SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Structures shape the world:
How do we make a nature science
of Society?
Josefino Tulabing.Larena ,AB, CPS,CPE,MPA
Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences K to 12
Learning Objectives
 1. Examine the legacy of the Classical
Frameworks in the development of the
academic study of Society
 Discuss about the Founding Fathers of Social
Science and How their ideas impact present
theorizing about society and
 Operationalize the meaning of structures in
terms of how they help us understand social
reality
Modern times
 MOST FB LIKES
Shalomae J. Siason  Today ,Selfies are a
common phenomenon
among us, especially
the youth, Selfies are
generally portraits of &
about oneself, aided by
information and
communication
technology, which
enables the
photographer to easily
take, record and
document aspects
MOST FB SHARES
Diana Bulagao Cornelio
BEST SELFIE
Danica Bulagao Cornelio
Questions
 How a photographer take pictures of his
or her own subject?
 How does he or she compose his or her
photograph in accordance to physical and
temporal ( meaning time) conditions
where the shooting is taking place?
 Would there be a difference if the
photographer is female or male?
 How about if he or she is using a different
technology in taking pictures?
How do we see social reality? How
should we see it? How do we
intend to change or reform
 Theories are our explanatory models
where we could analyse, examine and
interpret what we see and experience
about life, society and humanity.
 Across many decades since the formal
founding of Social Science as an academic
discipline in the West, there have been
many forms of social theories .
Lens
 In contemporary social science theories,
the analogy for theoretical perspectives is
commonly expressed by the word “Lens”
to connote that there are various ways .
Classical Frameworks: Evolution
and Function
Understanding the Nature of
Society Based on Nature
 Classical social Theories do provide the
foundation. Drawing from a long and rich
intellectual tradition in philosophy
centuries before the age of modernity
particularly ,the 18th to the early 19th
century those ideas developed mainly as a
response to the most important discourse
of the time: MODERNITY
Evolution
Human Evolution
 Human evolution is the lengthy
process of change by which people
originated from apelike ancestors.
Scientific evidence shows that the
physical and behavioural traits
shared by all people originated
from apelike ancestors and
evolved over a period of
approximately six million years.
 One of the earliest defining human traits,
bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs --
evolved over 4 million years ago. Other
important human characteristics -- such as a
large and complex brain, the ability to make
and use tools, and the capacity for language --
developed more recently. Many advanced traits
-- including complex symbolic expression, art,
and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged
mainly during the past 100,000 years.
 Humans are primates. Physical and genetic
similarities show that the modern
humanspecies, Homo sapiens, has a very
close relationship to another group of primate
species, the apes. Humans and the great
apes (large apes) of Africa -- chimpanzees
(including bonobos, or so-called “pygmy
chimpanzees”) and gorillas -- share a
common ancestor that lived between 8 and 6
million years ago. Humans first evolved in
Africa, and much of human evolution
occurred on that continent. The fossils of
early humans who lived between 6 and 2
million years ago come entirely from Africa.
 Most scientists currently recognize some 15
to 20 different species of early humans.
Scientists do not all agree, however, about
how these species are related or which ones
simply died out. Many early human species --
certainly the majority of them – left no living
descendants. Scientists also debate over how
to identify and classify particular species of
early humans, and about what factors
influenced the evolution and extinction of
each species.
Before Darwin
 The word homo, the name of the biological genus
to which humans belong, is Latin for "human". It
was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his
classification system. The word "human" is from
the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo.
The Latin "homo" derives from the Indo-
European root *dhghem, or "earth". Linnaeus
and other scientists of his time also considered
the great apes to be the closest relatives of
humans based on morphological and anatomical
similarities.
Charles Darwin
 Naturalist Charles Darwin
was born in Shrewsbury,
England, on February 12,
1809. In 1831, he embarked
on a five-year survey
voyage around the world on
the HMS Beagle. His studies
of specimens around the
globe led him to formulate
his theory of evolution and
his views on the process of
natural selection. In 1859,
he published On the Origin
of Species. He died on April
19, 1882, in London.
Theory of Evolution
 Darwin's exposure to specimens all over the globe raised
important questions. Other naturalists believed that all
species either came into being at the start of the world, or
were created over the course of natural history. In either
case, the species were believed to remain much the same
throughout time. Darwin, however, noticed similarities
among species all over the globe, along with variations
based on specific locations, leading him to believe that they
had gradually evolved from common ancestors. He came to
believe that species survived through a process called
"natural selection," where species that successfully adapted
to meet the changing requirements of their natural habitat
thrived, while those that failed to evolve and reproduce
died off.
Theory of Evolution
 In 1858, after years of further scientific
investigation, Darwin publically introduced
his revolutionary theory of evolution in a
letter read at a meeting of the Linnean
Society. On November 24, 1859, he
published a detailed explanation of his
theory in his best-known work, On the
Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection.
 British philosopher and
sociologist, Herbert Spencer was
a major figure in the intellectual
life of the Victorian era. He was
one of the principal proponents of
evolutionary theory in the mid
nineteenth century, and his
reputation at the time rivalled
that of Charles Darwin.
 Spencer was initially best known
for developing and applying
evolutionary theory to philosophy,
psychology and the study of
society -- what he called his
"synthetic philosophy"
Father of Sociology
David Émile Durkheim
 ( April 15, 1858 –
November 15, 1917) was
a French sociologist,
social psychologist and
philosopher. He formally
established the academic
discipline and—with Karl
Marx and Max Weber—is
commonly cited as the
principal architect of
modern social science and
father of sociology
Father of the study of Culture
Edward Tylor
 Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2
October 1832 – 2 January
1917) was an English
anthropologist, the founder of
cultural anthropology.
 Tylor is representative of
cultural evolutionism. In his
works Primitive Culture and
Anthropology, he defined the
context of the scientific study
of anthropology, based on the
evolutionary theories of
Charles Lyell. He believed that
there was a functional basis
for the development of society
and religion, which he
determined was universal.
Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences
Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences
Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences
Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-
1942), Polish Pioneer Functionalism ethnologist
 one of the most
important
anthropologists of
the 20th century
who is widely
recognized as a
founder of social
anthropology and
principally
associated with field
studies of the
peoples of Oceania.
Functionalism
 Functionalism,
mental states are
identified by what
they do rather than
by what they are
made of. This can
be understood by
thinking about
artefacts like
mousetraps and
keys.
Structure
 Structure is an
arrangement and
organization of
interrelated elements in
a material object or
system, or the object or
system so organized
Marcel Mauss
 Marcel Mauss was a
French sociologist.
The nephew of Émile
Durkheim, Mauss's
academic work
traversed the
boundaries between
sociology and
anthropology.
Cross –Cultural and gift -giving
Classical Framework :Historical
Materialism & Human Personality
Karl Marx
 Karl Marx was a
philosopher,
economist, sociologist,
journalist, and
revolutionary socialist.
Born in Prussia to a
middle-class family, he
later studied political
economy and Hegelian
philosophy
Karl Marx Books
Classical Psychoanalysis &
Sigmund Freud
 Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological
and psychotherapeutic theories and
associated techniques, created by
Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and
stemming partly from the clinical work of
Josef Breuer and others
Sigmund Freud - The Father of
Psychoanalysis and Psychology
 Sigmund Freud was an
Austrian neurologist
and the founder of
psychoanalysis, a
clinical method for
treating
psychopathology
through dialogue
between a patient and
a psychoanalyst
 The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include:
 a person's development is determined by often forgotten events in
early childhood rather than by inherited traits alone
 human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely
influenced by irrational drives that are rooted in the unconscious
 it is necessary to bypass psychological resistance in the form of
defense mechanisms when bringing drives into awareness
 conflicts between the conscious and the unconscious, or with
repressed material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional
disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety,
depression etc.
 liberating the elements of the unconscious is achieved through
bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled
guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention
 Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a
specific type of treatment in which the
"analysand" (analytic patient) verbally
expresses his or her thoughts, including
free associations, fantasies, and dreams,
from which the analyst infers the
unconscious conflicts causing the patient's
symptoms and character problems, and
interprets them for the patient to create
insight for resolution of the problems.
Diagram showing the structure of
the human psyche
Society and Social Media
A man who dares to waste one
hour of time has not discovered
the value of life.
Charles Darwin
Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences

More Related Content

What's hot

Introduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social Sciences
Introduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social SciencesIntroduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social Sciences
Introduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social Sciences
Miss Ivy
 
DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)
DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)
DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)
RoseannAbelarde
 
Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...
Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...
Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...
Angelita Montilla
 
Topic 5 diss- marxism
Topic 5  diss- marxismTopic 5  diss- marxism
Topic 5 diss- marxism
dan_maribao
 
DISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social Sciences
DISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social SciencesDISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social Sciences
DISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social Sciences
RomlaineOlaso1
 
UCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptx
UCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptxUCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptx
UCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptx
LoraleeBragat
 
Lesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, social
Lesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, socialLesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, social
Lesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, social
Darwin Cama
 
Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,
Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,
Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,
Kellykhel Parena
 
LESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptx
LESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptxLESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptx
LESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptx
MaseilleFransquatJBa
 
Disciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptx
Disciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptxDisciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptx
Disciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptx
jocelyndecastro3
 
Community Dynamics and Community Actions
Community Dynamics and Community ActionsCommunity Dynamics and Community Actions
Community Dynamics and Community Actions
Conan Rogador
 
DISS - Approaches - Institutionalism
DISS - Approaches - InstitutionalismDISS - Approaches - Institutionalism
DISS - Approaches - Institutionalism
RomlaineOlaso1
 
Dll ucsp week 1
Dll ucsp week 1Dll ucsp week 1
Dll ucsp week 1
JoviParani1
 
DISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
DISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCEDISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
DISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
SAJINA K S
 
Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science
Anthropology, Sociology and Political ScienceAnthropology, Sociology and Political Science
Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science
Lexter Ivan Cortez
 
Diss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-history
Diss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-historyDiss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-history
Diss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-history
Maryjoydailo
 
Doing philosophy
Doing philosophyDoing philosophy
Doing philosophy
ArmanNarciso
 
Lesson 2 methods of philosophizing
Lesson 2 methods of philosophizingLesson 2 methods of philosophizing
Structural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE
Structural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCEStructural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE
Structural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE
Argie Ramos
 
Cultural, Social, and Political Change II
Cultural, Social, and Political Change IICultural, Social, and Political Change II
Cultural, Social, and Political Change II
Miss Chey
 

What's hot (20)

Introduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social Sciences
Introduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social SciencesIntroduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social Sciences
Introduction to the Disciplines of Applied Social Sciences
 
DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)
DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)
DISS (Disciplines within Social Sciences)
 
Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...
Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...
Chapter 1: STARTING POINT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICA...
 
Topic 5 diss- marxism
Topic 5  diss- marxismTopic 5  diss- marxism
Topic 5 diss- marxism
 
DISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social Sciences
DISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social SciencesDISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social Sciences
DISS - Introducing the Disciplines within the Social Sciences
 
UCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptx
UCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptxUCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptx
UCSP MODULE 1 PPT.pptx
 
Lesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, social
Lesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, socialLesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, social
Lesson 1 human cultural variation, social differences, social
 
Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,
Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,
Understanding the concepts of anthropology, sociology,
 
LESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptx
LESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptxLESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptx
LESSON 2 DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.pptx
 
Disciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptx
Disciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptxDisciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptx
Disciplines and IDeas in Social Sciences.pptx
 
Community Dynamics and Community Actions
Community Dynamics and Community ActionsCommunity Dynamics and Community Actions
Community Dynamics and Community Actions
 
DISS - Approaches - Institutionalism
DISS - Approaches - InstitutionalismDISS - Approaches - Institutionalism
DISS - Approaches - Institutionalism
 
Dll ucsp week 1
Dll ucsp week 1Dll ucsp week 1
Dll ucsp week 1
 
DISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
DISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCEDISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
DISCIPLINES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
 
Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science
Anthropology, Sociology and Political ScienceAnthropology, Sociology and Political Science
Anthropology, Sociology and Political Science
 
Diss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-history
Diss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-historyDiss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-history
Diss lesson-3-introducing-geography-and-history
 
Doing philosophy
Doing philosophyDoing philosophy
Doing philosophy
 
Lesson 2 methods of philosophizing
Lesson 2 methods of philosophizingLesson 2 methods of philosophizing
Lesson 2 methods of philosophizing
 
Structural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE
Structural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCEStructural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE
Structural functionalism - DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE
 
Cultural, Social, and Political Change II
Cultural, Social, and Political Change IICultural, Social, and Political Change II
Cultural, Social, and Political Change II
 

Viewers also liked

The socialsciencedisciplines
The socialsciencedisciplinesThe socialsciencedisciplines
The socialsciencedisciplines
nik_telan28
 
Social sciences scope and importance
Social sciences scope and importanceSocial sciences scope and importance
Social sciences scope and importance
Mkm Zafar
 
Introduction to Social Science
Introduction to Social ScienceIntroduction to Social Science
Introduction to Social Science
SIASDEECONOMICA
 
Social science
Social scienceSocial science
Social science
Stefphoney Grinage
 
An Introduction To Social Science
An Introduction To Social ScienceAn Introduction To Social Science
An Introduction To Social Science
Chen Wei Jiang
 
What is Social Science
What is Social ScienceWhat is Social Science
What is Social Science
Yew Leong Wong
 
Social sciences and social studies
Social sciences and social studiesSocial sciences and social studies
Social sciences and social studies
MamWamar_SHS Teacher/College Instructor at ESTI
 
Types of counselling
Types of counsellingTypes of counselling
Types of counselling
Tinto Johns Vazhupadickal
 
Social sciences
Social sciencesSocial sciences
Social sciences
Abhijeet Kulkarni
 
Social science
Social scienceSocial science
Social science
Carie Justine Estrellado
 
The Birth and Growth of the Social Sciences
The Birth and Growth of the Social SciencesThe Birth and Growth of the Social Sciences
The Birth and Growth of the Social Sciences
Edmundo Dantes
 
Basic counselling skills
Basic counselling skills  Basic counselling skills
Basic counselling skills
Smaranika Tripathy
 
Genre
GenreGenre
Genre
Jaasmine
 
Presentation2
Presentation2Presentation2
Presentation2
barbarabwilliams
 
Kinds of writing
Kinds of writingKinds of writing
Kinds of writing
salinashelly865
 
Learning
LearningLearning
Report frequency distribution table
Report frequency distribution tableReport frequency distribution table
Report frequency distribution table
MaTeresa Berondo
 
Origins of social science
Origins of social scienceOrigins of social science
Origins of social science
tlshieldsk
 
Social science and natural science
Social science and natural scienceSocial science and natural science
Social science and natural science
Tayyibah
 
Compilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish Colonization
Compilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish ColonizationCompilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish Colonization
Compilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish Colonization
J. Svlle
 

Viewers also liked (20)

The socialsciencedisciplines
The socialsciencedisciplinesThe socialsciencedisciplines
The socialsciencedisciplines
 
Social sciences scope and importance
Social sciences scope and importanceSocial sciences scope and importance
Social sciences scope and importance
 
Introduction to Social Science
Introduction to Social ScienceIntroduction to Social Science
Introduction to Social Science
 
Social science
Social scienceSocial science
Social science
 
An Introduction To Social Science
An Introduction To Social ScienceAn Introduction To Social Science
An Introduction To Social Science
 
What is Social Science
What is Social ScienceWhat is Social Science
What is Social Science
 
Social sciences and social studies
Social sciences and social studiesSocial sciences and social studies
Social sciences and social studies
 
Types of counselling
Types of counsellingTypes of counselling
Types of counselling
 
Social sciences
Social sciencesSocial sciences
Social sciences
 
Social science
Social scienceSocial science
Social science
 
The Birth and Growth of the Social Sciences
The Birth and Growth of the Social SciencesThe Birth and Growth of the Social Sciences
The Birth and Growth of the Social Sciences
 
Basic counselling skills
Basic counselling skills  Basic counselling skills
Basic counselling skills
 
Genre
GenreGenre
Genre
 
Presentation2
Presentation2Presentation2
Presentation2
 
Kinds of writing
Kinds of writingKinds of writing
Kinds of writing
 
Learning
LearningLearning
Learning
 
Report frequency distribution table
Report frequency distribution tableReport frequency distribution table
Report frequency distribution table
 
Origins of social science
Origins of social scienceOrigins of social science
Origins of social science
 
Social science and natural science
Social science and natural scienceSocial science and natural science
Social science and natural science
 
Compilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish Colonization
Compilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish ColonizationCompilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish Colonization
Compilation Of Philippine literature during Pre-Spanish and Spanish Colonization
 

Similar to Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences

Anthropology
AnthropologyAnthropology
Anthropology
hoodave11
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
Chapter 1: Introduction to AnthropologyChapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
Sagar Ibrahim Siyal
 
Aralin 2 PERSPECTIVES
Aralin 2 PERSPECTIVESAralin 2 PERSPECTIVES
Aralin 2 PERSPECTIVES
Emmanuel Calimag
 
Hist Over Psych Anth S10
Hist Over Psych Anth S10Hist Over Psych Anth S10
Hist Over Psych Anth S10
cherrybloosom89
 
Topic 2 birth and growth
Topic 2   birth and growthTopic 2   birth and growth
Topic 2 birth and growth
DANILO MARIBAO
 
Topic 1 2 - diss-birth and growth
Topic 1 2 - diss-birth and growthTopic 1 2 - diss-birth and growth
Topic 1 2 - diss-birth and growth
dan_maribao
 
anthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptx
anthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptxanthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptx
anthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptx
RheaAgramonte2
 
WEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptx
WEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptxWEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptx
WEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptx
SweetMarieVillasan
 
History Of Atomic Theory Essay
History Of Atomic Theory EssayHistory Of Atomic Theory Essay
History Of Atomic Theory Essay
Sonia Sanchez
 
Anthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdf
Anthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdfAnthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdf
Anthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdf
renzjerex1
 
Classical theories in Anthropology.pptx
Classical theories  in Anthropology.pptxClassical theories  in Anthropology.pptx
Classical theories in Anthropology.pptx
BalelaBoru
 
4 2-social human life-anthropology
4 2-social human life-anthropology4 2-social human life-anthropology
Evolution in History and Systems in Psychology
Evolution in History and Systems in PsychologyEvolution in History and Systems in Psychology
Evolution in History and Systems in Psychology
Quratulaintahir1
 
Origin and devpt socio
Origin and devpt socioOrigin and devpt socio
Origin and devpt socio
Sameena Siddique
 
WEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptx
WEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptxWEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptx
WEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptx
ELLENFERNANDEZ3
 
Sujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdfSujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Rao Mandavilli
 
Sujay theories of cultural change final final final final final
Sujay theories of cultural change final final final final finalSujay theories of cultural change final final final final final
Sujay theories of cultural change final final final final final
Sujay Rao Mandavilli
 
Sujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdfSujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Rao Mandavilli
 
Social Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptx
Social Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptxSocial Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptx
Social Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptx
charlycabal12
 
Intellectual Revolution (STS)
Intellectual Revolution (STS)Intellectual Revolution (STS)
Intellectual Revolution (STS)
VSTVYCCD7
 

Similar to Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences (20)

Anthropology
AnthropologyAnthropology
Anthropology
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
Chapter 1: Introduction to AnthropologyChapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
 
Aralin 2 PERSPECTIVES
Aralin 2 PERSPECTIVESAralin 2 PERSPECTIVES
Aralin 2 PERSPECTIVES
 
Hist Over Psych Anth S10
Hist Over Psych Anth S10Hist Over Psych Anth S10
Hist Over Psych Anth S10
 
Topic 2 birth and growth
Topic 2   birth and growthTopic 2   birth and growth
Topic 2 birth and growth
 
Topic 1 2 - diss-birth and growth
Topic 1 2 - diss-birth and growthTopic 1 2 - diss-birth and growth
Topic 1 2 - diss-birth and growth
 
anthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptx
anthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptxanthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptx
anthropology- Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences.pptx
 
WEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptx
WEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptxWEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptx
WEEK 1. SOC SCI.pptx
 
History Of Atomic Theory Essay
History Of Atomic Theory EssayHistory Of Atomic Theory Essay
History Of Atomic Theory Essay
 
Anthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdf
Anthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdfAnthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdf
Anthropology_rex20240216_151345_0000.pdf
 
Classical theories in Anthropology.pptx
Classical theories  in Anthropology.pptxClassical theories  in Anthropology.pptx
Classical theories in Anthropology.pptx
 
4 2-social human life-anthropology
4 2-social human life-anthropology4 2-social human life-anthropology
4 2-social human life-anthropology
 
Evolution in History and Systems in Psychology
Evolution in History and Systems in PsychologyEvolution in History and Systems in Psychology
Evolution in History and Systems in Psychology
 
Origin and devpt socio
Origin and devpt socioOrigin and devpt socio
Origin and devpt socio
 
WEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptx
WEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptxWEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptx
WEEK 2-ANTHROPOLOGY.pptx
 
Sujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdfSujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Theories of Cultural change FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
 
Sujay theories of cultural change final final final final final
Sujay theories of cultural change final final final final finalSujay theories of cultural change final final final final final
Sujay theories of cultural change final final final final final
 
Sujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdfSujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Sujay Anthropological Pedagogy FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
 
Social Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptx
Social Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptxSocial Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptx
Social Anth. Module 1 Topics 1&2 (1) (1).pptx
 
Intellectual Revolution (STS)
Intellectual Revolution (STS)Intellectual Revolution (STS)
Intellectual Revolution (STS)
 

More from Monte Christo

Negros Oriental Literary History
Negros Oriental Literary HistoryNegros Oriental Literary History
Negros Oriental Literary History
Monte Christo
 
Bais City Heritage Matrix
Bais City  Heritage MatrixBais City  Heritage Matrix
Bais City Heritage Matrix
Monte Christo
 
Arts & Photography
Arts & PhotographyArts & Photography
Arts & Photography
Monte Christo
 
Intro to Creative industries promoting art & culture
Intro to Creative industries promoting art & cultureIntro to Creative industries promoting art & culture
Intro to Creative industries promoting art & culture
Monte Christo
 
Creative industries in arts & culture practice
Creative industries in arts & culture practiceCreative industries in arts & culture practice
Creative industries in arts & culture practice
Monte Christo
 
Entrepreneurship in the Creative Industries
Entrepreneurship in the Creative IndustriesEntrepreneurship in the Creative Industries
Entrepreneurship in the Creative Industries
Monte Christo
 
Negros Island Arts and Artists
Negros Island  Arts and ArtistsNegros Island  Arts and Artists
Negros Island Arts and Artists
Monte Christo
 
Art Appreciation
Art AppreciationArt Appreciation
Art Appreciation
Monte Christo
 
World Art history
World Art historyWorld Art history
World Art history
Monte Christo
 
Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022
Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022
Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022
Monte Christo
 
Environmental Crisis and Sustainable
Environmental Crisis and SustainableEnvironmental Crisis and Sustainable
Environmental Crisis and Sustainable
Monte Christo
 
Movement and Sustainability
Movement and SustainabilityMovement and Sustainability
Movement and Sustainability
Monte Christo
 
A World of Ideas Cultures of Globalization
A World of Ideas Cultures of GlobalizationA World of Ideas Cultures of Globalization
A World of Ideas Cultures of Globalization
Monte Christo
 
The Globalization of world economic
The Globalization of world economicThe Globalization of world economic
The Globalization of world economic
Monte Christo
 
Society and Globalization
Society and  GlobalizationSociety and  Globalization
Society and Globalization
Monte Christo
 
Reading in Philippine History
Reading in Philippine HistoryReading in Philippine History
Reading in Philippine History
Monte Christo
 
Introduction to Reading in Philippine History
Introduction to Reading   in Philippine HistoryIntroduction to Reading   in Philippine History
Introduction to Reading in Philippine History
Monte Christo
 
Negros Oriental Revolution
Negros Oriental RevolutionNegros Oriental Revolution
Negros Oriental Revolution
Monte Christo
 
Remembering Dr. Jose Rizal
Remembering Dr. Jose RizalRemembering Dr. Jose Rizal
Remembering Dr. Jose Rizal
Monte Christo
 
Introduction to the Life of Jose Rizal
Introduction to  the Life of  Jose RizalIntroduction to  the Life of  Jose Rizal
Introduction to the Life of Jose Rizal
Monte Christo
 

More from Monte Christo (20)

Negros Oriental Literary History
Negros Oriental Literary HistoryNegros Oriental Literary History
Negros Oriental Literary History
 
Bais City Heritage Matrix
Bais City  Heritage MatrixBais City  Heritage Matrix
Bais City Heritage Matrix
 
Arts & Photography
Arts & PhotographyArts & Photography
Arts & Photography
 
Intro to Creative industries promoting art & culture
Intro to Creative industries promoting art & cultureIntro to Creative industries promoting art & culture
Intro to Creative industries promoting art & culture
 
Creative industries in arts & culture practice
Creative industries in arts & culture practiceCreative industries in arts & culture practice
Creative industries in arts & culture practice
 
Entrepreneurship in the Creative Industries
Entrepreneurship in the Creative IndustriesEntrepreneurship in the Creative Industries
Entrepreneurship in the Creative Industries
 
Negros Island Arts and Artists
Negros Island  Arts and ArtistsNegros Island  Arts and Artists
Negros Island Arts and Artists
 
Art Appreciation
Art AppreciationArt Appreciation
Art Appreciation
 
World Art history
World Art historyWorld Art history
World Art history
 
Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022
Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022
Silliman U. Scouting Centennial 1922-2022
 
Environmental Crisis and Sustainable
Environmental Crisis and SustainableEnvironmental Crisis and Sustainable
Environmental Crisis and Sustainable
 
Movement and Sustainability
Movement and SustainabilityMovement and Sustainability
Movement and Sustainability
 
A World of Ideas Cultures of Globalization
A World of Ideas Cultures of GlobalizationA World of Ideas Cultures of Globalization
A World of Ideas Cultures of Globalization
 
The Globalization of world economic
The Globalization of world economicThe Globalization of world economic
The Globalization of world economic
 
Society and Globalization
Society and  GlobalizationSociety and  Globalization
Society and Globalization
 
Reading in Philippine History
Reading in Philippine HistoryReading in Philippine History
Reading in Philippine History
 
Introduction to Reading in Philippine History
Introduction to Reading   in Philippine HistoryIntroduction to Reading   in Philippine History
Introduction to Reading in Philippine History
 
Negros Oriental Revolution
Negros Oriental RevolutionNegros Oriental Revolution
Negros Oriental Revolution
 
Remembering Dr. Jose Rizal
Remembering Dr. Jose RizalRemembering Dr. Jose Rizal
Remembering Dr. Jose Rizal
 
Introduction to the Life of Jose Rizal
Introduction to  the Life of  Jose RizalIntroduction to  the Life of  Jose Rizal
Introduction to the Life of Jose Rizal
 

Recently uploaded

Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal UseIntroduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Excellence Foundation for South Sudan
 
QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...
QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...
QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...
mansk2
 
MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHatMVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
MANIVALANSR
 
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 SlidesE-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
ALBERTHISOLER1
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008
DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008
DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008
Glenn Rivera
 
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
UmeshTimilsina1
 
PRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdf
PRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdfPRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdf
PRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdf
nservice241
 
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
Association for Project Management
 
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docxParent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
AntonioJarligoCompra
 
3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx
3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx
3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx
UmeshTimilsina1
 
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEWRDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHatNode JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
SQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
SQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHatSQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
SQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docxMATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
yardenmendoza
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal UseIntroduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
 
QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...
QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...
QCE – Unpacking the syllabus Implications for Senior School practices and ass...
 
MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHatMVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
 
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
 
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
 
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
 
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 SlidesE-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008
DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008
DepEd School Calendar 2024-2025 DO_s2024_008
 
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
 
PRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdf
PRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdfPRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdf
PRESS RELEASE - UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, JULY 16, 2024.pdf
 
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
 
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docxParent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
 
3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx
3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx
3. Maturity_indices_of_fruits_and_vegetable.pptx
 
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEWRDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
 
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHatNode JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
 
SQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
SQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHatSQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
SQL Server Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docxMATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
 

Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences

  • 1. Structures shape the world: How do we make a nature science of Society? Josefino Tulabing.Larena ,AB, CPS,CPE,MPA Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences K to 12
  • 2. Learning Objectives  1. Examine the legacy of the Classical Frameworks in the development of the academic study of Society  Discuss about the Founding Fathers of Social Science and How their ideas impact present theorizing about society and  Operationalize the meaning of structures in terms of how they help us understand social reality
  • 3. Modern times  MOST FB LIKES Shalomae J. Siason  Today ,Selfies are a common phenomenon among us, especially the youth, Selfies are generally portraits of & about oneself, aided by information and communication technology, which enables the photographer to easily take, record and document aspects
  • 4. MOST FB SHARES Diana Bulagao Cornelio BEST SELFIE Danica Bulagao Cornelio
  • 5. Questions  How a photographer take pictures of his or her own subject?  How does he or she compose his or her photograph in accordance to physical and temporal ( meaning time) conditions where the shooting is taking place?  Would there be a difference if the photographer is female or male?  How about if he or she is using a different technology in taking pictures?
  • 6. How do we see social reality? How should we see it? How do we intend to change or reform  Theories are our explanatory models where we could analyse, examine and interpret what we see and experience about life, society and humanity.  Across many decades since the formal founding of Social Science as an academic discipline in the West, there have been many forms of social theories .
  • 7. Lens  In contemporary social science theories, the analogy for theoretical perspectives is commonly expressed by the word “Lens” to connote that there are various ways .
  • 9. Understanding the Nature of Society Based on Nature  Classical social Theories do provide the foundation. Drawing from a long and rich intellectual tradition in philosophy centuries before the age of modernity particularly ,the 18th to the early 19th century those ideas developed mainly as a response to the most important discourse of the time: MODERNITY
  • 11. Human Evolution  Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioural traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.
  • 12.  One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past 100,000 years.
  • 13.  Humans are primates. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern humanspecies, Homo sapiens, has a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes. Humans and the great apes (large apes) of Africa -- chimpanzees (including bonobos, or so-called “pygmy chimpanzees”) and gorillas -- share a common ancestor that lived between 8 and 6 million years ago. Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa.
  • 14.  Most scientists currently recognize some 15 to 20 different species of early humans. Scientists do not all agree, however, about how these species are related or which ones simply died out. Many early human species -- certainly the majority of them – left no living descendants. Scientists also debate over how to identify and classify particular species of early humans, and about what factors influenced the evolution and extinction of each species.
  • 15. Before Darwin  The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for "human". It was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his classification system. The word "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo. The Latin "homo" derives from the Indo- European root *dhghem, or "earth". Linnaeus and other scientists of his time also considered the great apes to be the closest relatives of humans based on morphological and anatomical similarities.
  • 16. Charles Darwin  Naturalist Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England, on February 12, 1809. In 1831, he embarked on a five-year survey voyage around the world on the HMS Beagle. His studies of specimens around the globe led him to formulate his theory of evolution and his views on the process of natural selection. In 1859, he published On the Origin of Species. He died on April 19, 1882, in London.
  • 17. Theory of Evolution  Darwin's exposure to specimens all over the globe raised important questions. Other naturalists believed that all species either came into being at the start of the world, or were created over the course of natural history. In either case, the species were believed to remain much the same throughout time. Darwin, however, noticed similarities among species all over the globe, along with variations based on specific locations, leading him to believe that they had gradually evolved from common ancestors. He came to believe that species survived through a process called "natural selection," where species that successfully adapted to meet the changing requirements of their natural habitat thrived, while those that failed to evolve and reproduce died off.
  • 18. Theory of Evolution  In 1858, after years of further scientific investigation, Darwin publically introduced his revolutionary theory of evolution in a letter read at a meeting of the Linnean Society. On November 24, 1859, he published a detailed explanation of his theory in his best-known work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
  • 19.  British philosopher and sociologist, Herbert Spencer was a major figure in the intellectual life of the Victorian era. He was one of the principal proponents of evolutionary theory in the mid nineteenth century, and his reputation at the time rivalled that of Charles Darwin.  Spencer was initially best known for developing and applying evolutionary theory to philosophy, psychology and the study of society -- what he called his "synthetic philosophy"
  • 20. Father of Sociology David Émile Durkheim  ( April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist, social psychologist and philosopher. He formally established the academic discipline and—with Karl Marx and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology
  • 21. Father of the study of Culture Edward Tylor  Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.  Tylor is representative of cultural evolutionism. In his works Primitive Culture and Anthropology, he defined the context of the scientific study of anthropology, based on the evolutionary theories of Charles Lyell. He believed that there was a functional basis for the development of society and religion, which he determined was universal.
  • 25. Bronislaw Malinowski (1884- 1942), Polish Pioneer Functionalism ethnologist  one of the most important anthropologists of the 20th century who is widely recognized as a founder of social anthropology and principally associated with field studies of the peoples of Oceania.
  • 26. Functionalism  Functionalism, mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of. This can be understood by thinking about artefacts like mousetraps and keys.
  • 27. Structure  Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized
  • 28. Marcel Mauss  Marcel Mauss was a French sociologist. The nephew of Émile Durkheim, Mauss's academic work traversed the boundaries between sociology and anthropology.
  • 29. Cross –Cultural and gift -giving
  • 31. Karl Marx  Karl Marx was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Prussia to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy
  • 33. Classical Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud  Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others
  • 34. Sigmund Freud - The Father of Psychoanalysis and Psychology  Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst
  • 35.  The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include:  a person's development is determined by often forgotten events in early childhood rather than by inherited traits alone  human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives that are rooted in the unconscious  it is necessary to bypass psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms when bringing drives into awareness  conflicts between the conscious and the unconscious, or with repressed material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.  liberating the elements of the unconscious is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention
  • 36.  Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the "analysand" (analytic patient) verbally expresses his or her thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst infers the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.
  • 37. Diagram showing the structure of the human psyche
  • 39. A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life. Charles Darwin