household.
Medea’s character defies and challenges conformities. Her deeds, though
evil in nature, stem from the strength of her mind… Medea, although
elicits pity from the audience during the first part of the play as an
abandoned wife and mother, in the end, is feared and abhorred as she
proves to be aware of how wicked her deeds are and yet would not have
it the other way around: “I understand what evil I am about to do but my
wrath is stronger even than my thoughts…” (Euripides 27).
GENERAL FORMAT OF ACADEMIC DISCOURSE
• the writer states the significance of the topic and the issues that need to
be addressed
• the writer mentions the objectives of the discourse and how it may be
beneficial or detrimental
Introduction
• the writer discusses the methods of gathering information
• he or she then presents the findings and interprets them
• he or she formulates arguments and supports them with evidence
Body
• the writer reiterates the claims and asserts his or her stand
• he or she may include insights and recommendations for further studies
Conclusion
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONNECTED DISCOURSE
Its ideas are
linked logically.
There is logical
organization and
development of the theme.
There is use of repetition, reference,
conjunctions, connectives and other
transitional devices.
“There are three reasons I don’t have a credit card. The first reason is that
using a piece of plastic instead of cash makes it too easy for me to buy things I
can’t afford. For instance, last week I saw a 4,000.00 php pair of pink sandals in
my favorite shoe store. Of course, I don’t need pink sandals, nor I can afford
them. With a credit card, however, I would now own those sandals and be
worrying about how to pay for them. The second reason I don’t have a credit
card is that I would end up in debt like my friend Sara, the shopaholic. Sara got
a credit last year, and she already owes 30,000.00 php. She buys things that
she doesn’t need such as jewelry and designer sunglasses. She will be in debt
for years. The third reason I don’t have a credit card is the difficulty in
understanding the fine print in the credit card contract. If I don’t read the fine
print, I can be surprised. For example, some credit companies will raise my
interest rate if I make a payment even one day late. To sum up, credit cards
may be a convenience for some people, but for me, they are plastic tickets to
financial disaster.”
“There are three reasons I don’t have a credit card. The first reason is that
using a piece of plastic instead of cash makes it too easy for me to buy things I
can’t afford. For instance, last week I saw a 4,000.00 php pair of pink sandals in
my favorite shoe store. Of course, I don’t need pink sandals, nor I can afford
them. With a credit card, however, I would now own those sandals and be
worrying about how to pay for them. The second reason I don’t have a credit
card is that I would end up in debt like my friend Sara, the shopaholic. Sara got
a credit last year, and she already owes 30,000.00 php. She buys things that
she doesn’t need such as jewelry and designer sunglasses. She will be in debt
for years. The third reason I don’t have a credit card is the difficulty in
understanding the fine print in the credit card contract. If I don’t read the fine
print, I can be surprised. For example, some credit companies will raise my
interest rate if I make a payment even one day late. To sum up, credit cards
may be a convenience for some people, but for me, they are plastic tickets to
financial disaster.”
END

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DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE

  • 2. DEFINITION OF A DISCOURSE It is a formal and often lengthy discussion of a topic, where concepts and insights are arranged in an organized and logical manner. It refers to the way how language is used to convey meanings to propel action or provoke a specific response. It is often associated with speech, but it may also be written. It usually serves as a writer’s or a scholar’s analysis of a concept or theory proposed by another writer.
  • 3. PURPOSES OF A DISCOURSE 1. To persuade aims to persuade tries to convince the readers that the proposed claim or solution is better than any other proposal. 2. To inform aims to inform provides a descriptive and comprehensive discussion on the topic it points out what one should know about a topic or subject. 3. To entertain aims to amuse provides a source of entertainment for its readers
  • 4. FACTORS AFFECTING A DISCOURSE 1. Culture The beliefs, customs, attitudes, language, and other things that define culture may influence the author’s perspective on several issues. Knowing about the culture the author belongs to, the reader may understand his or her biases. 2. Social Environment The author’s physical surroundings and social relationships, as well as the culture of the time may have influenced his or her writing. 3. Experiences Personal accounts or first-hand experience of events, though subjective, establish credibility and reliability of information presented in any discourse.
  • 5. TYPES OF DISCOURSE 1. Argumentation The writer aims to persuade the audience or readers. He or she presents valid claims or counterclaims, each supported by evidence, to prove a point. In proving claims, the writer presents studies, experts’ opinions, and statistical data, among others. Argumentative discourse should appeal to logic or reason instead of emotion.
  • 6. A recent study confirmed that playing video games may cause children to become violent. However, this is only true for some children. Dr. Charlotte Cooper and Dr. Markey Vitasa of ABC University explained that children who manifest a combination of three personality traits―high neuroticism, disagreeableness, and low levels of conscientiousness―are more likely to be aggressive toward others after playing video games. 1. Argumentation
  • 7. TYPES OF DISCOURSE 2. Description Based on the main impression of the author about the topic or subject. His or her impression is influenced by prior knowledge, culture, environment, and experiences, among others. As the writer describes his or her observations, it triggers sensory images among readers.
  • 8. When I first saw my childhood friend Margarette, she was about my younger sister Viv’s height. Her hair was curly and dark, and her skin was pale. But what really struck me when I first saw her was her big round blue eyes. 2. Description
  • 9. TYPES OF DISCOURSE 3. Exposition Aims to inform, clarify, and explain a phenomenon. It defines what something is and provides an in- depth discussion about topics that are usually less explored. It gives reader instructions on how something is done.
  • 10. HOW TO SET UP AN EMAIL ACCOUNT: 1. Choose the web host. 2. Look for the sign up button. Click it. 3. Provide the required information. 4. Think of a unique username and password. (Tip: For the password, type in uppercase or add characters.) 5. Start using the newly set up email account. 3. Exposition
  • 11. TYPES OF DISCOURSE 4. Narration It is like storytelling. It recalls events chronologically. It is told in the first, second, or third person point of view. Its structure may be linear or nonlinear. LINEAR STRUCTURE follows a typical format: beginning, middle, end. NONLINEAR STRUCTURE may start from the end or in the middle.
  • 12. I remember the time when I learned how to swim. I was only eight years old and afraid to bathe in a pool. I envied the kids who played with inflatable balls and animals. Whenever my family would visit the clubhouse, I would sit beside the pool and never really jump in to join them. A summer camp opened in our neighborhood, and my mom thought of enrolling my brother and me in a swimming class. Two days before the class started, my mom gave me a pep talk; that made me realize that I did not want to miss out on the fun just because I was afraid. 4. Narration
  • 13. LITERARY DISCOURSE focused on creative works, including nonfiction. it includes texts that are used strictly for business communication
  • 14. TYPES OF LITERARY DISCOURSE 1. Poetic commonly found in creative works like poems, novels, short stories, and plays it focuses on how language is used to form themes and convey ideologies ordinary words, especially those used in a poem, are made appealing through sound patterns.
  • 15. TYPES OF LITERARY DISCOURSE 2. Expressive commonly found in academic journals, letters, diaries, and blogs it is a personal narrative and is typically written in the first person point of view the writer reveals something about his or her identity expressive discourses are referred to as creative nonfiction
  • 16. TYPES OF LITERARY DISCOURSE 3. Transactional commonly found in instructional materials, advertisements, and editorial articles it is directive in nature as it provides detailed information on how something is done or achieved it encourages the reader to do something or to take action
  • 17. ACADEMIC DISCOURSE expository or argumentative in nature it presents an individual’s insights regarding a concept or method in a scholarly way uses formal language and the third-person point of view it maintains an objective tone it avoids using figures of speech and idiomatic expressions, including biased or stereotyped and sexist language its examples include essays, journals, book reviews, synthesis, literature review, and research
  • 18. Medea is portrayed as an empowered woman in the Euripides’ play. It is a far cry from how women were viewed and represented in the Ancient Greece. Women then were mainly portrayed as in charge of producing children, taking care of them, and being a mistress of the household. Medea’s character defies and challenges conformities. Her deeds, though evil in nature, stem from the strength of her mind… Medea, although elicits pity from the audience during the first part of the play as an abandoned wife and mother, in the end, is feared and abhorred as she proves to be aware of how wicked her deeds are and yet would not have it the other way around: “I understand what evil I am about to do but my wrath is stronger even than my thoughts…” (Euripides 27).
  • 19. GENERAL FORMAT OF ACADEMIC DISCOURSE • the writer states the significance of the topic and the issues that need to be addressed • the writer mentions the objectives of the discourse and how it may be beneficial or detrimental Introduction • the writer discusses the methods of gathering information • he or she then presents the findings and interprets them • he or she formulates arguments and supports them with evidence Body • the writer reiterates the claims and asserts his or her stand • he or she may include insights and recommendations for further studies Conclusion
  • 20. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONNECTED DISCOURSE Its ideas are linked logically. There is logical organization and development of the theme. There is use of repetition, reference, conjunctions, connectives and other transitional devices.
  • 21. “There are three reasons I don’t have a credit card. The first reason is that using a piece of plastic instead of cash makes it too easy for me to buy things I can’t afford. For instance, last week I saw a 4,000.00 php pair of pink sandals in my favorite shoe store. Of course, I don’t need pink sandals, nor I can afford them. With a credit card, however, I would now own those sandals and be worrying about how to pay for them. The second reason I don’t have a credit card is that I would end up in debt like my friend Sara, the shopaholic. Sara got a credit last year, and she already owes 30,000.00 php. She buys things that she doesn’t need such as jewelry and designer sunglasses. She will be in debt for years. The third reason I don’t have a credit card is the difficulty in understanding the fine print in the credit card contract. If I don’t read the fine print, I can be surprised. For example, some credit companies will raise my interest rate if I make a payment even one day late. To sum up, credit cards may be a convenience for some people, but for me, they are plastic tickets to financial disaster.”
  • 22. “There are three reasons I don’t have a credit card. The first reason is that using a piece of plastic instead of cash makes it too easy for me to buy things I can’t afford. For instance, last week I saw a 4,000.00 php pair of pink sandals in my favorite shoe store. Of course, I don’t need pink sandals, nor I can afford them. With a credit card, however, I would now own those sandals and be worrying about how to pay for them. The second reason I don’t have a credit card is that I would end up in debt like my friend Sara, the shopaholic. Sara got a credit last year, and she already owes 30,000.00 php. She buys things that she doesn’t need such as jewelry and designer sunglasses. She will be in debt for years. The third reason I don’t have a credit card is the difficulty in understanding the fine print in the credit card contract. If I don’t read the fine print, I can be surprised. For example, some credit companies will raise my interest rate if I make a payment even one day late. To sum up, credit cards may be a convenience for some people, but for me, they are plastic tickets to financial disaster.”
  • 23. END

Editor's Notes

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