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ROLE OF FERTILIZER IN TRANSFORMING OF
AGRICULTURE IN Kyrgyzstan
ReSAKSS-Asia
Dilshod Abdulhamidov
Siem Reap, Cambodia
September 26-27, 2013
13.8%
46.7%
40.2%
43.4%
39.3%
38.2%
32.7%
35.7% 36.7% 36.7%
0.5%
4.2% 3.9% 4.6% 3.8%
5.9%
3.9%
5.2%
7.2% 7.2%
1.2%
0.5% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% 0.0% 0.0%
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
35.0%
40.0%
45.0%
50.0%
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Fertilizer Requirement Projections and Consumption in
Kyrgyzstan in 2002-2011, %
N
P2O5
K2O
Annual Fertilizer Requirement:
• N - 68,800 MT
• P2O5 - 44,410 MT
• K2O - 4,025 MT
*Source: FAO, The Department of Chemicalization and Plant Protection of Kyrgyz Republic
Flow of Fertilizer from Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Russia
(2012)
Lugovaya Hub, KZ:
• AN, $350;
• Ammophos, $470;
KazaAzot & Kazphosphate, KZ,
• AN, Ammophos, Superph
osphate ;
Russia:
• AN, MAP, Superphosphate
Uzbekistan:
• AN
($255), Urea, Super
phosphate
255
(59.3%)
255
(49.8%)
65.2
(15.1%)
65.2
(12.7%)
82.0
(4.8%)
20.5
(16.0%)
110.2
(20.8%)
89.7
(21.5%)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550
Batken
Chuy
Uzbekistan AN Retail Price Components, $/MT
Producer Price Railroad Transportation
Road Transportation Storage, Distribution, Marketing
$430/MT
$512/MT
3,110
6,500+670
(+21.5%
+800
(+12.3%)
+822
(+26.4%)
+1,498
(+23%)
+1,582
(+50,9%)
+3,125
(+48.1%)
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
Winter wheat Maize
Yield,kg
+77.3%
+71.1%
Yields response to fertilizer and quality seeds, 2007 – 2009, updated with crop
and fertilizer prices in 2012 (Source: KAED/IFDC)
18,050
+2,950
(+16.3%)
+3,225
(+34.2%)
+7,913
(+43.8%)
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
Potato
+78%
Imbalanced fertilizer & Inappropriate variety
Balanced fertilizer & Inappropriate variety
Imbalanced fertilizer & Appropriate variety
Balanced fertilizer & Appropriate variety
Average Yields in KR
(2008-2012):
• Wheat - 2,112 kg/ha
• Maize - 5,942 kg/ha
• Potato - 15,876 kg/ha
Yield gap at fertilizer and seed levels
(Wheat, maize, and potato)
• Nutrient
deficiencies
• Improper variety/
poor seed quality
(42% - 44%)
• Improper variety/
poor seed quality
(31% - 35%)
• Nutrient
deficiencies
(25% - 29%)
Yield potential given
proper varieties and
efficient nutrients
1.34
3.13
1.09
4.37 4.18
11.14
0.78
1.84
0.63
2.44
1.29
3.47
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Wheat
(inappropriate
variety)
Wheat Maize
(inappropriate
variety)
Maize Potato
(inappropriate
variety)
Potato
VCR for recommended levels of balanced fertilizer application, 2002 & 2012
2002
2012
Constraints and Challenges at farm level
• Increased number of inexperienced farmers after distribution
of land to rural residents in 1998 (65% of total population):
▫ Insufficient knowledge in the techniques of land
management and cultivation
▫ Poor information on farm inputs, especially phosphate and
potash fertilizers;
• Causes of larger amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers
▫ Availability at lower prices compared to P&K fertilizers
▫ Immediate effect on crops
▫ Traditional practices
• Risks:
▫ Bad weather and other external factors (drought in 2010
and 2012)
▫ High volatility of output prices;
• Financial constraints
• Lack access to marketing channels and markets
• Low farmer demand for fertilizer;
• Financial constraints;
• Limited access to modern input
market chains;
• High transportations costs;
Constraints and Challenges - Dealers
Constraints and Challenges - Government Level
• Very low budget of Ministry of Agriculture (~1.8% in 2013
of total gov. budget compared ~4% to 2009 and earlier)
• Only 3 soil test labs in the country:
▫ No results on micronutrients;
▫ 0nly 0.2% of farmers test the soil;
• Inefficient allocation of exiting resources:
▫ Agricultural credits with low interest rates are
available and main indicators are repayments; there is
no ag-development schemes;
• There is no national extension system to educate and
consult farmers
• Huge gap between ministries, universities, research
institutions, and policymaking and implementing entities.
Opportunities
• Access of input dealers to low interest rate credit
• Development schemes alternative to credits (vouchers –
input package of NPK and HYV)
• Development of Public Extension Services
▫ Extension Interventions,
▫ Extension PR (Publications, TV)
▫ Free Soil Testing
▫ Develop on-farm field trials
• Strengthening the institutional capacity of Ministry of
Agriculture: more upgraded soil labs, regular
monitoring, evaluation, and impact assessment
• Promote commercial crops (maize, potato, etc.).
So, using NPK improve nutrient budgets for growing
other crops, such as wheat and sunflower, in following
years.

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The Fertilizer sector in Kyrgyzstan- Dilshod Abdulhamidov

  • 1. ROLE OF FERTILIZER IN TRANSFORMING OF AGRICULTURE IN Kyrgyzstan ReSAKSS-Asia Dilshod Abdulhamidov Siem Reap, Cambodia September 26-27, 2013
  • 2. 13.8% 46.7% 40.2% 43.4% 39.3% 38.2% 32.7% 35.7% 36.7% 36.7% 0.5% 4.2% 3.9% 4.6% 3.8% 5.9% 3.9% 5.2% 7.2% 7.2% 1.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% 50.0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Fertilizer Requirement Projections and Consumption in Kyrgyzstan in 2002-2011, % N P2O5 K2O Annual Fertilizer Requirement: • N - 68,800 MT • P2O5 - 44,410 MT • K2O - 4,025 MT *Source: FAO, The Department of Chemicalization and Plant Protection of Kyrgyz Republic
  • 3. Flow of Fertilizer from Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Russia (2012) Lugovaya Hub, KZ: • AN, $350; • Ammophos, $470; KazaAzot & Kazphosphate, KZ, • AN, Ammophos, Superph osphate ; Russia: • AN, MAP, Superphosphate Uzbekistan: • AN ($255), Urea, Super phosphate 255 (59.3%) 255 (49.8%) 65.2 (15.1%) 65.2 (12.7%) 82.0 (4.8%) 20.5 (16.0%) 110.2 (20.8%) 89.7 (21.5%) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 Batken Chuy Uzbekistan AN Retail Price Components, $/MT Producer Price Railroad Transportation Road Transportation Storage, Distribution, Marketing $430/MT $512/MT
  • 4. 3,110 6,500+670 (+21.5% +800 (+12.3%) +822 (+26.4%) +1,498 (+23%) +1,582 (+50,9%) +3,125 (+48.1%) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 Winter wheat Maize Yield,kg +77.3% +71.1% Yields response to fertilizer and quality seeds, 2007 – 2009, updated with crop and fertilizer prices in 2012 (Source: KAED/IFDC) 18,050 +2,950 (+16.3%) +3,225 (+34.2%) +7,913 (+43.8%) 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 Potato +78% Imbalanced fertilizer & Inappropriate variety Balanced fertilizer & Inappropriate variety Imbalanced fertilizer & Appropriate variety Balanced fertilizer & Appropriate variety Average Yields in KR (2008-2012): • Wheat - 2,112 kg/ha • Maize - 5,942 kg/ha • Potato - 15,876 kg/ha
  • 5. Yield gap at fertilizer and seed levels (Wheat, maize, and potato) • Nutrient deficiencies • Improper variety/ poor seed quality (42% - 44%) • Improper variety/ poor seed quality (31% - 35%) • Nutrient deficiencies (25% - 29%) Yield potential given proper varieties and efficient nutrients
  • 6. 1.34 3.13 1.09 4.37 4.18 11.14 0.78 1.84 0.63 2.44 1.29 3.47 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Wheat (inappropriate variety) Wheat Maize (inappropriate variety) Maize Potato (inappropriate variety) Potato VCR for recommended levels of balanced fertilizer application, 2002 & 2012 2002 2012
  • 7. Constraints and Challenges at farm level • Increased number of inexperienced farmers after distribution of land to rural residents in 1998 (65% of total population): ▫ Insufficient knowledge in the techniques of land management and cultivation ▫ Poor information on farm inputs, especially phosphate and potash fertilizers; • Causes of larger amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers ▫ Availability at lower prices compared to P&K fertilizers ▫ Immediate effect on crops ▫ Traditional practices • Risks: ▫ Bad weather and other external factors (drought in 2010 and 2012) ▫ High volatility of output prices; • Financial constraints • Lack access to marketing channels and markets
  • 8. • Low farmer demand for fertilizer; • Financial constraints; • Limited access to modern input market chains; • High transportations costs; Constraints and Challenges - Dealers
  • 9. Constraints and Challenges - Government Level • Very low budget of Ministry of Agriculture (~1.8% in 2013 of total gov. budget compared ~4% to 2009 and earlier) • Only 3 soil test labs in the country: ▫ No results on micronutrients; ▫ 0nly 0.2% of farmers test the soil; • Inefficient allocation of exiting resources: ▫ Agricultural credits with low interest rates are available and main indicators are repayments; there is no ag-development schemes; • There is no national extension system to educate and consult farmers • Huge gap between ministries, universities, research institutions, and policymaking and implementing entities.
  • 10. Opportunities • Access of input dealers to low interest rate credit • Development schemes alternative to credits (vouchers – input package of NPK and HYV) • Development of Public Extension Services ▫ Extension Interventions, ▫ Extension PR (Publications, TV) ▫ Free Soil Testing ▫ Develop on-farm field trials • Strengthening the institutional capacity of Ministry of Agriculture: more upgraded soil labs, regular monitoring, evaluation, and impact assessment • Promote commercial crops (maize, potato, etc.). So, using NPK improve nutrient budgets for growing other crops, such as wheat and sunflower, in following years.