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DISASTER MANAGEMENTDISASTER MANAGEMENT
CONCEPTCONCEPT
WHAT IS A DISASTER ???
Disaster comes from two French words
Des – Bad or Evil
Astre - Star
Disaster means loss of life and
property due to unfavorable star
DISASTER
A situation of hardship and human suffering
arising from events which causes physical loss or
damage, social and /or economic disruption from
which the country or community is unable to
fully cope alone.
WHAT MAKES A DISASTER
Disasters are the combination of a
number of factors:
Hazards
Risks
Vulnerability
Capacity
Hazard
Phenomena that pose a threat to people,
structure or assets and which may cause
a disaster
RISK
The risk is generally defined as the expected
impact caused by a particular phenomenon. It
combines the likelihood or probability of a disaster
happening and the negative effects that result if
the disaster happens.
RISK
The risk is generally defined as the expected
impact caused by a particular phenomenon. It
combines the likelihood or probability of a disaster
happening and the negative effects that result if
the disaster happens.
VULNERABILITY
Human vulnerability is the extent to which an
individual, community, sub-group, structure,
service or geographical area is likely to be
damaged or disrupted by the impact of a
particular hazard.
Types of vulnerability
• Physical vulnerability
• Social vulnerability
• Economic vulnerability
Physical vulnerability
Infrastructure
– Transport system-Roads, Railways, Bridges,
Ports & Airports
– Utility Services-Water supply, Electricity, Tele
communication, Sewerage & Embankments
– Critical Govt. and Private facilities-Health
facilities, Educational institutions, Offices,
Dams
Social Vulnerability
• Special category people
– Elderly people
– Children & pregnant women
– Sick and ailing people
– Widows and single women
– Physically and mentally handicapped
– Families living near the sea
– Fishermen at sea
– People living near rivers and creeks
continued…..
Social Vulnerability continued..
• Damage of social fabric
• Damage to human relationship
• Psychological trauma
• Emotional breakdown
Economic vulnerability
• Livelihoods
• Standing crops, Horticulture trees, Plantations
• Family assets and valuable documents
• Pet animals
• Loss to economic assets of individuals and and
state
• Loss to economic processes involving
individuals, families and state
CAPACITY
A capacity refers to the internal and external
resources, peoples, households and communities
have to cope with in situations that threaten their
life and well being.
Factors Determining Risk
H + V – C = R
Hazard +Vulnerability – Capacity =
Risk
Types of Disasters
• Water and Climate related
• Geologically related
• Chemical/Industrial
& Nuclear
• Accident related
• Biological
Water & Climate related Disasters
• Floods, Water Logging, Drainage
• Cyclones, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Hailstorms
• Cloud bursts, thunder, lightning
• Landslides
• Heat & Cold wave
• Sea erosion
• Drought
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Geological Disasters
• Earthquakes
• Dam Bursts
• Mine Fires
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
TSUNAMI
• Caused by vertical movement of sea bed
• Two tsunamis per year in world
• A destructive Pacific wide tsunami in every 15
years
• Velocity depends on depth of sea
• Speed is 700 kmph for 4000 m depth,36 kmph
for 10m
• Size could be from few cms to over 30M
• Can flood land up to 1.5 km from the coast
Disaster management concept
Chemical/Industrial &Nuclear
• Chemical disasters (Bhopal Gas Tragedy,3rd
Dec,1984)
• Industrial disasters
• Oil spills/Fires
• Nuclear (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Accident related disasters
• Boat / Road / Train Accidents / Air Crash
• Building Collapse
• Electric Accidents
• Rural / Urban Fires
• Festival related disasters
• Mine Flooding
• Bomb /Serial Bomb Blasts
Biological Disasters
• Human / Animal Epidemics
• Pest Attacks
• Food Poisoning
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Disaster management concept
Damage due to Cyclone in Orissa -
1999
17th
-18th
Oct 1999 20th
-30th
Oct 1999
Districts affected 4 12
Villages affected 5181 14,643
Population affected 37.47 Lakh 129.22 Lakh
Crop area affected 1.58 Lakh 18.43 Lha
Houses damaged 331,580 18,28,532
Human life loss 199 9,887
Cattle loss 10,578 4,44,531
Source: Source : Annual Reports, NDM Divn., MOA
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
How???
Disaster management concept
Components of Disaster Management
1.Response
2. Recovery
3. Prevention
4. Preparedness and Mitigation
Disaster Response
It involves measures taken in anticipation
of, during and immediately after a disaster
to ensure that the effects are minimized
Example of Disaster Response
1.Implementing the Disaster Management
Plans
2.Setting up of medical camps and mobilizing
resources
3.Providing adequate shelter and sanitary
facilities
4.Carrying out Search and Rescue Operation
Disaster Recovery
It involves measures, which support
emergency affected areas in
reconstruction of the physical
infrastructure and restoration of
economic and emotional well being
Example for Disaster Recovery
1.Restoring services like roads,
communication, electricity, drinking
water supply
2.Reconstructing damaged buildings,
bridges etc.
3.Providing financial support and
employment
4. Alternative Livelihood option
5. Trauma Counseling
Disaster Preparedness
It involves measures to ensure that
communities and services are
capable of coping with the effect of
disaster.
Example for Disaster Preparedness
1.Community Awareness and Education
2. Community level preparedness
3. Preparation of Disaster Management
plans
4.Proper warning system
5.Mutual aid arrangement
6.Mock drill, training practice
Prevention and Mitigation
It involves measures to eliminate or
reduce the incidence of severity of
disasters
Example of Prevention and
Mitigation
1.Preventing habitation in risk zones
2.Disaster resistant buildings
3.Enforcement of Building-by-laws
4.Training and Capacity Building
Types of Disaster & Nodal Ministry
Types of Disaster Nodal Ministry
Air Accident Ministry of Civil Aviation
Civil Strife Ministry of Home Affaires
Railway Accident Ministry of Railways
Chemical Disasters Ministry of Environment & Forests
Biological
Disasters
Ministry of Health
Nuclear Accident Dept. of Atomic Energy
Natural Disasters Ministry of Home Affaires
Drought Ministry of Agriculture
Thank You
Any Questions??

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Disaster management concept

  • 2. WHAT IS A DISASTER ???
  • 3. Disaster comes from two French words Des – Bad or Evil Astre - Star Disaster means loss of life and property due to unfavorable star
  • 4. DISASTER A situation of hardship and human suffering arising from events which causes physical loss or damage, social and /or economic disruption from which the country or community is unable to fully cope alone.
  • 5. WHAT MAKES A DISASTER Disasters are the combination of a number of factors: Hazards Risks Vulnerability Capacity
  • 6. Hazard Phenomena that pose a threat to people, structure or assets and which may cause a disaster
  • 7. RISK The risk is generally defined as the expected impact caused by a particular phenomenon. It combines the likelihood or probability of a disaster happening and the negative effects that result if the disaster happens.
  • 8. RISK The risk is generally defined as the expected impact caused by a particular phenomenon. It combines the likelihood or probability of a disaster happening and the negative effects that result if the disaster happens.
  • 9. VULNERABILITY Human vulnerability is the extent to which an individual, community, sub-group, structure, service or geographical area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a particular hazard.
  • 10. Types of vulnerability • Physical vulnerability • Social vulnerability • Economic vulnerability
  • 11. Physical vulnerability Infrastructure – Transport system-Roads, Railways, Bridges, Ports & Airports – Utility Services-Water supply, Electricity, Tele communication, Sewerage & Embankments – Critical Govt. and Private facilities-Health facilities, Educational institutions, Offices, Dams
  • 12. Social Vulnerability • Special category people – Elderly people – Children & pregnant women – Sick and ailing people – Widows and single women – Physically and mentally handicapped – Families living near the sea – Fishermen at sea – People living near rivers and creeks continued…..
  • 13. Social Vulnerability continued.. • Damage of social fabric • Damage to human relationship • Psychological trauma • Emotional breakdown
  • 14. Economic vulnerability • Livelihoods • Standing crops, Horticulture trees, Plantations • Family assets and valuable documents • Pet animals • Loss to economic assets of individuals and and state • Loss to economic processes involving individuals, families and state
  • 15. CAPACITY A capacity refers to the internal and external resources, peoples, households and communities have to cope with in situations that threaten their life and well being.
  • 16. Factors Determining Risk H + V – C = R Hazard +Vulnerability – Capacity = Risk
  • 17. Types of Disasters • Water and Climate related • Geologically related • Chemical/Industrial & Nuclear • Accident related • Biological
  • 18. Water & Climate related Disasters • Floods, Water Logging, Drainage • Cyclones, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Hailstorms • Cloud bursts, thunder, lightning • Landslides • Heat & Cold wave • Sea erosion • Drought
  • 32. Geological Disasters • Earthquakes • Dam Bursts • Mine Fires
  • 37. TSUNAMI • Caused by vertical movement of sea bed • Two tsunamis per year in world • A destructive Pacific wide tsunami in every 15 years • Velocity depends on depth of sea • Speed is 700 kmph for 4000 m depth,36 kmph for 10m • Size could be from few cms to over 30M • Can flood land up to 1.5 km from the coast
  • 39. Chemical/Industrial &Nuclear • Chemical disasters (Bhopal Gas Tragedy,3rd Dec,1984) • Industrial disasters • Oil spills/Fires • Nuclear (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)
  • 43. Accident related disasters • Boat / Road / Train Accidents / Air Crash • Building Collapse • Electric Accidents • Rural / Urban Fires • Festival related disasters • Mine Flooding • Bomb /Serial Bomb Blasts
  • 44. Biological Disasters • Human / Animal Epidemics • Pest Attacks • Food Poisoning
  • 51. Damage due to Cyclone in Orissa - 1999 17th -18th Oct 1999 20th -30th Oct 1999 Districts affected 4 12 Villages affected 5181 14,643 Population affected 37.47 Lakh 129.22 Lakh Crop area affected 1.58 Lakh 18.43 Lha Houses damaged 331,580 18,28,532 Human life loss 199 9,887 Cattle loss 10,578 4,44,531 Source: Source : Annual Reports, NDM Divn., MOA
  • 54. Components of Disaster Management 1.Response 2. Recovery 3. Prevention 4. Preparedness and Mitigation
  • 55. Disaster Response It involves measures taken in anticipation of, during and immediately after a disaster to ensure that the effects are minimized
  • 56. Example of Disaster Response 1.Implementing the Disaster Management Plans 2.Setting up of medical camps and mobilizing resources 3.Providing adequate shelter and sanitary facilities 4.Carrying out Search and Rescue Operation
  • 57. Disaster Recovery It involves measures, which support emergency affected areas in reconstruction of the physical infrastructure and restoration of economic and emotional well being
  • 58. Example for Disaster Recovery 1.Restoring services like roads, communication, electricity, drinking water supply 2.Reconstructing damaged buildings, bridges etc. 3.Providing financial support and employment 4. Alternative Livelihood option 5. Trauma Counseling
  • 59. Disaster Preparedness It involves measures to ensure that communities and services are capable of coping with the effect of disaster.
  • 60. Example for Disaster Preparedness 1.Community Awareness and Education 2. Community level preparedness 3. Preparation of Disaster Management plans 4.Proper warning system 5.Mutual aid arrangement 6.Mock drill, training practice
  • 61. Prevention and Mitigation It involves measures to eliminate or reduce the incidence of severity of disasters
  • 62. Example of Prevention and Mitigation 1.Preventing habitation in risk zones 2.Disaster resistant buildings 3.Enforcement of Building-by-laws 4.Training and Capacity Building
  • 63. Types of Disaster & Nodal Ministry Types of Disaster Nodal Ministry Air Accident Ministry of Civil Aviation Civil Strife Ministry of Home Affaires Railway Accident Ministry of Railways Chemical Disasters Ministry of Environment & Forests Biological Disasters Ministry of Health Nuclear Accident Dept. of Atomic Energy Natural Disasters Ministry of Home Affaires Drought Ministry of Agriculture