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SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA
JAWA TENGAH
                                                   DIKTAT
                           MATA PELAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS
                                    SMP KELAS 9 SEMESTER 1
                               TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013




        KABUPATEN WONOGIRI




                 1
Tujuan Pembelajaran 1.1: Siswa dapat
                 Merespon ungkapan meminta dan memberi kepastian
                 Merespon ungkapan keraguan dan menanggapi keraguan

      Dalam unit ini, kita akan belajar beberapa ungkapan yaitu ; bagaimana cara merespon
ungkapan meminta kepastian, memberi kepastian dalam bahasa Inggris dan bagaimana cara
merespon ungkapan keraguan serta menanggapi keraguan.

 Asking for and giving certainty (Meminta dan memberi kepastian)
Here are some expressions you can use to ask for and give certainty;

               Asking for Certainty                                  Giving Certainty
              (Meminta kepastian)                                 (Memberikan kepastian)
Are you certain?                                     I’m quite sure.
Are you sure?                                        I’ve no doubt about….
Is that so?                                          You bet!/Of course./Sure./Absolutely!
Is it confirmed?                                     I’m positive./It’s possible.
Do you?/ Will you?/ Can you?                         That sounds good/perfect.
What if….?                                           O.K./No problem.
Will it be O.K. if…?                                 Fine. Go ahead.
How about this/that one?                             I’m definitely sure./I’m absolutely certain.
How about these/those ones?                          Sure, I’m certain.
                                                     No doubt about it./Without doubt.
When you are sure on something, you can use the following expressions:
     I’m very sure….                          - I believe so
     I’m positive….                           - It is right
     It is definite…..
When you are not sure, you can use following expression:
      - I am not sure.                 - It is not define
      - I can’t say for certain        - It is not right
      - It is not positive             - I don’t think so
      - I doubt it.
      -
                           What do you see on the pictures above?

                       Yes, probably the man is certain about something,

                          And the girl is doubtful about something.

   In this chapter, we are going to learn about how to express certainty and
               doubt, and how to respond to those expressions.


                                                 2
MODELLING OF TEXT

                                          EXPRESSION OF ASKING AND EXPRESSING CERTAINTY

            Expression of asking certainty is used when you would ask somebody
      whether they are certain about something or not.Expression of expressing
      certainty is used when you are certain enough about something.

      Here are the examples:

                 Risa : Are you sure that Willy will return to Semarang this week?

                 Rena : Yes, I am sure. He told me so.

      The red sentence is one example of the expression of asking certainty, while
      the green sentence is an example of the expression of expressing certainty.

      Below is the list of expressions of asking and expressing certainty:

                                           EXPRESSIONS                        MEANINGS
                 ASKING CERTAINTY




                                           Are you sure that ……..?            Apakah kamu yakin bahwa ….?
EXPRESSIONS OF




                                           Are you quite certain about ……?    Apakah kamu cukup yakin tentang …..?

                                           Are you sure about it?             Apakah kamu yakin tentang itu?



                                           Are you certain that ….?           Apakah kamu yakin bahwa ….?
                 EXPRESSING CERTAINTY




                                           Yes, I am sure                     Ya, saya yakin
EXPRESSIONS OF




                                           Definitely                         Pasti

                                           Yes, I am absolutely sure          Ya, saya sangat yakin

                                           I am certain about it              Saya yakin tentang hal itu


                                           Of course                          Tentu saja



      Here are some examples of conversation using expressions above:

      A.                                Lastri          : Are you quite certain that Harry Potter movie will be
                                                 released this month?
                                                                            3
                                        Vera : Definitely. I read the news on Suara Merdeka newspaper
B.     Diana            : Are you sure that our basketball team will be the runner
                 up in this competition?

       Yosa : Of course. We have tried and exercised very hard Singapore?
        Yuni        : Are you sure about our on-time arrival to this term.

        Andika          : Don’t worry, we are going to arrive to Singapore on time.



Activity 1 : Practice the following dialogue and practice with a partner!
Ahmad           : Ara, did you hear the latest news?
Ara             : No, what is it about, Ahmad?
Ahmad           : The destruction of Indonesia forest.
Ara             : Well, tell me more.
Ahmad          : The destruction of our forest is happening rapidly because of illegal logging. It
                 will destroy our forests by the end of this century.
Ara             : Are you sure?
Ahmad          : I’m sure but don’t worry. The government will stop this, so we can save our
                 beloved forests.
Ara             : That’s good news. And after this, we must replant trees.
Ahmad           : Well, the bell is ringing. It’s time to go to class.


Activity 2 : After reading the dialogue above, answer these questions below!
     1. How many persons, are there in the dialogue above
     2. Who are they?
     3. What news, Ahmad has heard lately?
     4. Why did the destruction of our forest happen?
     5. What is the solution for saving our forest?
Activity 3 : Make a group of 2 students and make a dialogue by using certainty or
             uncertainty!
                                                         Werkudoro :…………………………………..
                                                                         ………………………………….
                                                                         ………………………………….
                                                         Prabu Bismo : ………………………………..
                                                                         ………………………………….
                                                         Werkudoro : …………………………………..
                                                                         ………………………………….

                                                   4
Prabu Bismo : …………………………………
                                                                                                   …………………………………
 Note : ..……………………………………………………………………………
                 ……………………………………………………………………………..
                 ……………………………………………………………………………...
                 ……………………………………………………………………………..


    SHOWING AND RESPONDING TO DOUBT
     (Mengungkapkan dan merespon keragu-raguan)

     EXPRESSION OF EXPRESSING AND RESPONDING DOUBT

Expression of expressing doubt is used when you are not certain or doubtful
about something. Expression of responding is used when you want to respond
somebody’s doubt.

                                                                 Nori : I am not sure that he will finish his study soon.
 Here are the examples:
                                                                 Yudhit: Don’t worry. He is trying his best.


The red sentence is one example of the expression of expressing doubt, while
the green sentence is an example of the expression of responding doubt.

 Below is the list of expressions of expressing and responding doubt:

                                                   EXPRESSIONS                      MEANINGS
                                EXPRESSING DOUBT




                                                   I am doubtful about ….           Saya ragu tentang …
              EXPRESSIONS OF




                                                   I am doubtful that ……            Saya ragu bahwa …..

                                                   I am not certain about it        Saya tidak yakin tentang ….



                                                   I am not sure that ….            Saya tidak yakin bahwa ….
       DOUBTEXPRESSIONS OF




                                                   Don't worry                      Jangan khawatir
                             RESPONDING




                                                   There is no doubt about it       Tidak ada keraguan tentang itu



                                                   Yes, that is uncertain yet       Ya, hal itu masih belum pasti




                                                                                5
Here are some examples of conversation using expressions above:

   A.
                  Selena: I am doubtful that Johnny will be on
                  time.

                  Rudy : Don’t worry, Selena. He is on the way
   B.             now.


                    Selena: I am not sure about this plan

                    Rudy : There is no doubt that our plan will work
                    well.




                      Selena: I am not certain that I will get the best
   C.                 score in this test

                      Rudy : Don’t worry. You studied well last
                      night.

Now, after learning the expressions of Asking and Expressing Certainty,
Expressing and Responding Doubt, we are going to learn how they are
pronounced.

Here are some vocabularies related to the expressions above and their
pronunciation:

              Vocabularies      Meanings          Pronunciatio
                                                  n
              Sure              Yakin, pasti      [ʃɔː ]
              Quite             Agak              /kwaɪt/
              Certain           Pasti, yakin      /ˈsɜː.t ə n/
              Definitely        Tentu saja        /ˈdef.ɪ.nət.li/
              Believe           Percaya           /bɪˈliːv/
              Absolutely        Sangat            /ˌæb.səˈluːt.li/

Now, your teacher will read those expressions available above and also some
vocabularies. Listen and repeat what your teacher says!

LISTENING SECTION

Your teacher will play an audio recording about conversations using the
expressions of Asking and Expressing Certainty, Expressing and Responding
                                        6
Doubt. Work in pairs, listen to the audio recording carefully and transcribe
the dialogue. After that, identify what expressions used in each utterance
and discuss the result with your partner.

HOMEWORK

Find the meaning of these expressions and practice uttering them at home!

1. I am definitely uncertain about it.

2. I am not sure that everything is okay.

3. Are you certain enough about it?

4. I am absolutely uncertain that he will finish his job.

5. I am doubtful that they have enough time to do the homework.




JOINT CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEXT :

SPEAKING SECTION

This is speaking section in which you can practice speaking freely.

Now, Work in groups consist of 3 persons and choose one of the situations

provided below.


   1. You get information that Reni will hold a birthday party in a restaurant. Then,

      you ask Aldo whether she is sure about the information or not. Aldo says that

      he is not sure about it and he asks Vina. Vina says that Reni has told her about

      it.

   2. Tino gives information to Nina that she gets ten in Biology test. Then, Nina

      asks Tino whether he is certain about the information or not. Tino states that

      he only gets the information from their friends. Then they decide to ask to their

      Biology teacher whether the information is true or not.

   3. Rony hasn’t come yet to the class meeting. Doni is not certain that Rony will

      come, so he asks Very whether he is certain that Rony will come. Very is not
                                          7
certain about it, so that they call Rony and Rony says that he is still on the way

      to school.



After choosing the situations, make the dialogue according to the chosen
situation and perform it with your partners. Here are the other examples of
expression : Showing and Responding Doubt.

               Showing Doubt                                 Responding
          (Menunjukkan keraguan)                       (Menanggapi keraguan)
 I doubt about this information                  You’d better confirm it.
 I doubt that I can answer all questions         Don’t be pessimistic.
 I am not sure/certain that this is the right    Neither am I.
  track.                                          Why don’t you try to get the truth?
 Um….I am not really sure/certain about the      So, which way should we take?
  news.
 I’m not sure if this is the right way.

Memberi/meminta kepastian                            Sorry, what did you say?
                                                     What did you say?
                                                     Are you sure?
Menunjukkan/menanggapi keraguan                      Really?
                                                     Are you sure?




                                    EXERCISES 1
Complete the following dialogue to answer the questions!
IT’S TIME FOR EXERCISE !!!!!

Fill in the blanks with suitable expressions according to the picture!

Example:

   1. Novita         : Are you sure that Deny will come to

                     my birthday party?

      Rosita         : ………………

You should fill in the blank with suitable answer according

to the picture, that is

“I am sure he will come if you invite him”.


                                             8
2. Renata            : I am doubtful that Jennifer will reply my
                      message.
    Lia              : ……………Probably she is still busy now.



3. Dave              : …………………………?

    Hera             : I am sure he will. He is a good tennis player.



4. Yvonne            : ………………………

    Budi             : Don’t worry. She will go home soon.



5. Cici     : Are you sure that these shoes will suit me?

    Erin : ………………These are beautiful shoes




6. Odi      : I am not certain that Indonesia’s football

              team will win in the next championship.

    Yongki: ………………Indonesia’s team will try

              harder this year.


Rehan : Tomorrow is the due date for our assignment.
Ivan  : Sorry, (7)…………………
Rehan : I said, “Tomorrow is the due date for our assignment.”
Ivan  : Yes, you are right. But, (8)………I can submit it tomorrow. I have lots of jobs to do.
        How about you?
Rehan : Well, (9) ….I can submit it tomorrow because I’m going to finish it tonight.


7. A. What do you do?                C. What can I do for you?
   B. What did you say?              D. What happened to you?

8. A. I’m not sure                   C. surely
   B. I’m sad                        D. of course

9. A. I’m glad                       C. I’m sure
   B. I’m sad                        D. I’m sorry

 Anna     : Do you think China will win the Uber Cup?
 Wulan : (10)……………They always play beautifully. Why? Don’t you think so?
 Anna     : Well, (11)………….I think Indonesia’s team plays better.

                                               9
10. A. I don’t think so.               C. I’m not sure.
     B. I’m not happy.                  D. Definitely.

 11. A. I am with you.                  C. That’s a good idea.
     B. I agree with you.               D. I’m doubtful about that.

 Ery      : What do you think of our new classmate, Nusantara?
 Yogi     : I think he is a sociable student.
 Ery      : Yes, I think so, too. He is able to make friends easily. Nearly all of our friends know
          him well within just a month.
 Yogi     : Do they? (12)……………..

 Ery      : Yep. (13)……………..


 12. A. What is he?                     C. What a shame!
     B. What is he doing?               D. What a popular boy he is!

 13. A. No doubt about that!            C. Wow!
     B. I have no idea.                 D. Really?
 Susi     : You look very happy, Tina. What happened?
 Tina     : Guess what? I got an “A” on my last English test.
 Susi     : Sorry? (14)…………..It’s very noisy here. I can hardly hear you.
 Tina     : I said, “ I got an “A” on my last English test.”
 Susi     : (15)……….That’s fantastic! Congratulation on your achievement!

 14. A. What did you say?               C. Do you repeat that?
     B. Is it important?                D. How come?

 15. A. Can you believe it?             C. Are you alright?
     B. What happened?                  D. Really?
 Retno : Did you do the test well, Eny?
 Eny      : (16)…………In fact, I don’t put any hope of passing this test.
 Retno : Are you serious?
 Eny      : Yes. Not a single hope.
 Retno : (17)…………

 16. A. Yes, I did.                              C. You did it well, too.
     B. I’m afraid I didn’t.                     D. The test was interesting.

 17. A. You must be happy.                       C. Don’t give hope to something.
     B. You must understand.                     D. Don’t worry. Next time better.

Waiter : Are you ready to order?
Wahyu : Well, I’d like chicken soup, fried Gurameh and iced tea. How about you, Sar?
Sarah : Well, I’d like to try Gado-gado, but (18)……….I’m afraid it’s too hot to me.
Wahyu : (19)……………I’ll ask the waiter to put only one chili into the sauce.
                                             10
Sarah : sounds great. I’ll take it, then.
18. A. I can’t believe it.                       C. I understand.
      B. I’m not sure.                             D. I’d like to try.

  19. A. Don’t worry.                              C. I’m sure
      B. You are sure.                             D. Fine.


Hesty : Listen! I’ve got news for you.
Diana : (20)………………..
Hesty : “ Bedah Rumah” is going to come to my neighborhood.
Diana : No kidding! When?
Hety     : This afternoon.
Diana : (21)…………..Let’s go there after school, then.


  20. A. What’s up? B. Why?               C. Where?            D. When?

  21. A. Good afternoon                   C. Watch out!
       B. It’s my house.                  D. Terrific!

Bejo     : Do you see what the fireman has done?
Paino : Yes. He saved the boy just in time. He climbed the ladder so quickly and
         jumped into the fire. (16)…………..
Bejo     : Yeah, (17)………………he is a dedicated person.

  22. A. What a brave man he is!                   C. What a poor man!
      B. What a careless man!                      D. How poor!

  23. A. I’m                              C. I do
      B. I like                           D. I’m sure

Ica      : Anang told me that his father is going to buy him a car. Is that true?
Hadi     : (24)………he told you the truth. I heard his father said about it.
Ica      : (25)………about that?
Hadi     : Absolutely. I was there when his father mentioned about it.

  24. A. I do                  B. I can            C. I like             D. I’m sure.

  25. A. Is that so?                               C. Are you sure?
      B. Do you like?                              D. Do you agree?

  26. Nana : What do you think of Sofi?
       Janni : I’ve never met such a nice person. She is always ready to help others even. When she
                is busy herself…………………..she is!
       A. What a helpful person                    C. How happy
       B. What a happy person                      D. How busy

                                                    11
27. Anas    : I’d like to send a letter to my mother but I can’t do it my self. I’ve got a little
                 headache…..
      Hasan : Certainty.
      A. Can you write me a letter, please?
      B. Would you post this letter for me, please?
      C. Could you write a letter to me, please?
      D. May I send you a letter?
  28. Reporter : Well, let us see if my other facts are correct. Are you sure that you started racing
      the F1 formula cars at the age of seventeen?
      Andi        : Yes, I don’t doubt that I started racing at the age of seventeen.
      The underlined expression states ……………
      A.Opinion                          C.Disagreement
      B.Agreement                        D.Certainly
  29. Luna said : “What a unique doll it is!” What does it mean?
      A.offering help                    C. refusing opinion
      B.giving comment about news D. asking and giving information
  30. Yani    : Where are you going next holiday:
      Dini    : ………….…..but I must go to Solo
      A.I don’t doubt                    C. I’m ready
      B. I’m not sure                    D.I don’t believe

Synonym = closest meaning = sama arti
1. Say                                   : tell : speak = berbicara
2. Assignment                       : task                = tugas
3. Destruction                      : damage = kerusakan
4. Job                                   : occupation     = pekerjaan
5. Forest                                 : wood : jungle = hutan
6. Happen                                : occur          = terjadi
7. Student                                : pupil         = siswa
8. Afraid                                : scare          = takut
9. Happy                                 : glad           = senang
10.Quick                                 : rapid : speed = cepat
11.Is going to                      : will                = akan
12.Nice                                  : kind           = baik




                                                   12
Tujuan 1.2: Siswa dapat
                       Merespon ungkapan meminta pengulangan
                       Merespon ungkapan menunjukkan perhatian
                       Merespon ungkapan menyatakan kekaguman

      Di unit 2 ini, kita akan belajar tentang bagaimana cara merespon beberapa ungkapan;
ungkapan meminta pengulangan, ungkapan menunjukkan perhatian dan ungkapan
menyatakan kekaguman.

   Asking someone to repeat his/her words                    (Meminta seseorang mengulang
    perkataannya)

                              Asking Someone to Repeat His/Her Words
         Pardon?                                    You what?
         I’m sorry?                                 Excuse me?
         I beg your pardon?                         Say that again, please.
         Sorry, what did you say?                   Would you mind repeating that?
         I’m sorry. I didn’t catch the last word.   Sorry, I didn’t follow you.
         Could you say it again, please?            Would you say it once again, please?
     Asking to repeat something : meminta untuk mengulang sesuatu
       When we want to someone to repeat what he/she says, we may use :
        - I beg your pardon/              - Sorry, I can’t hear you.
        - Pardon?                         - Sorry, what did you say?
        - Sorry?                          - What?
        - Can you say that again?         - What was that?

Speaking Situations: Asking for Repetition
    Phrases for these situations
    Excuse me? (Said like a question)
    Pardon me? (Rising intonation)
    What did you say (your name was)?

                                               13
Did you say . . . ?
  Can you repeat that?
  Could you say that again please?
  What was that again?
  Sorry, I didn't catch that.
  Could you speak up please?
  Could you speak a little louder?
Conversation Practice
1. Pretend you are being introduced to someone at a party.
  The music is very loud, and you can't hear your partner clearly.
  Example,
  What did you say your name was?
  Cindy Carton.
  Did you say Sidney or Cindy?
  Cindy, like the famous model.
2. Pretend your partner is applying for a passport.
  Ask him/her for personal information*
  (name, birth date, address, telephone number, etc.)
  Then practice asking for repetition.
  For example,
  What is your date of birth?
  August 15, 1981.
  Did you say August 16th?
  No, August 15th.
*Since this is a "role play," you don't have to use actual (real) information.
 You may "make up" dates, numbers, etc.
Activity 1 : Fill in the blanks spaces with expression of asking someone to repeat what
             he/she says!
   1. Teacher : What country hosted the 2012 Olympic Games?
      Student : …………….
      Teacher : Where was the 2012 Olympic Games held?
   2. Coach    : You miss too many balls.
      Athlete : ……………………?
      Coach    : I said, you missed too many balls. Try harder.
      Athlete : Sorry, sir.
   3. Amira    : I never miss the National news.
      Neny     : ……………….? What news?
                                                14
Amira    : The national news.
    4. Passer-by: Excuse me, where is the Stadium of Sriwedari?
      Seller   : …………………? Where is the what?
      Passer-by: The Sriwedari Stadium.
      Seller   : Go for two blocks. It is on your left next to the hospital. You won’t miss it
      Passer-by: Thank you.
    5. Sasa    : Excuse me, do you know how to adjust the volume?
      Anggi    : …………………..? How to what?
      Sasa     : How to adjust the volume?
      Anggi    : Press the left bottom.
      Sasa     : Thank you.


    Giving and responding the interesting news : Memberi dan merespon kabar
     yang menarik
     To give the interesting news, we can use the following expression:
      Those are some interesting news.               - Have you heard that ….?
      I’ve got something to tell you.                - Have you heard the latest news?
      I have news.
     Ada beberapa ungkapan yang dapat digunakan untuk mengawali memberikan berita yang
     menarik seperti:
        Listen, I have interesting news!
        Have you heard about the news recently?
        Do you know that ….
        Did you watch the news last night?
        I have got some interesting news ……
      Look at the dialog bellows!
         Andi : Have you heard the news???
         Ali   : What news?
         Andi : Mali pulled off a stunning fight back to draw 4-4 with Angola after trailing 4-
                 0 with 11 minutes left in the opening game of the Africa Cup of Nations.
         Ali   : Really, it must be very interesting games last night.
         Andi : Yach, You should watch it.
        Dalam percakapan diatas Andi menggunakan ungkapan “have you heard the news?”
untuk memulai memberikan berita yang menarik kepada Ali. Ungkapan- ungkapan yang lain
yang telah dijelaskan juga dapat digunakan untuk mengawali memberikan sebuah berita
yang menarik.

                                               15
To give response to the interesting news, we can use the following expression:
     Tell me more about it!                                   - What is it about?
     What news?

 Showing amazement : Menunjukkan kekaguman
                 Showing Amazement                                        Responding
               (Menunjukkan kekaguman)                                   (Tanggapan)
                       Perfect!                                          You’re right.
                       Amazing!                                              It is.
                   That’s wonderful!                                        Yeah.
                  How fabulous it is!                                        Yup!
        What a nice dress you are wearing!                                Thank you.
        What a lovely flower arrangement!                                 I think so.
                Wow, that’s really cool!                                 That’s right.
Listen to your teacher
Complete the dialogs below based on what you have heard.
Dialog 1 ;
Ms. Yuni : you know, the air pollution has become 1)__________in our town.
Ms. Ajeng: 2)___________?
Ms.Yuni : The air pollution in our town is a serious problem, isn’t it?
Ms.Ajeng : Oh, yeah. You are right. Guess what! The pollution comes mainly from 3)_______
               exhaust.
Ms. Yuni : Yup! That’s why I prefer 4)___________to motorcycle.
Ms.Ajeng : 5)____________.
Dialog 2 :
Gadis      : Look at the river! It’s so dirty 6)___________!
Vena       : 7)____________? What did you say?
Gadis      : The river is so disgusting.
Vera       : 8)_____________. That’s because many people throw waste there.
Gadis      : Source of 9)_________, right?
Vera       : That’s right. I think we should stop throwing any forms of waste into the river.
Gadis      : Yup! I hope other people think 10)__________.

Activity 3 : Fill the blanks with suitable expression
          (Giving and responding the interesting news)
   11. Rini   : ………………………..
        Sinta     : What news?
        Rini      : My favorite’s band will play in the city tonight.
   12. Fajar      : I’ve something to tell you.
        Anis      : ……………………..
                                                     16
Fajar   : My father gave me a gift.
   13. Anto    : ……………..?
       Dito    : What is it about?
       Anto    : The Indonesian football team defeated Malaysia 2-1
   14. Ryan    : Listen! I’ve got hot news.
       Ayu     : ………………………?
       Ryan    : Ani has a new boy friend.
   15. Hanna : …………………………
       Yogi    : The minister of Education will visit the school




                 Tujuan 2.1: Siswa dapat
                  Mengidentifikasi makna taks dalam teks fungsional pendek : Iklan
                    (Advertisement)
                  Mengidentifikasi informasi yang terdapat dalam teks fungsional pendek


       Unit 3 ini akan membahas tentang cara-cara mengidentifikasi sebuah iklan. Iklan ada
beberapa jenis; iklan lowongan kerja, iklan produk barang dan iklan produk jasa (tempat
pendidikan, obyek wisata, perhotelan dan lain-lain). Advertisement (Iklan) adalah
pemberitahuan yang bertujuan untuk mendorong, membujuk khalayak ramai untuk membeli
atau menggunakan barang atau jasa yang ditawarkan. Iklan biasanya di pasang di media massa
seperti media cetak dan media elektronik (Koran, majalah, tabloid, radio, televise dll) atau di
tempat umum seperti baliho, billboard dan pamphlet.
  Contoh iklan produk :
                               Memaparkan        tentang    spesifikasi/keunggulan   dari   produk
                               tersebut, pembuatnya, cara mendapatkannya dan mungkin
                               harganya.


Activity 1: Answer the question orally!
  1. What is the advertisement for?
  2. What are kinds of advertisement?
  3. Where can you find the advertisement?
Activity 2 : Read the following text and answer questions below!

                                                  17
Goodink-Profesional Quality Refill Ink
  BC-02/BX-2 (Black)
  Refill ink for CANON
  BJ-10E/10EX/20/200/230
  BJC-210S/210SP/240/255SP/265SP
      •    Tap the top of the inkbottle, so no ink remains at the top portion. With push pin, puncture
           a hole at the top of the inkbottle.
      •    To preserve unused ink, insert the pin into the top of the bottle to avoid it become dry.
      •    Store the in bottle in dry, cool, dark place.
                                                             Adapted from :NuInk-Profesional Quality Refill Ink


    1. Which statement is NOT TRUE based on the above text?
          A. The color of the refill ink is black.
          B. The refill ink is usable for any type of printer.
          C. Keep the unused ink in dry, cool, dark places.
          D. Keep the refill ink wet all the time.


    2. What will happen if you store the refill inkbottle under the direct sunlight?
          A. The ink will be dried                 C. The ink will last long
          B. The ink keeps wet                     D. The color of the ink will change
    3. “ To preserve unused ink ….” The similar meaning of the underlined word is ..
          A. protect                               C. ruin
          B. destroy                               D. neglect
Activity 3 : Create an advertisement and read in front of your friends!
            1. Line 1 : make advertisement about products
            2. Line 2 : make advertisement about school.
            3. Line 3 : make advertisement about tourism resort.
            4. Line 4 : make advertisement about job vacancies
                    BALI’S NEWEST APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT

EXERCISE : ADVERTISEMENT
A DREAM BECOMES REALITY
Sunwel Beach Residences Ketewel – Bali
Prime Property – Prime Location – Prime Investment
Only 5 minutes away from Sanur, directly at the Beach
All apartments with view to the sea, full hotel amenities
Large pools, spa, fitness, sauna and steam, parking, restaurant
For complete information please visit our website

Invitation – stimulation – temptation
Where: Hotel Mulia Senayan, Jakarta (Leatris Room)
When: 15th and 16th of January 2011 (15.00-21.00WIB)
For reservation: PT Umadamai Phone +62 21 8747976 or
Email: umadamai@yahoo.com
                                                18
For every purchase prior to 31 January 2011 we will invite the buyer for the Ground-
Breaking ceremony
Flight from Jakarta to Bali and a night in a luxury villa FREE
1. The text talks about…
    A. Sunwel Beach Residences Ketewel
    B. Bali’s apartment development
    C. Prime property
    D. Hotel Mulia Senayan

 2. Which of the following is not found in the advertisement?
    A. Restaurant
    B. Website
    C. Fitness
    D. Spa
                             Naj’s Mexican Restaurant

Try your favorite Mexican dishes, expertly prepared from the finest ingredients. Complete
meals for less than 50 $. Superb wine and cheerful festival atmosphere at lunch and dinner.
63 Grand Street Phone: 874-7976

3. What is the text tell about?
   A. Description of Naj’s restaurant
   B. Special price for lunch and dinner
   C. Offering of new Mexican products
   D. Advertisement of Naj’s Mexican Restaurant
4. The following statements are not true about the text, except…
   A. Complete meals for more than $ 50
   B. The restaurant gives delivery service
   C. The dishes prepared from oriental ingredients
   D. It is romantic atmosphere in the Naj’s restaurant




                                               19
Piroxicam
       This product is intended for external use only.
       No occlusive dressing should be employed.
       Run in the gel leaving no residual material on the skin
       A dosage of one gram (corresponding to 5 mg of Piroxicam)
       should be applied to the affected area three or four times per day
       Use in children
       Dosage recommendations and indications for use in children have
       not been established


5. Where the text is probably found?
   A. At the laundry centre             C. On children’s toy package
   B. On a detergent package            D. On medicine cover

6. What is the best subtitle for this text?
   A. External gel product              C. How to use it
   B. All purpose gel                   D. Light gel on skin

7. It can be inferred from the text that ….
   A. It is better not to use this product on children
   B. People may drink this product
   C. Apply thick consultant affected area looking for….
    We, a mining gel on the company, are
   D. This product can be used for all ages
    A SENIOR SECRETARY

    • Female, graduated from a reputable university

    • Min. 5 years of work experience

    • Good command of English (oral & written)

    • Computer literate (min Word, Excel, Internet)

    Please submit your complete application, resume and recent photograph
    not more than 10 days after this ad to:

    HRD PT CITRA ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Wisma Emha Jln. Wijaya I No. II A, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan
    12170
    8. What is the text about?
       A. A job vacancy
    FaxB. A021-7207978
        no. senior secretary
       C. An application letter
    Email-address: Energy Development
       D. PT Citra mitraenergy@cbn.net.id
                                                20
    Only short listed candidates will be notified.
9. The following are the requirements asked EXCEPT….
      A. Five years experience
      B. Able to operate a computer
      C. Able to speak and write in English
      D. Application letter should be sent ten days after this ads

     ADVERTISING TRAINEE

     We are seeking a young person for training in advertising department of a national
     publishing company. The job involves selling and marketing. This is an opportunity
     for person with strong interest in commercial world.
     Write to:
     Marketing Director
     P.O. Box 1245. Bandung

   10. What is the advertisement about?
       A. How to become a trainee
       B. Qualification for a trainee
       C. Recruiting staff employees
       D. The company looks for a trainee

   11. A trainee should have….
       A. Qualified in sales marketing
       B. 3 years commercial experience
       C. Experience in selling and marketing
       D. Strong interest in the commercial world

   12. “The job involves selling and marketing.”
       The underlined word means…..
       A. includes            C. offers
       B. covers              D.seeks




   Short Functional Text adalah teks pendek yang berisi perintah, pengarahan, sesuatu yang
harus dilakukan atau tidak boleh dilakukan yang dapat berupa larangan (prohibition),
undangan (invitation), Kartu Ucapan (Greeting Cards),pesan pendek (short message), daftar
belanja (shopping list), peringatan (notice), pengumuman (announcement), dan lain-lain yang
mengandung makna dan digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari.




                                              21
Sedangkan teks essay yang berbentuk descriptive, narrative, recount, report, dan procedure
merupakan text panjang yang bisa dikategorikan ke dalam Long Functional Text (Istilah ini
tidak baku/tidak lazim digunakan)




                     Tujuan 2.1: Siswa dapat
                      Mengidentifikasi makna taks dalam teks fungsional pendek :
                        Pengumuman (Announcement)
                      Mengidentifikasi informasi yang terdapat dalam teks
                        fungsional pendek


       Announcement (pengumuman) adalah pernyataan (pemberitahuan resmi) dalam bentuk
lisan atau tertulis yang membuat sesuatu diketahui secara umum. Pengumuman dapat kita
dengar maupun temukan di mana saja. Pengumuman tulis biasanya dipasang di tempat/papan
yang mudah dilihat orang.
                                            22
For exhibition          at school                at market

A. The Functions
   1. Announcement provides complete and clear information about certain events or location
B. The followings are some tips in writing announcement
   1. Straightforward and ease the readers to get information quickly
   2. Keep it short, inviting, and to the point.
   3. Clear and complete
   4. For a bad news, make a direct and no-nonsense statement. Exercise :




Answer these questions based the text above.

1. Who writes the announcement?

2. What is the main purpose of the announcement?

                                                   23
3. Who will receive the registration?




Answer these questions based the text above.

4. How many hours the shop opens during clearance time?

5. What is the purpose of the text?

6. How much discount do the customer who buys 29" colour TV

 Attention, please. OSIS will hold a football competition next month. We invite all classes to join it.
                                               Thank you


Activity 1: Answer the question orally!
   7. What is the announcement about?
   8. Who do you think reads the announcement?
   9. Where can you hear the announcement
   10. When will OSIS hold a football competition?

Attentions please attention please.
        Due to some technical problems, the show will be delayed for about one hour. We
apologize for the inconvenience.

Activity 2 : Answer these questions below!
   11. What is the announcement about?
   12. Why the show is be delayed?
   13. How long will the show be delayed?
   14. Who do you think reads the announcement?
   15. Where can you hear such an announcement?



                                          ANNOUNCEMENT
                                                   24
The head of this regency, Mr. Harjono, is going to visit
                     our school tomorrow, Tuesday, 21st June 2011 at about
                    10 a.m. All students should wear the new Batik uniforms
                     and gather in the school hall at 9:30 to do the welcoming
                    ceremony. The teaching learning process before and after
                    the ceremony is done as usual. Please be informed.
                                                  Indrawan
                                                 Headmaster


  Read the announcement above.
   1. What is the announcement about?
   2. Below are the things the students should do, except…
         A. Study in class before and after the ceremony          C. Do a welcoming speech
         B. Gather in the school hall at 9:30 a.m.                D. Wear batik uniforms


Short messages :




SMS                     Memo                        While you were out

A. The Functions

  1. To send an important message to other people

B. Some Tips to write a short message

  1. Clear addressee (someone who receives the message)

  2. Straight forward

  3. If it is an instruction state it clearly.




                                                     25
Do the exercise. Read the message above then answer these questions below
1. Who leave the message?
2. Who wrote the message?
3. What should Mr. Winfield do ?
LATIHAN SHORT FUNCTIONAL TEXTS :




Aswer the questions based on the text above.

1. Who writes the message?


Finding the unstated information
    a. The principal of SMPN 1 Sleman
    b. The Director of Computa
    c. The principal of Computa
    d. The customer of Computa




2. Which statement is correct based on the text?

Finding detailed information

                                               26
a. SMPN 1 Sleman will celebrate its 25th anniversary
    b. The customers are invited due to the loyalty
    c. Computa invites the Director to have a reception
    d. Mr. Ary writes an invitation for the Director




3. What is the function of the notice?


Finding the social function of a notice
    a. To warn the visitors that the floor is sliperry.
    b. To prohibit the visitors not to walk on that area
    c. To tell the visitors that there are water in that area
    d. To guide the visitors how to keep the floor wet




4. Where do you probably find such a kind of notice?

Finding the unstated information
    a. In a street
    b. In a hotel
    c. In an aeroplane
    d. in a bus




                                                 27
5.What should Rejeki do after reading the memo?


Finding detailed information
    a. Wait the burning process and keep all burnt CDs.
    b. Unplug the cable power of the computer.
    c. Shut down the electric lines.
    d. Keep the CDs and catch the bus quickly.




6. Which statement is INCORRECT based on the memo above?

Finding detailed information
    a. There was one CD to burn in the teacher’s computer.
    b. Sri Rejeki sent a message to Harwan to burn CDs.
    c. Harwan was quite late to catch the bus.
    d. Sri Rejeki was quite late to burn the Cds




                                                 28
7. Whart does the sign mean?




Finding the message of a notice
    a. We may not turn left when the traffic light is red.
    b. We may not stop when the traffic light is red.
    c. When the traffic light is red, we must stop before turning left.
    d. When the traffic light is red we must stop and wait until it turns green




8. Where do you probably find the message?




Finding unstated information
    a. In a supermarket
    b. At school
    c. in a Bank
    d. in a street


                                               29
9. Why does each class prepare its team?




Finding factual information
    a. To choose the best team for competition
    b. To celebrate the national sport day.
    c. To prepare the committee of the sports day
    d. To have registration to Pak Agung

10.How many sports events will be competed?

Finding factual information
    a. two
    b. three
    c. four
    d.five




               Tujuan Pembelajaran 2.2: Siswa dapat
                 Mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi dalam teks monolog pendek berbentuk Procedure/
                   Report                         30
                 Mengidentifikasi langkah retorika dalam teks monolog berbentuk Procedure/ Report
                 Mengidentifikasi tujuan komunikatif teks monolog berbentuk Procedure/Report.
Di dalam unit 5 ini, kita akan membahas 2 jenis teks monolog pendek yaitu ; teks
Procedure dan teks Report.

 PROCEDURE
   Teks procedure merupakan jenis teks untuk menunjukkan cara/bagaimana melakukan
sesuatu melalui langkah-langkah yang harus dilakukan. Teks prosedur dapat berupa langkah-
langkah membuat sesuatu ataupun menggunakan sesuatu (manual book). Langkah-langkah
tersebut harus dilakukan dengan runtut sesuai urutan nomor. Hal itu berbeda dengan tip. Tip
dapat dilakukan tanpa harus mengikuti urutan nomor.
  Teks prosedur terdiri atas unsur-unsur berikut;
     1. Aim/ goal : mengemukakan atau memperkenalkan sesuatu yang akan dibuat atau
        dikerjakan/dilakukan. Biasanya muncul dalam teks sebagai judul.
     2. Materials : menjelaskan bahan-bahan atau material yang dibutuhkan. Bagian ini
        bukan merupakan keharusan, tetapi biasanya ada dalam teks prosedur.
     3. Steps : mencantumkan langkah-langkah dalam membuat atau melakukan sesuatu.
  Adapun ciri-ciri teks prosedur adalah sebagai berikut;
     a. Menggunakan simple present tense, seringkali dalam bentuk kalimat perintah
        (imperative).
     b. Menggunakan kata hubung temporal (first, then, next, finally) atau penomoran untuk
        menunjukkan urutan.
     c. Menggunakan proses material (material process).



Materials :
   Some strawberry
   9 table spoon sugar
               2 glass plain water
               Some ice




 Steps :
 First, cut the strawberries into two parts or what ever you want
                                             31
 Then make a liquid with water and sugar before
      o Prepare a glass of water
      o Pour some sugar into the glass and then stir it
      o A liquid of sugar and water is ready to use
 Before make strawberry juice, prepare the blender and make sure its switch
  is on
 After that everything is ready, pour the liquid of water and sugar into the
  blender
 Then pour same strawberries into the blender(as you like)and the ices
 Press the on button to switch it on
 Wait for a minutes
 Then press the off button to switch it off
 Open the blender’s cup and then pour the strawberry juice into the glass.
  (before, you have prepared the glass)
 To make your juice more beautiful, put some strawberry on the lips of glass
  and put straw
 Your nice strawberry juice is ready to drink

Activity 1: Arrange these steps in the correct order!
 1.         How to operate the digital camera;
       [    ] Press the shutter release button.
       [    ] Lock the focus.
       [    ] Turn the panel to the automatic focus.
       [    ] Get the focus.
 16.How to use a rice cooker;
       [    ] Put two glasses of water.
       [    ] Plug in the cooker and turn it on.
       [    ] Wash a glass of rice.
       [    ] Put the rice into the cooker.
 17.How to send an SMS.
       [    ] Send the message.
       [    ] Choose the ‘message’ menu.
       [    ] Select the phone number.
       [    ] Write the message.


 18.       How to turn on a computer.
       [    ] Press the ON/OFF button.
       [    ] Make sure the computer is plugged in.
       [    ] Read and follow the instructions.
       [    ] Select the program to run.
 19.How to iron the clothes.
       [    ] Move the iron on the clothes.
                                                   32
[    ] Set the temperature.
   [    ] Plug the iron in.
   [    ] Prepare the place and the clothes.




Synonym = closest meaning = sama arti
1. Put on : get dress : wear = memakai

2. Look for : seek : search = mencari

3. Take care of : look after = merawat

4. Approximately : about = kira-kira

5. Stir : mix = aduk

6. Spices : flavor = bumbu

7. Beverage : drink = minuman

8. Tool : equipment : appliance : device : instrument : apparatus : alat

9. Soon : immediate = segera

10.Way : method : manner = cara

11.Goal : purpose : aim = tujuan

12.Soft : tender = lunak

13.Store : save : keep = menyimpan




                                                 33
 REPORT
   Jenis teks report merupakan jenis teks yang memberika informasi tentang sesuatu
berdasarkan laporan pengamatan secara sistematis. Jenis teks ini umumnya mendeskripsikan
gejala alam, lingkungan atau ha-hal pada pengetahuan alam. Yang membedakan teks report
dan deskriptif adalah teks report menjelaskan hanya secara umum sehingga deskripsi sebuah
teks report dapat beurpa simpulan umum.
    Tujuan komunikatif teks
       Untuk memberikan deskripsi tentang sesuatu berdasarkan laporan pengamatan secara
       umum/in general
    Struktur teks
       1. General identification
           Pada bagian ini, diberikan klasifikasi secara umu subjek laporan yang akan
           dibicarkan
       2. Description
           Mendeskripsikan subjek yang dibicarkan dalam bagian klasifikasi umum.



                               DOLPHIN
                               The dolphin is a toothed whale that is related to the porpoise.
                               The dolphin has a long, streamlined body; some species have a
                               prominent beaklike snout. The dolphin travels in schools and
                               can swim at a speed of up to 25 mph. After a gestation period of
                               one year, the female gives birth to one young. The young
                               suckles (or nurses) for up to two years. Dolphins are intelligent,
                               playful animals.

                              One of their favorite things is to surf the waves created by
                              boats. They emit a variety of sounds to communicate with other
                              dolphins. Like other toothed whales, they use echolocation
(which is like sonar) to avoid obstacles and to locate prey. There are 37 species of dolphins.
The best-known North American species are the common dolphin, the bottle-nosed dolphin,
and the killer whale.

The common dolphin is found mostly in the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic. It is about
eight feet long including a six-inch snout. The common dolphin is brownish-black above with
dark flippers and snout. Its belly is white in color. There are bands or stripes of tan or yellow
on the sides. The common dolphin travels in schools of up to a thousand or more individuals.
It feeds mainly on fish.

The bottle-nosed dolphin or bottlenose, is found in warm and temperate North American
coastal waters. It is dark gray above with lighter under parts. The bottlenose can reach up to 12
feet long and has a three-inch snout. The bottle-nosed dolphin feeds on fish, squid, and crabs.
They can be trained to perform at zoos and aquariums. They are also used in research on
animal communication and learning.

The killer whale is found in all seas. It is black above and has a white belly. There are white
patches above the eyes and on the flanks. The killer whale is about 30 feet long with a blunt
                                               34
snout and a long, pointed dorsal fin. The killer whale feeds on fish, seals, marine birds, and
other species of whale. Although killer whales can be aggressive, they have been trained to
perform at zoos and aquariums.

Dolphins belong to the family Delphinidae. The common dolphin is Delphinus delphis; the
bottle-nosed dophin,Tursiops truncatus; and the killer whale,Orcinus orca.




                                             35
Tujuan Pembelajaran 3.1: Siswa dapat
            Bertanya dan menjawab tentang meminta dan memberi kepastian
            Bertanya dan menjawab tentang mengungkapkan dan menanggapi keraguan

        Dalam unit ini, kita akan membahas tentang mengungkapkan kepastian (expressing
certainty). Expressing certainty merupakan kompetensi untuk menunjukkan keyakinan atau tingkat
kepercayaan akan sesuatu. Di lain pihak uncertainty merupakan kompetensi untuk menunjukkan
suatu ketidakyakinan dan keraguan akan sesuatu.

  Enquiring about                   Showing certainty                   Showing uncertainty
  Are you sure?                     I am absolutely certain.            I don’t know for sure.
  Are you sure about it?            Positively.                         I am not (so) sure.
  Are you certain?                  Definitely.                         I doubt it.
  Are you positive?                 Absolutely.                         A don’t know yet.
  Is that definite?                 I’m conviced…                       Not as far as I know.
                                    I definitely…
                                    I have no doubt at all/that…
                                    I am pretty certain….
Contoh soal :

 1. Iwan : “ Hi, Novi, the weather is cloudy. Do you think it will rain soon?”

    Novi : “ I think so, I am ___________it will rain soon.

    A. Not sure                  C. doubtful

    B. Sure                      D. certainly

 2. Nurmalia : “Are you coming to Irma’s birthday party tonight?”

    Rosa        : “________she has invited me. I haven’t got the invitation yet.”

    A. May be                    C. it’s possible

    B. Of course                 D. I don’t think

 3. Mrs. Aditya :




                                                    36
Tujuan Pembelajaran 3.2: Siswa dapat
           Bertanya dan menjawab tentang meminta pengulangan
           Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menunjukkan perhatian
           Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menyatakan kekaguman



Asking for Repetition (meminta seseorang mengulangi ucapan)
Posted by masdin in Daily Conversations.
Tags: conversation
trackback

Ketika seseorang berbicara kepada kita, terkadang kita tidak mendengar jelas apa yang dia
katakan atau kita kurang paham dan kita ingin meminta dia mengulangi ucapan tersebut.
Bagaimana anda melakukan ini dalam bahasa Inggris? Berikut contoh dialognya.

A: What did you say your name was? (Siapa lagi nama anda?)
B: It’s Cathye Henderson. (Nama saya Cathye Jacklyn)

A: Did you say Andersen or Henderson? (Tadi anda bilang Andersen atau Henderson?)
B: Henderson, with an H. (Henderson, pakai H)

A: Is “Cathye” spelled with a C or a K? (Apakah “Cathye” dieja C atau K?)
B: It’s C as in Charm. (Dieja C seperti dalam kata Charm).

A: And what was your address again? (Dimana lagi alamat anda?)
B: 73 West Sunshine Blvd., Suite 501.

A: Sorry, I didn’t catch the last part. (Maaf, saya kurang jelas nomornya)
B: Do you want me to repeat it? (Apa perlu saya ulangi?)

A: I can’t hear you very well. (Saya tidak bisa mendengarkan anda dengan baik)
B: Maybe you should turn down the radio. (Barangkali radionya perlu dikecilkan suaranya)

Showing Attention
Expression that used for giving act of directing one’s thought
For Example:
•You look fantastic
•You are different today
•You look brilliant

Exercises
I.Write a dialog about ‘Showing Attention’. Then Perform it in front of the class
II. Complete the dialog below with Attention expressions
                                                  37
Ayu: “How are you, today?
Adi: “I am very well. Thanks, and you?
Ayu: “I am fine, too. ………………
Adi: “I don’t think so, I am just like usual. But, thank you.”
Ayu: You are wearing a good shirt. I like it. Where did you buy?. …………..
Adi: I bought in Distro. Thanks for your attention to me.

Questions
1. Edo: “What are you doing here?”
Ali : “I am looking for English Dictionary.”
Edo : “…………………………. “
Ali : “Are you sure?. Thanks a lot.”
a.You look fantastic
b.You’ve found it
c.That’s correct
d.Don’t bother me
e.I don’t think so.
2. Justine :“You’re so different this morning”
Dadang: “May be, I had good sleep last night.
Justine : “I think so.”
The underlined words express ….
a.Sympathy
b.Unbelievable feeling
c.Pleasure
d.Surprise
e.Thank
3.Kyla: “You look pale today, what’s the matter?
Widi: “I’ve been recovered from ill.”
Kyla: “Sorry, I don’t know about it.”
The underlined words express …
a.sympathy
b.surprise
c.showing attention
d.advise
e.warning
4. Mrs. Rina: “Don’t use a knife my son! I am scare, you will be hurt.”
Son : “No, Mom. I’ll be careful.
The bold utterance expresses …
a.sympathy
b.surprise
c.showing attention
d.advise
e.warning
5. Rain: “……………………… in doing the duty.”
Rina: “Thank you for your attention.”
a.You look so sad
b.You look very incredible
c.Thanks a lot


                                                   38
d.Don’t mention it
e.It’s surprise




         Tujuan Pembelajaran 4.1: Siswa dapat
          Bertanya dan menjawab tentang meminta pengulangan
          Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menunjukkan perhatian
          Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menyatakan kekaguman




Meminta/menanggapi pengulangan                                  Could you repeat the
                                                                last sentence?
                                                                Sorry, what did you
                                                                say?
                                                                Sorry, I don’t follow
                                                                you.
                                                                I’m sorry I didn’t hear
                                                                the last word.
                                                                Are you with me?
                                                                Have you got it?

SHOWING ATTENTION

Expressing of getting one’s attention
(Hilal is watching radio in the living room. Najmi comes.)
Najmi : Pardon me, Hilal.
Hilal : Yes? What happened?
Najmi : Can you turn the radio down? I want to phone Deny.
Hilal : No problem.
Najmi : Thank you very much.
(Telephoning her friends, Najmi walks into the dining room where her mother and father are
eating.)
Mother : Do you want to have more, dad?
Father : No, I am full.
Najmi : I’m sorry for interrupting you, but I want to tell important news.
Mother : What is it, dear?
Najmi : Mom, dad. Deny will propose me next week. I hope you will agree.
Father & mother : Oh, that’s very good news. Of course, we don’t mind of that.

Answer the following questions.
1. Who are involved in the dialogue above?
2. What did Hilal do when Najmi came?
3. What did Najmi ask Hilal to do?
4. Why did Najmi ask that?

                                                39
5. How did Najmi ask that?
6. What did Najmi say to interrupt her mother and father conversation




               Tujuan Pembelajaran 4.2: Siswa dapat
                Melakukan monolog pendek dalam bentuk Procedure/Report
                                               40
Teks Procedure: Teks yang menjelaskan atau memberi petunjuk cara/langkah – langkah membuat
                                       atau melakukan sesuatu.
                   Generic Structure: Aim/Goal - Materials/Tools - Steps/Methods
                           Aim/Goal, misalnya: How to make Brownies Cake
        Materials berisi: bahan - bahan dan atau alat - alat untuk membuat Brownies tersebut
                         Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text
                    Steps/Methods berisi: langkah - langkah membuat Brownies



                                            Contoh Teks Procedure:
                                            How to make Lemonade
                                                    Ingredients:
                                                For each glass use:
                                        - 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
                                            - 2 tablespoons of sugar.
                                                 - 1 glass of water
                                                     Methods:
                          1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
                                              2. Take out the seeds.
                                  3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
                                                    4. Add sugar
                                           5. Add water and stir well
  6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right
               7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade

                                            atau :
                                  HOW TO MAKE PEANUT CRUNCH

                                          What you’ll need :
                                          v 1 cup of peanuts
                                      v 3 cups of brown sugar
                                     v 2 tablespoons of vinegar
                                           v 1 cup of water

                                             What to do :
                     Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan.
                        Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved
                          Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil
     Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown
                                       Allow bubbles to settle
Spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased pan and mark into bite-size
                                                pieces.

                            Makes enough Peanut Crunch for six people

Ungkapan yang berkaitan dengan teks Procedure :

                                                 41
Mengurutkan   First,..
tindakan      Then,
              Next,
              After that,
              Finally,
              Make sure you…
              Be careful not to…
              Remember to…
              Don’t forget to…




                            42
Tujuan Pembelajaran 5.1: Siswa dapat
          Mengidentifikasi makna gagasan dalam teks berbentuk Procedure dan Report
          Mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi yang terdapat dalam teks berbentuk Procedure
             dan Report
          Mengidentifikasi tujuan komunikasi teks berbentuk Procedure/Report
          Mengidentifikasi langkah retorika dalam teks berbentuk Procedure/Report
          Membaca nyaring teks berbentuk Procedure/Report


How to make Lemonade
Ingredients:
For each glass use:
- 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
- 2 tablespoons of sugar.
- 1 glass of water
Methods:
1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2. Take out the seeds.
3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4. Add sugar
5. Add water and stir well
6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right
7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade




Report (Laporan Hasil Pengamatan)
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau
analisis. Sesuatu yang dapat dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan benda buatan
manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum,
misalnya ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk
membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan
binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama. Siswa dapat mencoba membuat teks laporan
tentang, misalnya rumah sangat sederhana, warung tegal, sekolah, rumah sakit, dsb.
a. Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
♣ Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan dan klasifikasinyaTujuan
Kegiatan
 Deskripsi♣
b. Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
 General nouns, seperti Reptil in Comodo Island, dsb.♣
                                                   43
♣ Relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptile are scaly animal (ciri ini berlaku untuk
semua reptilia),dsb.
 Section verbs♣ dalam menjelaskan perilaku, misal lizards cannot fly, dsb.
 Present♣ tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya komodo dragon usually weigh more
than 160 kg, dsb.
 Istilah tekhnis, misalnya water♣ contains oxygent and hydrogen, dsb.
 Paragraf dengan topic sentences♣ untuk menyusun sejumlah Informasi.

contoh teks report :

The Pelican Report
The white pelican is one of the most succesful fish eating birds.
The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will
gather in a curved src some distance off shore. The bird then begin to move forward towards the
shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them
When the water is shallow enough for the bird to reach the fish, the formaion breaks up as each dips
its bill into the water to scoops up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill
leaving the fish which are then swallowed Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Fossils of this
genus have been found dating back 40 million years.




                                                   44
Tujuan Pembelajaran 5.2: Siswa dapat
           Mengidentifikasi makna yang terdapat teks fungsional pendek : pengumuman, iklan,
              pesan singkat
           Mengidentifikasi ciri kebahasaan teks fungsional pendek, pengumuman




Functional Text

Apakah yang dimaksud dengan “functional text”?
Functional Text adalah teks khusus yang berisi perintah, pengarahan, sesuatu yang harus
dilakukan atau tidak boleh dilakukan yang dapat berupa pesan singkat (short message), daftar
belanja (shopping list), peringatan (notice), pengumuman (announcement), dan lain-lain yang
mengandung makna dan digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari.

Perhatikan contoh berikut!

Example 1: Short Message




Read the short message above!

Pay attention to the questions below and click the box to see the answer!

   1.   To whom is the message for ?

   2.   What does he have to do after eating ?



                                                 45
3.   Where does he have to put the key ?


   4. What subject does he attend ?




Example 2: Notice



                             Notice is a short passage, symbol or text to inform or instruct
                             people to do or not to do anything.
                             This notice means don’t smoke. It means people must not smoke
                             in that place. We usually see this notice in public places such as
                              in a bus, in a lobby, or in air conditioned rooms.
                             Other examples of notice are “Don’t Park”, “Don’t Stop”, etc.




Example 3 : Shopping List
Another example of a functional text is a shopping list. Read the shopping list below!

Day : Monday Date : July 22, 2007

4 loaves of bread
3 kilos of beans
1 kilo of apples
2 kilos of sugar
1 kilo of carrots
1 kilo of oranges
1 can of soft drink

Now, see the answer of the questions below by clicking the box on the left column!

   1. The text is a kind of ....

   2. The purpose of text is to remind the customer of what to….


   3. How many kinds of vegetables are there in the text ?


   4. Is there a soft drink in the shopping list ?



Example 4 : Announcement
Read the following announcement, and click the box on the left under the questions to see the

                                               46
answer!

Our school basketball matches will begin on Saturday, January 1. The events will run from
8.00 – 10.00 for the next four weeks. The final tournament will be held on February 7. For
more information, contact Rizka ( 021 12345678 )

   1. The text is a kind of …

   2. How long will the events run ?


   3. What month will the final round be held on ?


   4. When will their school basketball matches begin ?


   5. Who can we contact for more information ?



Example 5: Instruction
Read the text and click the box on the left side to see the answer !

   •   Prepare a pan and some eggs
   •   Put some water in the pan

   •   Put some eggs in the pan

   •   Turn on the stove

   •   Put the pan on it

   •   Wait until the water is boiled

   •   Wait for 4 minutes

   •   The boiled eggs are ready

   1. How many household appliances do we need ?


   2. The text is a kind of …


   3. “Turn on the stove” . What is the antonym in the sentence of “turn on “ ?


   4. Where do you put the pan




                                                47
Tujuan Pembelajaran 5.3: Siswa dapat
             Mengidentifikasi ciri kebahasaan teks fungsional pendek, pengumuman




 NOTICES

                                                    48
Notice atau peringatan adalah informasi singkat dan sederhana yang bertujuan untuk
   orang banyak. Notice digunakan untuk member informasi, instruksi atau peringatan kepada
   publik. Peringatan ini harus mudah di pahami dan mudah dibaca. Oleh karena itu,
   peringatan selalu memgunakan kata-kata yang sederhana serta ditulis dengan jenis huruf
   (font) yang sederhana pula dan dengan ukuran besar.

        Salah satu bentuk notice adalah caution. Caution adalah peringatan atau saran yang
   ditujukan untuk public tentang sebuah bahaya atau risiko yang mungkin terjadi. Jika tidak
   diindahkan akan menyebabkan terluka bahkan dapat kehilangan nyawa.




        A notice is a board or a sign displaying information or a warning. A notice is also called a
caution. It is usually in the form of instructions or prohibitions. To make notices, we usually use the
pattern below:

   Verb base + ………………
   Don’t + verb base + ……………
   No + noun
   No + verb-ing




The Functions

1. Prohibition notifies people not to do something. People may find this kind of notice in a
public places.

2. Caution or warning warns people to be careful in handling something. Ignoring the notice
may cause injury or breaking the facilities.

3. Guidance gives information to people to do something appropriately.

4. The informational notice provides information that could be useful for people.




                                                  49
Prohibition                  Caution             Guidance                Informational notice
Contoh ;

    1. No smoking                        6. No entry

    2. Keep the room clean               7. Put the books to the shelf

    3. Don’t touch the cable             8. Don’t leave the room dirty

    4. No littering                      9. Keep your room tidy

    5. Push                              10. Wet paint



Contoh lain;

  Keep your surrounding clean            Keep silent

                                         Exam is in progress




  Staff only
                                     Show your member card before

                                     You enter the library




   Pincipal is available




        Put your bags and jacket here

        No cycling on the footpath

        Keep off the grass

        Turn off your mobile phone during the lesson

        Waiting room

        Access for residents only

Exercise :




                                                   50
1. Where doe the notice exist?

2. What does the word expectant mean?

3. What should the people do according to the notice?

Aswer :

1. in a public transportation

2. expectant means pregnant

3. Let the seats for such persons mentioned in the notice




1. What is the purpose of the notice?

2. Who should follow the instruction?

3. Where do you probably find this notice?
                                               51
Answer :

1. To inform the people that the stair is only for emergency

2. Anyone who uses the facilities

3. In a public building




                                               1. Where do you find such a notice?

2. What should the driver do before turning left?

3. Should we wait the lamp turn to green?

Answer :

1. on a street

2. stop and see whether or not the traffic is safe enough to turn left.

3. No




                                                 52
1. What should the passenger do to their baggage?

2. Where do you find such a notice?

3. What should people do when spotting an unattended baggage?

   Answer :

1. Their should keep the baggage.

2. in a public transportation

3. Telling the driver about it

1. Their should keep the baggage.

2. in a public transportation

3. Telling the driver about it



 GREETING CARDS
                                             53
Greeting card (kartu ucapan) adalah kartu yang mengekspresikan persahabatan atau
        perasaan yang lain. Kartu ucapan biasanya diberi gambar dan tulisan yang menarik. Kartu
        ucapan diberikan untuk member perhatian kepada orang lain.

            Kartu ucapan dapat berupa :

4.   Birthday card, diberikan pada saat seseorang berulang tahun,

5.   Thank you card, diberikan untuk mengungkapkan rasa terima kasih,

        6. Get well card, diberikan kepada seseorang yang sakit untuk mengungkapkan harapan
           agar lekas sembuh,

        7. Congratulation card, diberikan untuk mengucapkan selamat kepada seseorang,

        8. Holiday card, diberikan kepada seseorang yang sedang berlibur.

                   Greeting Cards functions as an expression of sympathy and care to others.

                   1. The purpose : a. To congratulate someone' achievement

                   b. To express sympathy on someone's

                   c. To motivate someone on gaining achivement

                   2 . The Important points

                   a. Clarify a clear purpose

                   b. Use a appraisal diction

                   c. Accurate addressee

     exercise :




                                                  54
1. Who is the best team at school?

2. What kind of text is that?

3. What does the word your in the text refer to?




1. Why does Tya send the text?

2. What does the word wishing in the text mean?

3. What is the text about?



 LETTERS

        Letter (surat) adalah sarana komunikasi tertulis yang biasanya dikirim lewat pos. Surat
   biasanya dimasukkan dalam amplop dan dibubuhi perangko (apabila dikirim lewat pos).
   surat terdiri atas beberapa bagian, yairu:

   a. Alamat pengirim surat yang dituju (the inside address),

   b. Tanggal penulisan surat ( the date of writing the letter),
                                                55
c. Alamat orang yang dituju ( the inside address),

   d. Salam pembuka (salutation/greeting),

   e. Isi surat (the body of the letter), dan

   f. Penutup (closing), berisi tanda tangan dan nama pengirim surat.

      Surat terdiri atas 2 macam, yaitu surat pribadi dan surat bisnis. Surat pribadi baisanya
   bersifat informal. Sementara itu, surat bisnis bersifat formal dan sangat terikat pada turan
   yang berlaku.



 LABEL

        Label adalah keterangan yang terdapat di bagian luar kemasan sebuah produk/barang.
   Di label produk biasanya terdapat kalimat yang menunjukkan keunggulan produk, petunjuk
   penggunaan, komposisi produk, serta indikasi.



 SHORT MESSAGES

       Short message (pesan pendek) adalah surat pendek yang berfungsi member tahu
   seseorang tentang sesuatu. Pesan pendek diberikan ketika kita tidak dapat bertemu secara
   langsung dengan orang yang kita maksud/inginkan.




Invitation

1. Function / Purpose : To invite someone to attend an occation.

2. The Structure/Parts : The Addressee (The person invited)

Salutation

The message (the content of the messag)

The Sender

3. The requirements :a. It should have an accurate addressee

b. It gives clear time, place, and activity


                                                56
c. It provides sufficient information about the inviter.

d. Express that the writer is looking forward to seeing person

e. If there is a dress code, state it in the lower left-hand corner




             Tujuan Pembelajaran 6.1: Siswa dapat
              Menulis kalimat pendek dan sederhana
              Menulis teks fungsional pendek dan sederhana


    1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
         ⇒ digunakan untuk menerngkan kegiatan yang terulang/ menjadi kebiasaan .


        Time signal /keterngan waktu
        *letaknya diakhir / awal kalimat
            a) everyday                                  (d)every week
            b) every month                               (e)twice a week
            c) on Sunday                                 (f)once a day
        *letaknya sebelum kata kerja :
            a) always                                    (d)ever
            b) sometimes                                 (e)often

                                                  57
c) usually                                   (f)seldom
      PATTERN/RUMUS :

       (+) s(i,you,we,they) + vi+o+adv

       (-) s(i,you,we,they) + do not +vi+o+adv

       (?) Do + s(i,you,we,they) + vi+o+adv?



       (+) s(he,she,it) + vis/es+o+adv

       (-) s(he,she,it) + does not +vi+o+adv

       (?) Does + s(he,she,it) + vi+o+adv?

Ex;

A. (+) the students work together every day.
   (-) we do not grow jasmine in the garden.
   (?) do you usually alone?

B. (+) she always speaks loudly.
   (-)he does not often walk fast.
   (?) does she usually bring a dictionary?

Kata kerja yang ditambah –es, kata kerja (verb) yang berakhiran ;
1) SS = KISS + ES
2) CH = WATCH + ES
3) SH = WASH + ES
4) X = BOX + ES
5) O = GO + ES
6) Y = (sebelum kata huruf mati, maka “y” berubah menjadi “i”
            Ex; study                        studies


        Note :catatan
              Has =menggunakan subyek she,he,it.
              Have = menggunakan subyek i,you,we,they.
             Ex;
                -She has long hair and beautiful eyes.
                -I have some books about agriculture.




2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE
      ⇒ digunakan untuk menerangkan kejadian di waktu lampau


      Time Signal / Keterangan Waktu ;
         a) yesterday              e) last week
         b) ……ago                  f) just now
         c) 3 days ago             g) this morning
         d) last…….
                                                 58
PATTERN / RUMUS ;

(+) S + V1 + O + Adv
(-) S+ did not + V1 + O + Adv
(?) Did + s+ V1 + O + Adv?



   Ex;
   -Mahfud went to the beach yesterday.
   -Zahra did not go to the beach yesterday.
   -Did Zahra go to the beach yesterday?

                       PERUBAHAN KATA GANTI ORANG
                   MENURUT KEDUDUKANNYA DALAM KALIMAT


   SUBJECT                VERB                 OBJECT   POSSESIVE/MILIK

      HE                        -               HIM          HIS….
      SHE                       -               HER          HER…
       IT                       -                IT          IT’S…
        I                       -               ME           MY…
      WE                        -                US          OUR…
     THEY                       -              THEM         THEIR…
     YOU                        -               YOU         YOUR…




                                        59
Tujuan Pembelajaran 6.2: Siswa dapat
                Menyusun kalimat acak menjadi teks yang terpadu berbentuk Procedure/Report
                Menulis Essay berbentuk Procedure



                 FRIED CHICKEN



First, grind the spices until they mixed and soft.

Next, put the chicken in the bowl and pour fresh water into it and then put the grinder spices
on it, stir well.

Then, after they stirred well, boil the chicken until the flesh cooked and the colour changes
into white.

After that, fry the chicken using vegetable oil until the color becomes brownish.

Finally, we put the chicken on the plate and add some sauce or chili. The fried chicken is ready
to eat.




Germinating
    petuni
    a
    seeds
aim (goal)         Follow these instructions to germinate
                                                     60
pertunia seeds.



                     You will need:
                     • a packet of petunia seeds
                     • a seed tray or small pots
materials and        • loamy friable soil or potting mix
equipment            • water
                     • fertiliser.



                     1. Fill seed tray with soil.

                     2. Incorporate fertiliser into soil.

                     3. Scatter seeds on the surface of the soil.

                     4. Cover seeds with a 3 mm layer of soil. Press
                        firmly.

                     5. Spray water to moisten the seed bed.
steps
                     6. Place seed tray in warm, sunny position (at
                        least 25 deg. C).

                     7. Keep soil moist by watering gently while
                        seeds are germinating. Seeds will
                        germinate in approximately 10 – 14 days.




How to Make Fried Rice
Would you like to make a nice, steaming, pan full of fried rice? Fried rice is very easy to make, also
delicious. It can be prepared in many ways, this is just one of them. It takes 20 minutes to prepare and
it goes with lots of things! Read on to learn how to make this excellent dish:




    Ingredients
•           White Rice that’s previously been cooked and refrigerated
•           Two Carrots
•           1/2 an Onion
•           Celery
•           3 Eggs
•           Beef Bullion
•           Black Pepper

                                                        61
•            Garlic Powder
   •            Ground Ginger
   •            Soy Sauce
   •            Butter
   •            Vegetable Oil
   •            Shrimp,Chicken,and/or pork/tofu(optional)

       Steps
   1.           Put about 6 cups of rice into your rice cooker. Let it steam until its ready.

   2.            Wash the vegetables. Then dice the carrots, and onions into small pieces. Set them aside
        for the next step.

   3.           Add oil and heat up the pan to 100 degrees.

   4.            Toss the Vegetables into the pan for about 3 minutes.Then toss in the carrots and onions
        for 3 minutes with the. Add the 1 teaspoon of salt into the pan.

   5.           Boil the chicken or shrimp with the rest of the ingredients(optional)

   6.           Put a bit more oil into the frying pan.

   7.           Toss the rice in carefully.

   8.            Add an egg and scramble with the other ingredients. Add approximately 2 to 3 tablespoons
        of soy sauce while frying.

   9.           Put fried rice on a dish and it’s ready to serve!




    Tips
   •            You can substitute butter for oil.


   •

There are many things you can pair up with fried rice. Here are some ideas:




        o                  Eggs

        o                  Tofu

        o                  Chicken

        o                  Ham

        o                  Beef

        o                  Inside pita bread with salsa, ham, and melted cheese

                                                          62
o                    Serve with dumplings

    o                    Soup

•            It’s recommended to use overnight left-over rice for fried rice because it is firmer than
    freshly cooked rice. This will prevent rice sticking together while stir frying.




Warnings
•             Use caution when operating any cooking surface or container to avoid injury.


•             Be careful when you cut the vegetables.


•          Beware when performing and “frying” operation as oil tends to “spit” from cooking surfaces,
    and some food items will actually explode when exposed to hot enough oil.




Adverb of manner :                      Keterangan cara

        ⇒ Digunakan untuk menyatakan “ bagaimana cara “ suatu tindakan dilakukan.


     Cara Pembentukannya :
     1. dengan menambah akhiran –ly pada kata sifatnya(ajective) ;
           Example;

            No    adjective/kt sifat                Adverb of Manner                  Meaning
            1.    brave                             bravely                           Dengan berani
            2.    bright                            brightly                          Dengan terang
            3.    careful                           carefully                         Dengan hati-hati
            4.    correct                           correctly                         Dengan benar
            5.    polite                            politely                          Dengan sopan
            6.    slowly                            slowly                            Dengan pelan
            7.    quick                             quickly                           Dengan cepat


           Contoh kalimat :
              1) She works carefully.
              2) Mr.Joko drives his car slowly.
              3) He usually washes the clothes quickly.


           ADVERB OF MANNER ( keterangan cara) = sama tulisanya dengan kata sifatnya (adjective)
            No Adjective/kt sifat              Adverb of Manner                Meaning
            1.    hard                         hard                            Dengan keras
            2.    fast                         fast                            dengan cepat
            3.    late                         late                            Dengan lambat
            Contoh kalimat        :
               1) We must work hard now.
               2) He runs fast.
                                                     63
3) Atni always dances well.
                      EXCEPTION( PERKECUALIAN ) : GOOD menjadi WELL

Activity 1: Answer the question orally!
   1. Rearrange the following jumbled sentences in a good order!
   2. Write a procedure text telling how to operate a computer!
   3. Write a report on a certain kind of thing or place around you!




SUPLEMEN

Common Errors In English

GOODS
- The goods was not delivered in time. (X)
- The goods were not delivered in time. (V)
"Goods" adalah kata benda jamak dan diikuti kata kerja jamak.

GOODS
- He had very little money and very few goods. (X)
- He had very little money and very few possessions. (V)
''goods'' = things for sale : leather goods
''possessions'' = semua benda (hal) yang dimiliki seseorang.

GO OUT
- As soon as the bus stopped, he went out. (X)
- As soon as the bus stopped, he got off. (V)
pemakaian GET ON/OFF : get on/off a bus/train/plane dan lain-lainnya.

GOSSIP
- She told me gossips about all her relations. (X)
- She told me a lot of gossip about all her relations. (V)
gossip (uncountable) menerangkan sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kehidupan pribadi orang-
orang.
Catatan : 'bits/pieces of gossip'

GUARANTEE
- May I remind you that the cassette recorder is still in guarantee. (X)
- May I remind you that the cassette recorder is still under guarantee. (V).
(be) under guarantee, NOT in
MISTAKE
- I rarely do more than three mistakes in an essay. (X)
- I rarely make more than three mistakes in an essay. (V)
yang biasa dipakai ialah = make a mistake, BUKAN ''do''.

                                                   64
OUT
- I felt very cold when I went out the room. (X)
- I felt very cold when I went out of the room. (V)
Out berfungsi sebagai adverb. 'Tita went out, leaving just the two of us in the room,'
Out berfungsi sebagai preposition.
Sebagai catatan, dalam percakapan imformal OUT kadang-kadang dipakai daripada OUT OF.
Contoh :'I saw someone jump out the window'.
NOISE
- I turned on the radio but there was no noise. (X)
- I turned on the radio but there was no sound. (V)
NOISE = suara keras yang tidak menyenangkan, The noise of the traffic gave ne headache.
SOUND = sesuatu (suara) yang ditangkap telinga. The sound of a guitar; the sound of music.
NO MATTER
- No matter he tries hard, he never succeeds in passing. (X)
- No matter how hard he tries, he never succeeds in passing. (V)
no matter how much he studies.........+ main clause
no matter how often he goes..........+main clause
no matter how well he plays ...........+ main clause.
etc + main clause
- No matter the recession, sales remained high.
- In spite of the recession, sales remained high.
NO MATTER selalu diikuti oleh kata WH. No matter what.....; no matter how; no matter who.......etc
ACCORDING TO
1. According to me, we should spend more money on education. (X)
2. In my opinion, we should spend more money on education. (V)
kata "according to" tidak bisa diikuti oleh "me" atau "us".
- According to him, we should spend more money on education.(V)
- According to the head master, we should spend more money on education.(V)
ACTUAL
- We'd like to know more about the actual progress. (X)
- We'd like to know the present/current progress, not the progress in the past. (V)
actual = real (kebalikan dari 'guessed', 'supposed' dll. We think he is over sixty but his actual age is
forty-five.
present/current = kejadian atau yang sedang terjadi sekarang.
ACTUALLY
- We need to produce and export more than we do actually. (X)
- We need to produce and export more than we do at present. (V).
actually = fakta (selain apa yang dikatakan atau dipikirkan), sesungguhnya (untuk menambahkan apa
yang sudah dikatakan). People think we've got lots of money, but actually we're very poor.
at present = saat ini
ADDRESS
- She will give me her adress. (X)
- She will give me her address. (V)
address = selalu double "d"
ADVICE (1)
- We adviced him to tell the reporter. (X)
- We advised him to tell the reporter. (V)
advice = kata benda

                                                   65
advise = kata kerja
ADVICE (2)
- The teacher gave us a good advice. (X).
- The teacher gave us some good advice. (V)
advice adalah kata benda yang tidak bsa dihitung (uncountable)
Alternatif pemakaian : The teacher gave us a good piece of advice.
ADVISE
- I asked my doctor for her advise. (X).
- I asked my doctor for her advice. (V)
advise = kata kerja
advice = kata benda.
AFFECT
- It's a magazine about internet and their affects on our lives. (X)
- It's a magazine about internet and their effects on our lives. (V)
AFFECT (dengan AFF) adalah kata kerja.
To affect = sesuatu yang mempunyai EFFECT (efek/dampak).
"Smoking affects your health" (= Smoking has an effect on your health).
AFFORD (1)
- A newspaper can be afforded by most people. (X)
- Most people can afford a newspaper. (V)
"Afford" jarang dipakai dipakai di kalimat pasif.
AFFORD (2)
- Andy couldn't afford paying for his education. (X)
- Andy couldn't afford to pay for his education. (V)
afford (to do) something
AFFORD (3)
- William couldn't afford himself to buy his son any book (X)
- William couldn't afford to buy his son any book. (V)
afford bukan REFLEXIVE VERB
AFFORD (4)
- I want to get my money bicycle back because I can't afford the money for a new one. (X)
- I want to get my bicycle back because I can't afford (to buy) a new one.(V)
money, jarang sekali digunakan sebagai object afford.
AFRAID
- The road to the show was very busy and we were afraid to miss the show. (X)
- The road to the show was very busy and we were afraid of missing the show (V)
be afraid to do something = takut melakukan sesuatu atau tidak bersedia melakukan
sesuatu karena anda ketakutan.
be afraid of doing something = khawatir tentang sesuatu yang akan terjadi
AGENDA
- In the right-hand pocket you will find a little black agenda that I need urgently. (X)
- In the right-hand pocket you will find a little black diary that I need urgently. (V)
agenda = sebuah daftar topik untuk diskusi/pembicaraan di dalam suatu pertemuan.
diary = sebuah buku dimana seseorang menulis perjanjian, atau hal-hal yang perlu diingat/dilakukan,
atau hal-hal yang perlu diingat.
AGES
- The glasses haven't been washed since ages. (X)
- The glasses haven't been washed for ages. (V)
since = awal dari suatu periode

                                                 66
AGO
- It is a month ago since I left Germany. (X)
- It is a month since I left Germany. (V)
Catatan : jangan pakai kata "ago" sebelum kata "since".

- I'm writing in reply to your letter that I've received two days ago. (X)
- I'm writing in reply to your letter that I received two days ago. (V)
Catatan :
Bentuk Present Perfect Tense tidak dipakai dengan kata-kata yang berpola Past Time seperti
yesterday, last week, a year ago.

- The inspector asked to see his ticket, as I had done few minutes ago. (X)
- The inspector asked to see his ticket, as I had done a few minutes before.(V)
Catatan :
Kata ago dipakai untuk menerangkan suatu periode waktu di masa yang lampau yang tidak diukur dari
kejadian sekarang.
a few minutes ago = beberapa menit yang lalu
a few minutes before = beberapa men t sebelumnya.




                                                 67
68

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Diktat kel suyadi

  • 1. SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA JAWA TENGAH DIKTAT MATA PELAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS SMP KELAS 9 SEMESTER 1 TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013 KABUPATEN WONOGIRI 1
  • 2. Tujuan Pembelajaran 1.1: Siswa dapat Merespon ungkapan meminta dan memberi kepastian Merespon ungkapan keraguan dan menanggapi keraguan Dalam unit ini, kita akan belajar beberapa ungkapan yaitu ; bagaimana cara merespon ungkapan meminta kepastian, memberi kepastian dalam bahasa Inggris dan bagaimana cara merespon ungkapan keraguan serta menanggapi keraguan.  Asking for and giving certainty (Meminta dan memberi kepastian) Here are some expressions you can use to ask for and give certainty; Asking for Certainty Giving Certainty (Meminta kepastian) (Memberikan kepastian) Are you certain? I’m quite sure. Are you sure? I’ve no doubt about…. Is that so? You bet!/Of course./Sure./Absolutely! Is it confirmed? I’m positive./It’s possible. Do you?/ Will you?/ Can you? That sounds good/perfect. What if….? O.K./No problem. Will it be O.K. if…? Fine. Go ahead. How about this/that one? I’m definitely sure./I’m absolutely certain. How about these/those ones? Sure, I’m certain. No doubt about it./Without doubt. When you are sure on something, you can use the following expressions:  I’m very sure…. - I believe so  I’m positive…. - It is right  It is definite….. When you are not sure, you can use following expression: - I am not sure. - It is not define - I can’t say for certain - It is not right - It is not positive - I don’t think so - I doubt it. - What do you see on the pictures above? Yes, probably the man is certain about something, And the girl is doubtful about something. In this chapter, we are going to learn about how to express certainty and doubt, and how to respond to those expressions. 2
  • 3. MODELLING OF TEXT EXPRESSION OF ASKING AND EXPRESSING CERTAINTY Expression of asking certainty is used when you would ask somebody whether they are certain about something or not.Expression of expressing certainty is used when you are certain enough about something. Here are the examples: Risa : Are you sure that Willy will return to Semarang this week? Rena : Yes, I am sure. He told me so. The red sentence is one example of the expression of asking certainty, while the green sentence is an example of the expression of expressing certainty. Below is the list of expressions of asking and expressing certainty: EXPRESSIONS MEANINGS ASKING CERTAINTY Are you sure that ……..? Apakah kamu yakin bahwa ….? EXPRESSIONS OF Are you quite certain about ……? Apakah kamu cukup yakin tentang …..? Are you sure about it? Apakah kamu yakin tentang itu? Are you certain that ….? Apakah kamu yakin bahwa ….? EXPRESSING CERTAINTY Yes, I am sure Ya, saya yakin EXPRESSIONS OF Definitely Pasti Yes, I am absolutely sure Ya, saya sangat yakin I am certain about it Saya yakin tentang hal itu Of course Tentu saja Here are some examples of conversation using expressions above: A. Lastri : Are you quite certain that Harry Potter movie will be released this month? 3 Vera : Definitely. I read the news on Suara Merdeka newspaper
  • 4. B. Diana : Are you sure that our basketball team will be the runner up in this competition? Yosa : Of course. We have tried and exercised very hard Singapore? Yuni : Are you sure about our on-time arrival to this term. Andika : Don’t worry, we are going to arrive to Singapore on time. Activity 1 : Practice the following dialogue and practice with a partner! Ahmad : Ara, did you hear the latest news? Ara : No, what is it about, Ahmad? Ahmad : The destruction of Indonesia forest. Ara : Well, tell me more. Ahmad : The destruction of our forest is happening rapidly because of illegal logging. It will destroy our forests by the end of this century. Ara : Are you sure? Ahmad : I’m sure but don’t worry. The government will stop this, so we can save our beloved forests. Ara : That’s good news. And after this, we must replant trees. Ahmad : Well, the bell is ringing. It’s time to go to class. Activity 2 : After reading the dialogue above, answer these questions below! 1. How many persons, are there in the dialogue above 2. Who are they? 3. What news, Ahmad has heard lately? 4. Why did the destruction of our forest happen? 5. What is the solution for saving our forest? Activity 3 : Make a group of 2 students and make a dialogue by using certainty or uncertainty! Werkudoro :………………………………….. …………………………………. …………………………………. Prabu Bismo : ……………………………….. …………………………………. Werkudoro : ………………………………….. …………………………………. 4
  • 5. Prabu Bismo : ………………………………… ………………………………… Note : ..…………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………..  SHOWING AND RESPONDING TO DOUBT (Mengungkapkan dan merespon keragu-raguan) EXPRESSION OF EXPRESSING AND RESPONDING DOUBT Expression of expressing doubt is used when you are not certain or doubtful about something. Expression of responding is used when you want to respond somebody’s doubt. Nori : I am not sure that he will finish his study soon. Here are the examples: Yudhit: Don’t worry. He is trying his best. The red sentence is one example of the expression of expressing doubt, while the green sentence is an example of the expression of responding doubt. Below is the list of expressions of expressing and responding doubt: EXPRESSIONS MEANINGS EXPRESSING DOUBT I am doubtful about …. Saya ragu tentang … EXPRESSIONS OF I am doubtful that …… Saya ragu bahwa ….. I am not certain about it Saya tidak yakin tentang …. I am not sure that …. Saya tidak yakin bahwa …. DOUBTEXPRESSIONS OF Don't worry Jangan khawatir RESPONDING There is no doubt about it Tidak ada keraguan tentang itu Yes, that is uncertain yet Ya, hal itu masih belum pasti 5
  • 6. Here are some examples of conversation using expressions above: A. Selena: I am doubtful that Johnny will be on time. Rudy : Don’t worry, Selena. He is on the way B. now. Selena: I am not sure about this plan Rudy : There is no doubt that our plan will work well. Selena: I am not certain that I will get the best C. score in this test Rudy : Don’t worry. You studied well last night. Now, after learning the expressions of Asking and Expressing Certainty, Expressing and Responding Doubt, we are going to learn how they are pronounced. Here are some vocabularies related to the expressions above and their pronunciation: Vocabularies Meanings Pronunciatio n Sure Yakin, pasti [ʃɔː ] Quite Agak /kwaɪt/ Certain Pasti, yakin /ˈsɜː.t ə n/ Definitely Tentu saja /ˈdef.ɪ.nət.li/ Believe Percaya /bɪˈliːv/ Absolutely Sangat /ˌæb.səˈluːt.li/ Now, your teacher will read those expressions available above and also some vocabularies. Listen and repeat what your teacher says! LISTENING SECTION Your teacher will play an audio recording about conversations using the expressions of Asking and Expressing Certainty, Expressing and Responding 6
  • 7. Doubt. Work in pairs, listen to the audio recording carefully and transcribe the dialogue. After that, identify what expressions used in each utterance and discuss the result with your partner. HOMEWORK Find the meaning of these expressions and practice uttering them at home! 1. I am definitely uncertain about it. 2. I am not sure that everything is okay. 3. Are you certain enough about it? 4. I am absolutely uncertain that he will finish his job. 5. I am doubtful that they have enough time to do the homework. JOINT CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEXT : SPEAKING SECTION This is speaking section in which you can practice speaking freely. Now, Work in groups consist of 3 persons and choose one of the situations provided below. 1. You get information that Reni will hold a birthday party in a restaurant. Then, you ask Aldo whether she is sure about the information or not. Aldo says that he is not sure about it and he asks Vina. Vina says that Reni has told her about it. 2. Tino gives information to Nina that she gets ten in Biology test. Then, Nina asks Tino whether he is certain about the information or not. Tino states that he only gets the information from their friends. Then they decide to ask to their Biology teacher whether the information is true or not. 3. Rony hasn’t come yet to the class meeting. Doni is not certain that Rony will come, so he asks Very whether he is certain that Rony will come. Very is not 7
  • 8. certain about it, so that they call Rony and Rony says that he is still on the way to school. After choosing the situations, make the dialogue according to the chosen situation and perform it with your partners. Here are the other examples of expression : Showing and Responding Doubt. Showing Doubt Responding (Menunjukkan keraguan) (Menanggapi keraguan)  I doubt about this information  You’d better confirm it.  I doubt that I can answer all questions  Don’t be pessimistic.  I am not sure/certain that this is the right  Neither am I. track.  Why don’t you try to get the truth?  Um….I am not really sure/certain about the  So, which way should we take? news.  I’m not sure if this is the right way. Memberi/meminta kepastian Sorry, what did you say? What did you say? Are you sure? Menunjukkan/menanggapi keraguan Really? Are you sure? EXERCISES 1 Complete the following dialogue to answer the questions! IT’S TIME FOR EXERCISE !!!!! Fill in the blanks with suitable expressions according to the picture! Example: 1. Novita : Are you sure that Deny will come to my birthday party? Rosita : ……………… You should fill in the blank with suitable answer according to the picture, that is “I am sure he will come if you invite him”. 8
  • 9. 2. Renata : I am doubtful that Jennifer will reply my message. Lia : ……………Probably she is still busy now. 3. Dave : …………………………? Hera : I am sure he will. He is a good tennis player. 4. Yvonne : ……………………… Budi : Don’t worry. She will go home soon. 5. Cici : Are you sure that these shoes will suit me? Erin : ………………These are beautiful shoes 6. Odi : I am not certain that Indonesia’s football team will win in the next championship. Yongki: ………………Indonesia’s team will try harder this year. Rehan : Tomorrow is the due date for our assignment. Ivan : Sorry, (7)………………… Rehan : I said, “Tomorrow is the due date for our assignment.” Ivan : Yes, you are right. But, (8)………I can submit it tomorrow. I have lots of jobs to do. How about you? Rehan : Well, (9) ….I can submit it tomorrow because I’m going to finish it tonight. 7. A. What do you do? C. What can I do for you? B. What did you say? D. What happened to you? 8. A. I’m not sure C. surely B. I’m sad D. of course 9. A. I’m glad C. I’m sure B. I’m sad D. I’m sorry Anna : Do you think China will win the Uber Cup? Wulan : (10)……………They always play beautifully. Why? Don’t you think so? Anna : Well, (11)………….I think Indonesia’s team plays better. 9
  • 10. 10. A. I don’t think so. C. I’m not sure. B. I’m not happy. D. Definitely. 11. A. I am with you. C. That’s a good idea. B. I agree with you. D. I’m doubtful about that. Ery : What do you think of our new classmate, Nusantara? Yogi : I think he is a sociable student. Ery : Yes, I think so, too. He is able to make friends easily. Nearly all of our friends know him well within just a month. Yogi : Do they? (12)…………….. Ery : Yep. (13)…………….. 12. A. What is he? C. What a shame! B. What is he doing? D. What a popular boy he is! 13. A. No doubt about that! C. Wow! B. I have no idea. D. Really? Susi : You look very happy, Tina. What happened? Tina : Guess what? I got an “A” on my last English test. Susi : Sorry? (14)…………..It’s very noisy here. I can hardly hear you. Tina : I said, “ I got an “A” on my last English test.” Susi : (15)……….That’s fantastic! Congratulation on your achievement! 14. A. What did you say? C. Do you repeat that? B. Is it important? D. How come? 15. A. Can you believe it? C. Are you alright? B. What happened? D. Really? Retno : Did you do the test well, Eny? Eny : (16)…………In fact, I don’t put any hope of passing this test. Retno : Are you serious? Eny : Yes. Not a single hope. Retno : (17)………… 16. A. Yes, I did. C. You did it well, too. B. I’m afraid I didn’t. D. The test was interesting. 17. A. You must be happy. C. Don’t give hope to something. B. You must understand. D. Don’t worry. Next time better. Waiter : Are you ready to order? Wahyu : Well, I’d like chicken soup, fried Gurameh and iced tea. How about you, Sar? Sarah : Well, I’d like to try Gado-gado, but (18)……….I’m afraid it’s too hot to me. Wahyu : (19)……………I’ll ask the waiter to put only one chili into the sauce. 10 Sarah : sounds great. I’ll take it, then.
  • 11. 18. A. I can’t believe it. C. I understand. B. I’m not sure. D. I’d like to try. 19. A. Don’t worry. C. I’m sure B. You are sure. D. Fine. Hesty : Listen! I’ve got news for you. Diana : (20)……………….. Hesty : “ Bedah Rumah” is going to come to my neighborhood. Diana : No kidding! When? Hety : This afternoon. Diana : (21)…………..Let’s go there after school, then. 20. A. What’s up? B. Why? C. Where? D. When? 21. A. Good afternoon C. Watch out! B. It’s my house. D. Terrific! Bejo : Do you see what the fireman has done? Paino : Yes. He saved the boy just in time. He climbed the ladder so quickly and jumped into the fire. (16)………….. Bejo : Yeah, (17)………………he is a dedicated person. 22. A. What a brave man he is! C. What a poor man! B. What a careless man! D. How poor! 23. A. I’m C. I do B. I like D. I’m sure Ica : Anang told me that his father is going to buy him a car. Is that true? Hadi : (24)………he told you the truth. I heard his father said about it. Ica : (25)………about that? Hadi : Absolutely. I was there when his father mentioned about it. 24. A. I do B. I can C. I like D. I’m sure. 25. A. Is that so? C. Are you sure? B. Do you like? D. Do you agree? 26. Nana : What do you think of Sofi? Janni : I’ve never met such a nice person. She is always ready to help others even. When she is busy herself…………………..she is! A. What a helpful person C. How happy B. What a happy person D. How busy 11
  • 12. 27. Anas : I’d like to send a letter to my mother but I can’t do it my self. I’ve got a little headache….. Hasan : Certainty. A. Can you write me a letter, please? B. Would you post this letter for me, please? C. Could you write a letter to me, please? D. May I send you a letter? 28. Reporter : Well, let us see if my other facts are correct. Are you sure that you started racing the F1 formula cars at the age of seventeen? Andi : Yes, I don’t doubt that I started racing at the age of seventeen. The underlined expression states …………… A.Opinion C.Disagreement B.Agreement D.Certainly 29. Luna said : “What a unique doll it is!” What does it mean? A.offering help C. refusing opinion B.giving comment about news D. asking and giving information 30. Yani : Where are you going next holiday: Dini : ………….…..but I must go to Solo A.I don’t doubt C. I’m ready B. I’m not sure D.I don’t believe Synonym = closest meaning = sama arti 1. Say : tell : speak = berbicara 2. Assignment : task = tugas 3. Destruction : damage = kerusakan 4. Job : occupation = pekerjaan 5. Forest : wood : jungle = hutan 6. Happen : occur = terjadi 7. Student : pupil = siswa 8. Afraid : scare = takut 9. Happy : glad = senang 10.Quick : rapid : speed = cepat 11.Is going to : will = akan 12.Nice : kind = baik 12
  • 13. Tujuan 1.2: Siswa dapat Merespon ungkapan meminta pengulangan Merespon ungkapan menunjukkan perhatian Merespon ungkapan menyatakan kekaguman Di unit 2 ini, kita akan belajar tentang bagaimana cara merespon beberapa ungkapan; ungkapan meminta pengulangan, ungkapan menunjukkan perhatian dan ungkapan menyatakan kekaguman.  Asking someone to repeat his/her words (Meminta seseorang mengulang perkataannya) Asking Someone to Repeat His/Her Words  Pardon? You what?  I’m sorry? Excuse me?  I beg your pardon? Say that again, please.  Sorry, what did you say? Would you mind repeating that?  I’m sorry. I didn’t catch the last word. Sorry, I didn’t follow you.  Could you say it again, please? Would you say it once again, please?  Asking to repeat something : meminta untuk mengulang sesuatu When we want to someone to repeat what he/she says, we may use : - I beg your pardon/ - Sorry, I can’t hear you. - Pardon? - Sorry, what did you say? - Sorry? - What? - Can you say that again? - What was that? Speaking Situations: Asking for Repetition Phrases for these situations Excuse me? (Said like a question) Pardon me? (Rising intonation) What did you say (your name was)? 13
  • 14. Did you say . . . ? Can you repeat that? Could you say that again please? What was that again? Sorry, I didn't catch that. Could you speak up please? Could you speak a little louder? Conversation Practice 1. Pretend you are being introduced to someone at a party. The music is very loud, and you can't hear your partner clearly. Example, What did you say your name was? Cindy Carton. Did you say Sidney or Cindy? Cindy, like the famous model. 2. Pretend your partner is applying for a passport. Ask him/her for personal information* (name, birth date, address, telephone number, etc.) Then practice asking for repetition. For example, What is your date of birth? August 15, 1981. Did you say August 16th? No, August 15th. *Since this is a "role play," you don't have to use actual (real) information. You may "make up" dates, numbers, etc. Activity 1 : Fill in the blanks spaces with expression of asking someone to repeat what he/she says! 1. Teacher : What country hosted the 2012 Olympic Games? Student : ……………. Teacher : Where was the 2012 Olympic Games held? 2. Coach : You miss too many balls. Athlete : ……………………? Coach : I said, you missed too many balls. Try harder. Athlete : Sorry, sir. 3. Amira : I never miss the National news. Neny : ……………….? What news? 14
  • 15. Amira : The national news. 4. Passer-by: Excuse me, where is the Stadium of Sriwedari? Seller : …………………? Where is the what? Passer-by: The Sriwedari Stadium. Seller : Go for two blocks. It is on your left next to the hospital. You won’t miss it Passer-by: Thank you. 5. Sasa : Excuse me, do you know how to adjust the volume? Anggi : …………………..? How to what? Sasa : How to adjust the volume? Anggi : Press the left bottom. Sasa : Thank you.  Giving and responding the interesting news : Memberi dan merespon kabar yang menarik To give the interesting news, we can use the following expression:  Those are some interesting news. - Have you heard that ….?  I’ve got something to tell you. - Have you heard the latest news?  I have news. Ada beberapa ungkapan yang dapat digunakan untuk mengawali memberikan berita yang menarik seperti: Listen, I have interesting news! Have you heard about the news recently? Do you know that …. Did you watch the news last night? I have got some interesting news ……  Look at the dialog bellows! Andi : Have you heard the news??? Ali : What news? Andi : Mali pulled off a stunning fight back to draw 4-4 with Angola after trailing 4- 0 with 11 minutes left in the opening game of the Africa Cup of Nations. Ali : Really, it must be very interesting games last night. Andi : Yach, You should watch it. Dalam percakapan diatas Andi menggunakan ungkapan “have you heard the news?” untuk memulai memberikan berita yang menarik kepada Ali. Ungkapan- ungkapan yang lain yang telah dijelaskan juga dapat digunakan untuk mengawali memberikan sebuah berita yang menarik. 15
  • 16. To give response to the interesting news, we can use the following expression:  Tell me more about it! - What is it about?  What news?  Showing amazement : Menunjukkan kekaguman Showing Amazement Responding (Menunjukkan kekaguman) (Tanggapan) Perfect! You’re right. Amazing! It is. That’s wonderful! Yeah. How fabulous it is! Yup! What a nice dress you are wearing! Thank you. What a lovely flower arrangement! I think so. Wow, that’s really cool! That’s right. Listen to your teacher Complete the dialogs below based on what you have heard. Dialog 1 ; Ms. Yuni : you know, the air pollution has become 1)__________in our town. Ms. Ajeng: 2)___________? Ms.Yuni : The air pollution in our town is a serious problem, isn’t it? Ms.Ajeng : Oh, yeah. You are right. Guess what! The pollution comes mainly from 3)_______ exhaust. Ms. Yuni : Yup! That’s why I prefer 4)___________to motorcycle. Ms.Ajeng : 5)____________. Dialog 2 : Gadis : Look at the river! It’s so dirty 6)___________! Vena : 7)____________? What did you say? Gadis : The river is so disgusting. Vera : 8)_____________. That’s because many people throw waste there. Gadis : Source of 9)_________, right? Vera : That’s right. I think we should stop throwing any forms of waste into the river. Gadis : Yup! I hope other people think 10)__________. Activity 3 : Fill the blanks with suitable expression (Giving and responding the interesting news) 11. Rini : ……………………….. Sinta : What news? Rini : My favorite’s band will play in the city tonight. 12. Fajar : I’ve something to tell you. Anis : …………………….. 16
  • 17. Fajar : My father gave me a gift. 13. Anto : ……………..? Dito : What is it about? Anto : The Indonesian football team defeated Malaysia 2-1 14. Ryan : Listen! I’ve got hot news. Ayu : ………………………? Ryan : Ani has a new boy friend. 15. Hanna : ………………………… Yogi : The minister of Education will visit the school Tujuan 2.1: Siswa dapat Mengidentifikasi makna taks dalam teks fungsional pendek : Iklan (Advertisement) Mengidentifikasi informasi yang terdapat dalam teks fungsional pendek Unit 3 ini akan membahas tentang cara-cara mengidentifikasi sebuah iklan. Iklan ada beberapa jenis; iklan lowongan kerja, iklan produk barang dan iklan produk jasa (tempat pendidikan, obyek wisata, perhotelan dan lain-lain). Advertisement (Iklan) adalah pemberitahuan yang bertujuan untuk mendorong, membujuk khalayak ramai untuk membeli atau menggunakan barang atau jasa yang ditawarkan. Iklan biasanya di pasang di media massa seperti media cetak dan media elektronik (Koran, majalah, tabloid, radio, televise dll) atau di tempat umum seperti baliho, billboard dan pamphlet.  Contoh iklan produk : Memaparkan tentang spesifikasi/keunggulan dari produk tersebut, pembuatnya, cara mendapatkannya dan mungkin harganya. Activity 1: Answer the question orally! 1. What is the advertisement for? 2. What are kinds of advertisement? 3. Where can you find the advertisement? Activity 2 : Read the following text and answer questions below! 17
  • 18. Goodink-Profesional Quality Refill Ink BC-02/BX-2 (Black) Refill ink for CANON BJ-10E/10EX/20/200/230 BJC-210S/210SP/240/255SP/265SP • Tap the top of the inkbottle, so no ink remains at the top portion. With push pin, puncture a hole at the top of the inkbottle. • To preserve unused ink, insert the pin into the top of the bottle to avoid it become dry. • Store the in bottle in dry, cool, dark place. Adapted from :NuInk-Profesional Quality Refill Ink 1. Which statement is NOT TRUE based on the above text? A. The color of the refill ink is black. B. The refill ink is usable for any type of printer. C. Keep the unused ink in dry, cool, dark places. D. Keep the refill ink wet all the time. 2. What will happen if you store the refill inkbottle under the direct sunlight? A. The ink will be dried C. The ink will last long B. The ink keeps wet D. The color of the ink will change 3. “ To preserve unused ink ….” The similar meaning of the underlined word is .. A. protect C. ruin B. destroy D. neglect Activity 3 : Create an advertisement and read in front of your friends! 1. Line 1 : make advertisement about products 2. Line 2 : make advertisement about school. 3. Line 3 : make advertisement about tourism resort. 4. Line 4 : make advertisement about job vacancies BALI’S NEWEST APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT EXERCISE : ADVERTISEMENT A DREAM BECOMES REALITY Sunwel Beach Residences Ketewel – Bali Prime Property – Prime Location – Prime Investment Only 5 minutes away from Sanur, directly at the Beach All apartments with view to the sea, full hotel amenities Large pools, spa, fitness, sauna and steam, parking, restaurant For complete information please visit our website Invitation – stimulation – temptation Where: Hotel Mulia Senayan, Jakarta (Leatris Room) When: 15th and 16th of January 2011 (15.00-21.00WIB) For reservation: PT Umadamai Phone +62 21 8747976 or Email: umadamai@yahoo.com 18 For every purchase prior to 31 January 2011 we will invite the buyer for the Ground- Breaking ceremony Flight from Jakarta to Bali and a night in a luxury villa FREE
  • 19. 1. The text talks about… A. Sunwel Beach Residences Ketewel B. Bali’s apartment development C. Prime property D. Hotel Mulia Senayan 2. Which of the following is not found in the advertisement? A. Restaurant B. Website C. Fitness D. Spa Naj’s Mexican Restaurant Try your favorite Mexican dishes, expertly prepared from the finest ingredients. Complete meals for less than 50 $. Superb wine and cheerful festival atmosphere at lunch and dinner. 63 Grand Street Phone: 874-7976 3. What is the text tell about? A. Description of Naj’s restaurant B. Special price for lunch and dinner C. Offering of new Mexican products D. Advertisement of Naj’s Mexican Restaurant 4. The following statements are not true about the text, except… A. Complete meals for more than $ 50 B. The restaurant gives delivery service C. The dishes prepared from oriental ingredients D. It is romantic atmosphere in the Naj’s restaurant 19
  • 20. Piroxicam This product is intended for external use only. No occlusive dressing should be employed. Run in the gel leaving no residual material on the skin A dosage of one gram (corresponding to 5 mg of Piroxicam) should be applied to the affected area three or four times per day Use in children Dosage recommendations and indications for use in children have not been established 5. Where the text is probably found? A. At the laundry centre C. On children’s toy package B. On a detergent package D. On medicine cover 6. What is the best subtitle for this text? A. External gel product C. How to use it B. All purpose gel D. Light gel on skin 7. It can be inferred from the text that …. A. It is better not to use this product on children B. People may drink this product C. Apply thick consultant affected area looking for…. We, a mining gel on the company, are D. This product can be used for all ages A SENIOR SECRETARY • Female, graduated from a reputable university • Min. 5 years of work experience • Good command of English (oral & written) • Computer literate (min Word, Excel, Internet) Please submit your complete application, resume and recent photograph not more than 10 days after this ad to: HRD PT CITRA ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Wisma Emha Jln. Wijaya I No. II A, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan 12170 8. What is the text about? A. A job vacancy FaxB. A021-7207978 no. senior secretary C. An application letter Email-address: Energy Development D. PT Citra mitraenergy@cbn.net.id 20 Only short listed candidates will be notified.
  • 21. 9. The following are the requirements asked EXCEPT…. A. Five years experience B. Able to operate a computer C. Able to speak and write in English D. Application letter should be sent ten days after this ads ADVERTISING TRAINEE We are seeking a young person for training in advertising department of a national publishing company. The job involves selling and marketing. This is an opportunity for person with strong interest in commercial world. Write to: Marketing Director P.O. Box 1245. Bandung 10. What is the advertisement about? A. How to become a trainee B. Qualification for a trainee C. Recruiting staff employees D. The company looks for a trainee 11. A trainee should have…. A. Qualified in sales marketing B. 3 years commercial experience C. Experience in selling and marketing D. Strong interest in the commercial world 12. “The job involves selling and marketing.” The underlined word means….. A. includes C. offers B. covers D.seeks Short Functional Text adalah teks pendek yang berisi perintah, pengarahan, sesuatu yang harus dilakukan atau tidak boleh dilakukan yang dapat berupa larangan (prohibition), undangan (invitation), Kartu Ucapan (Greeting Cards),pesan pendek (short message), daftar belanja (shopping list), peringatan (notice), pengumuman (announcement), dan lain-lain yang mengandung makna dan digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari. 21
  • 22. Sedangkan teks essay yang berbentuk descriptive, narrative, recount, report, dan procedure merupakan text panjang yang bisa dikategorikan ke dalam Long Functional Text (Istilah ini tidak baku/tidak lazim digunakan) Tujuan 2.1: Siswa dapat Mengidentifikasi makna taks dalam teks fungsional pendek : Pengumuman (Announcement) Mengidentifikasi informasi yang terdapat dalam teks fungsional pendek Announcement (pengumuman) adalah pernyataan (pemberitahuan resmi) dalam bentuk lisan atau tertulis yang membuat sesuatu diketahui secara umum. Pengumuman dapat kita dengar maupun temukan di mana saja. Pengumuman tulis biasanya dipasang di tempat/papan yang mudah dilihat orang. 22
  • 23. For exhibition at school at market A. The Functions 1. Announcement provides complete and clear information about certain events or location B. The followings are some tips in writing announcement 1. Straightforward and ease the readers to get information quickly 2. Keep it short, inviting, and to the point. 3. Clear and complete 4. For a bad news, make a direct and no-nonsense statement. Exercise : Answer these questions based the text above. 1. Who writes the announcement? 2. What is the main purpose of the announcement? 23
  • 24. 3. Who will receive the registration? Answer these questions based the text above. 4. How many hours the shop opens during clearance time? 5. What is the purpose of the text? 6. How much discount do the customer who buys 29" colour TV Attention, please. OSIS will hold a football competition next month. We invite all classes to join it. Thank you Activity 1: Answer the question orally! 7. What is the announcement about? 8. Who do you think reads the announcement? 9. Where can you hear the announcement 10. When will OSIS hold a football competition? Attentions please attention please. Due to some technical problems, the show will be delayed for about one hour. We apologize for the inconvenience. Activity 2 : Answer these questions below! 11. What is the announcement about? 12. Why the show is be delayed? 13. How long will the show be delayed? 14. Who do you think reads the announcement? 15. Where can you hear such an announcement? ANNOUNCEMENT 24
  • 25. The head of this regency, Mr. Harjono, is going to visit our school tomorrow, Tuesday, 21st June 2011 at about 10 a.m. All students should wear the new Batik uniforms and gather in the school hall at 9:30 to do the welcoming ceremony. The teaching learning process before and after the ceremony is done as usual. Please be informed. Indrawan Headmaster Read the announcement above. 1. What is the announcement about? 2. Below are the things the students should do, except… A. Study in class before and after the ceremony C. Do a welcoming speech B. Gather in the school hall at 9:30 a.m. D. Wear batik uniforms Short messages : SMS Memo While you were out A. The Functions 1. To send an important message to other people B. Some Tips to write a short message 1. Clear addressee (someone who receives the message) 2. Straight forward 3. If it is an instruction state it clearly. 25
  • 26. Do the exercise. Read the message above then answer these questions below 1. Who leave the message? 2. Who wrote the message? 3. What should Mr. Winfield do ? LATIHAN SHORT FUNCTIONAL TEXTS : Aswer the questions based on the text above. 1. Who writes the message? Finding the unstated information a. The principal of SMPN 1 Sleman b. The Director of Computa c. The principal of Computa d. The customer of Computa 2. Which statement is correct based on the text? Finding detailed information 26
  • 27. a. SMPN 1 Sleman will celebrate its 25th anniversary b. The customers are invited due to the loyalty c. Computa invites the Director to have a reception d. Mr. Ary writes an invitation for the Director 3. What is the function of the notice? Finding the social function of a notice a. To warn the visitors that the floor is sliperry. b. To prohibit the visitors not to walk on that area c. To tell the visitors that there are water in that area d. To guide the visitors how to keep the floor wet 4. Where do you probably find such a kind of notice? Finding the unstated information a. In a street b. In a hotel c. In an aeroplane d. in a bus 27
  • 28. 5.What should Rejeki do after reading the memo? Finding detailed information a. Wait the burning process and keep all burnt CDs. b. Unplug the cable power of the computer. c. Shut down the electric lines. d. Keep the CDs and catch the bus quickly. 6. Which statement is INCORRECT based on the memo above? Finding detailed information a. There was one CD to burn in the teacher’s computer. b. Sri Rejeki sent a message to Harwan to burn CDs. c. Harwan was quite late to catch the bus. d. Sri Rejeki was quite late to burn the Cds 28
  • 29. 7. Whart does the sign mean? Finding the message of a notice a. We may not turn left when the traffic light is red. b. We may not stop when the traffic light is red. c. When the traffic light is red, we must stop before turning left. d. When the traffic light is red we must stop and wait until it turns green 8. Where do you probably find the message? Finding unstated information a. In a supermarket b. At school c. in a Bank d. in a street 29
  • 30. 9. Why does each class prepare its team? Finding factual information a. To choose the best team for competition b. To celebrate the national sport day. c. To prepare the committee of the sports day d. To have registration to Pak Agung 10.How many sports events will be competed? Finding factual information a. two b. three c. four d.five Tujuan Pembelajaran 2.2: Siswa dapat Mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi dalam teks monolog pendek berbentuk Procedure/ Report 30 Mengidentifikasi langkah retorika dalam teks monolog berbentuk Procedure/ Report Mengidentifikasi tujuan komunikatif teks monolog berbentuk Procedure/Report.
  • 31. Di dalam unit 5 ini, kita akan membahas 2 jenis teks monolog pendek yaitu ; teks Procedure dan teks Report.  PROCEDURE Teks procedure merupakan jenis teks untuk menunjukkan cara/bagaimana melakukan sesuatu melalui langkah-langkah yang harus dilakukan. Teks prosedur dapat berupa langkah- langkah membuat sesuatu ataupun menggunakan sesuatu (manual book). Langkah-langkah tersebut harus dilakukan dengan runtut sesuai urutan nomor. Hal itu berbeda dengan tip. Tip dapat dilakukan tanpa harus mengikuti urutan nomor.  Teks prosedur terdiri atas unsur-unsur berikut; 1. Aim/ goal : mengemukakan atau memperkenalkan sesuatu yang akan dibuat atau dikerjakan/dilakukan. Biasanya muncul dalam teks sebagai judul. 2. Materials : menjelaskan bahan-bahan atau material yang dibutuhkan. Bagian ini bukan merupakan keharusan, tetapi biasanya ada dalam teks prosedur. 3. Steps : mencantumkan langkah-langkah dalam membuat atau melakukan sesuatu.  Adapun ciri-ciri teks prosedur adalah sebagai berikut; a. Menggunakan simple present tense, seringkali dalam bentuk kalimat perintah (imperative). b. Menggunakan kata hubung temporal (first, then, next, finally) atau penomoran untuk menunjukkan urutan. c. Menggunakan proses material (material process). Materials :  Some strawberry  9 table spoon sugar  2 glass plain water  Some ice Steps :  First, cut the strawberries into two parts or what ever you want 31
  • 32.  Then make a liquid with water and sugar before o Prepare a glass of water o Pour some sugar into the glass and then stir it o A liquid of sugar and water is ready to use  Before make strawberry juice, prepare the blender and make sure its switch is on  After that everything is ready, pour the liquid of water and sugar into the blender  Then pour same strawberries into the blender(as you like)and the ices  Press the on button to switch it on  Wait for a minutes  Then press the off button to switch it off  Open the blender’s cup and then pour the strawberry juice into the glass. (before, you have prepared the glass)  To make your juice more beautiful, put some strawberry on the lips of glass and put straw  Your nice strawberry juice is ready to drink Activity 1: Arrange these steps in the correct order! 1. How to operate the digital camera; [ ] Press the shutter release button. [ ] Lock the focus. [ ] Turn the panel to the automatic focus. [ ] Get the focus. 16.How to use a rice cooker; [ ] Put two glasses of water. [ ] Plug in the cooker and turn it on. [ ] Wash a glass of rice. [ ] Put the rice into the cooker. 17.How to send an SMS. [ ] Send the message. [ ] Choose the ‘message’ menu. [ ] Select the phone number. [ ] Write the message. 18. How to turn on a computer. [ ] Press the ON/OFF button. [ ] Make sure the computer is plugged in. [ ] Read and follow the instructions. [ ] Select the program to run. 19.How to iron the clothes. [ ] Move the iron on the clothes. 32
  • 33. [ ] Set the temperature. [ ] Plug the iron in. [ ] Prepare the place and the clothes. Synonym = closest meaning = sama arti 1. Put on : get dress : wear = memakai 2. Look for : seek : search = mencari 3. Take care of : look after = merawat 4. Approximately : about = kira-kira 5. Stir : mix = aduk 6. Spices : flavor = bumbu 7. Beverage : drink = minuman 8. Tool : equipment : appliance : device : instrument : apparatus : alat 9. Soon : immediate = segera 10.Way : method : manner = cara 11.Goal : purpose : aim = tujuan 12.Soft : tender = lunak 13.Store : save : keep = menyimpan 33
  • 34.  REPORT Jenis teks report merupakan jenis teks yang memberika informasi tentang sesuatu berdasarkan laporan pengamatan secara sistematis. Jenis teks ini umumnya mendeskripsikan gejala alam, lingkungan atau ha-hal pada pengetahuan alam. Yang membedakan teks report dan deskriptif adalah teks report menjelaskan hanya secara umum sehingga deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat beurpa simpulan umum.  Tujuan komunikatif teks Untuk memberikan deskripsi tentang sesuatu berdasarkan laporan pengamatan secara umum/in general  Struktur teks 1. General identification Pada bagian ini, diberikan klasifikasi secara umu subjek laporan yang akan dibicarkan 2. Description Mendeskripsikan subjek yang dibicarkan dalam bagian klasifikasi umum. DOLPHIN The dolphin is a toothed whale that is related to the porpoise. The dolphin has a long, streamlined body; some species have a prominent beaklike snout. The dolphin travels in schools and can swim at a speed of up to 25 mph. After a gestation period of one year, the female gives birth to one young. The young suckles (or nurses) for up to two years. Dolphins are intelligent, playful animals. One of their favorite things is to surf the waves created by boats. They emit a variety of sounds to communicate with other dolphins. Like other toothed whales, they use echolocation (which is like sonar) to avoid obstacles and to locate prey. There are 37 species of dolphins. The best-known North American species are the common dolphin, the bottle-nosed dolphin, and the killer whale. The common dolphin is found mostly in the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic. It is about eight feet long including a six-inch snout. The common dolphin is brownish-black above with dark flippers and snout. Its belly is white in color. There are bands or stripes of tan or yellow on the sides. The common dolphin travels in schools of up to a thousand or more individuals. It feeds mainly on fish. The bottle-nosed dolphin or bottlenose, is found in warm and temperate North American coastal waters. It is dark gray above with lighter under parts. The bottlenose can reach up to 12 feet long and has a three-inch snout. The bottle-nosed dolphin feeds on fish, squid, and crabs. They can be trained to perform at zoos and aquariums. They are also used in research on animal communication and learning. The killer whale is found in all seas. It is black above and has a white belly. There are white patches above the eyes and on the flanks. The killer whale is about 30 feet long with a blunt 34
  • 35. snout and a long, pointed dorsal fin. The killer whale feeds on fish, seals, marine birds, and other species of whale. Although killer whales can be aggressive, they have been trained to perform at zoos and aquariums. Dolphins belong to the family Delphinidae. The common dolphin is Delphinus delphis; the bottle-nosed dophin,Tursiops truncatus; and the killer whale,Orcinus orca. 35
  • 36. Tujuan Pembelajaran 3.1: Siswa dapat Bertanya dan menjawab tentang meminta dan memberi kepastian Bertanya dan menjawab tentang mengungkapkan dan menanggapi keraguan Dalam unit ini, kita akan membahas tentang mengungkapkan kepastian (expressing certainty). Expressing certainty merupakan kompetensi untuk menunjukkan keyakinan atau tingkat kepercayaan akan sesuatu. Di lain pihak uncertainty merupakan kompetensi untuk menunjukkan suatu ketidakyakinan dan keraguan akan sesuatu. Enquiring about Showing certainty Showing uncertainty Are you sure? I am absolutely certain. I don’t know for sure. Are you sure about it? Positively. I am not (so) sure. Are you certain? Definitely. I doubt it. Are you positive? Absolutely. A don’t know yet. Is that definite? I’m conviced… Not as far as I know. I definitely… I have no doubt at all/that… I am pretty certain…. Contoh soal : 1. Iwan : “ Hi, Novi, the weather is cloudy. Do you think it will rain soon?” Novi : “ I think so, I am ___________it will rain soon. A. Not sure C. doubtful B. Sure D. certainly 2. Nurmalia : “Are you coming to Irma’s birthday party tonight?” Rosa : “________she has invited me. I haven’t got the invitation yet.” A. May be C. it’s possible B. Of course D. I don’t think 3. Mrs. Aditya : 36
  • 37. Tujuan Pembelajaran 3.2: Siswa dapat Bertanya dan menjawab tentang meminta pengulangan Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menunjukkan perhatian Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menyatakan kekaguman Asking for Repetition (meminta seseorang mengulangi ucapan) Posted by masdin in Daily Conversations. Tags: conversation trackback Ketika seseorang berbicara kepada kita, terkadang kita tidak mendengar jelas apa yang dia katakan atau kita kurang paham dan kita ingin meminta dia mengulangi ucapan tersebut. Bagaimana anda melakukan ini dalam bahasa Inggris? Berikut contoh dialognya. A: What did you say your name was? (Siapa lagi nama anda?) B: It’s Cathye Henderson. (Nama saya Cathye Jacklyn) A: Did you say Andersen or Henderson? (Tadi anda bilang Andersen atau Henderson?) B: Henderson, with an H. (Henderson, pakai H) A: Is “Cathye” spelled with a C or a K? (Apakah “Cathye” dieja C atau K?) B: It’s C as in Charm. (Dieja C seperti dalam kata Charm). A: And what was your address again? (Dimana lagi alamat anda?) B: 73 West Sunshine Blvd., Suite 501. A: Sorry, I didn’t catch the last part. (Maaf, saya kurang jelas nomornya) B: Do you want me to repeat it? (Apa perlu saya ulangi?) A: I can’t hear you very well. (Saya tidak bisa mendengarkan anda dengan baik) B: Maybe you should turn down the radio. (Barangkali radionya perlu dikecilkan suaranya) Showing Attention Expression that used for giving act of directing one’s thought For Example: •You look fantastic •You are different today •You look brilliant Exercises I.Write a dialog about ‘Showing Attention’. Then Perform it in front of the class II. Complete the dialog below with Attention expressions 37
  • 38. Ayu: “How are you, today? Adi: “I am very well. Thanks, and you? Ayu: “I am fine, too. ……………… Adi: “I don’t think so, I am just like usual. But, thank you.” Ayu: You are wearing a good shirt. I like it. Where did you buy?. ………….. Adi: I bought in Distro. Thanks for your attention to me. Questions 1. Edo: “What are you doing here?” Ali : “I am looking for English Dictionary.” Edo : “…………………………. “ Ali : “Are you sure?. Thanks a lot.” a.You look fantastic b.You’ve found it c.That’s correct d.Don’t bother me e.I don’t think so. 2. Justine :“You’re so different this morning” Dadang: “May be, I had good sleep last night. Justine : “I think so.” The underlined words express …. a.Sympathy b.Unbelievable feeling c.Pleasure d.Surprise e.Thank 3.Kyla: “You look pale today, what’s the matter? Widi: “I’ve been recovered from ill.” Kyla: “Sorry, I don’t know about it.” The underlined words express … a.sympathy b.surprise c.showing attention d.advise e.warning 4. Mrs. Rina: “Don’t use a knife my son! I am scare, you will be hurt.” Son : “No, Mom. I’ll be careful. The bold utterance expresses … a.sympathy b.surprise c.showing attention d.advise e.warning 5. Rain: “……………………… in doing the duty.” Rina: “Thank you for your attention.” a.You look so sad b.You look very incredible c.Thanks a lot 38
  • 39. d.Don’t mention it e.It’s surprise Tujuan Pembelajaran 4.1: Siswa dapat Bertanya dan menjawab tentang meminta pengulangan Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menunjukkan perhatian Bertanya dan menjawab tentang menyatakan kekaguman Meminta/menanggapi pengulangan Could you repeat the last sentence? Sorry, what did you say? Sorry, I don’t follow you. I’m sorry I didn’t hear the last word. Are you with me? Have you got it? SHOWING ATTENTION Expressing of getting one’s attention (Hilal is watching radio in the living room. Najmi comes.) Najmi : Pardon me, Hilal. Hilal : Yes? What happened? Najmi : Can you turn the radio down? I want to phone Deny. Hilal : No problem. Najmi : Thank you very much. (Telephoning her friends, Najmi walks into the dining room where her mother and father are eating.) Mother : Do you want to have more, dad? Father : No, I am full. Najmi : I’m sorry for interrupting you, but I want to tell important news. Mother : What is it, dear? Najmi : Mom, dad. Deny will propose me next week. I hope you will agree. Father & mother : Oh, that’s very good news. Of course, we don’t mind of that. Answer the following questions. 1. Who are involved in the dialogue above? 2. What did Hilal do when Najmi came? 3. What did Najmi ask Hilal to do? 4. Why did Najmi ask that? 39
  • 40. 5. How did Najmi ask that? 6. What did Najmi say to interrupt her mother and father conversation Tujuan Pembelajaran 4.2: Siswa dapat Melakukan monolog pendek dalam bentuk Procedure/Report 40
  • 41. Teks Procedure: Teks yang menjelaskan atau memberi petunjuk cara/langkah – langkah membuat atau melakukan sesuatu. Generic Structure: Aim/Goal - Materials/Tools - Steps/Methods Aim/Goal, misalnya: How to make Brownies Cake Materials berisi: bahan - bahan dan atau alat - alat untuk membuat Brownies tersebut Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps/Methods berisi: langkah - langkah membuat Brownies Contoh Teks Procedure: How to make Lemonade Ingredients: For each glass use: - 2 tablespoons of lemon juice. - 2 tablespoons of sugar. - 1 glass of water Methods: 1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup. 2. Take out the seeds. 3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass. 4. Add sugar 5. Add water and stir well 6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right 7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade atau : HOW TO MAKE PEANUT CRUNCH What you’ll need : v 1 cup of peanuts v 3 cups of brown sugar v 2 tablespoons of vinegar v 1 cup of water What to do : Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan. Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown Allow bubbles to settle Spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased pan and mark into bite-size pieces. Makes enough Peanut Crunch for six people Ungkapan yang berkaitan dengan teks Procedure : 41
  • 42. Mengurutkan First,.. tindakan Then, Next, After that, Finally, Make sure you… Be careful not to… Remember to… Don’t forget to… 42
  • 43. Tujuan Pembelajaran 5.1: Siswa dapat Mengidentifikasi makna gagasan dalam teks berbentuk Procedure dan Report Mengidentifikasi berbagai informasi yang terdapat dalam teks berbentuk Procedure dan Report Mengidentifikasi tujuan komunikasi teks berbentuk Procedure/Report Mengidentifikasi langkah retorika dalam teks berbentuk Procedure/Report Membaca nyaring teks berbentuk Procedure/Report How to make Lemonade Ingredients: For each glass use: - 2 tablespoons of lemon juice. - 2 tablespoons of sugar. - 1 glass of water Methods: 1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup. 2. Take out the seeds. 3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass. 4. Add sugar 5. Add water and stir well 6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right 7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade Report (Laporan Hasil Pengamatan) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Sesuatu yang dapat dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum, misalnya ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama. Siswa dapat mencoba membuat teks laporan tentang, misalnya rumah sangat sederhana, warung tegal, sekolah, rumah sakit, dsb. a. Struktur Teks (Text Structure) ♣ Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan dan klasifikasinyaTujuan Kegiatan Deskripsi♣ b. Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: General nouns, seperti Reptil in Comodo Island, dsb.♣ 43
  • 44. ♣ Relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptile are scaly animal (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia),dsb. Section verbs♣ dalam menjelaskan perilaku, misal lizards cannot fly, dsb. Present♣ tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya komodo dragon usually weigh more than 160 kg, dsb. Istilah tekhnis, misalnya water♣ contains oxygent and hydrogen, dsb. Paragraf dengan topic sentences♣ untuk menyusun sejumlah Informasi. contoh teks report : The Pelican Report The white pelican is one of the most succesful fish eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in a curved src some distance off shore. The bird then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them When the water is shallow enough for the bird to reach the fish, the formaion breaks up as each dips its bill into the water to scoops up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. 44
  • 45. Tujuan Pembelajaran 5.2: Siswa dapat Mengidentifikasi makna yang terdapat teks fungsional pendek : pengumuman, iklan, pesan singkat Mengidentifikasi ciri kebahasaan teks fungsional pendek, pengumuman Functional Text Apakah yang dimaksud dengan “functional text”? Functional Text adalah teks khusus yang berisi perintah, pengarahan, sesuatu yang harus dilakukan atau tidak boleh dilakukan yang dapat berupa pesan singkat (short message), daftar belanja (shopping list), peringatan (notice), pengumuman (announcement), dan lain-lain yang mengandung makna dan digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari. Perhatikan contoh berikut! Example 1: Short Message Read the short message above! Pay attention to the questions below and click the box to see the answer! 1. To whom is the message for ? 2. What does he have to do after eating ? 45
  • 46. 3. Where does he have to put the key ? 4. What subject does he attend ? Example 2: Notice Notice is a short passage, symbol or text to inform or instruct people to do or not to do anything. This notice means don’t smoke. It means people must not smoke in that place. We usually see this notice in public places such as in a bus, in a lobby, or in air conditioned rooms. Other examples of notice are “Don’t Park”, “Don’t Stop”, etc. Example 3 : Shopping List Another example of a functional text is a shopping list. Read the shopping list below! Day : Monday Date : July 22, 2007 4 loaves of bread 3 kilos of beans 1 kilo of apples 2 kilos of sugar 1 kilo of carrots 1 kilo of oranges 1 can of soft drink Now, see the answer of the questions below by clicking the box on the left column! 1. The text is a kind of .... 2. The purpose of text is to remind the customer of what to…. 3. How many kinds of vegetables are there in the text ? 4. Is there a soft drink in the shopping list ? Example 4 : Announcement Read the following announcement, and click the box on the left under the questions to see the 46
  • 47. answer! Our school basketball matches will begin on Saturday, January 1. The events will run from 8.00 – 10.00 for the next four weeks. The final tournament will be held on February 7. For more information, contact Rizka ( 021 12345678 ) 1. The text is a kind of … 2. How long will the events run ? 3. What month will the final round be held on ? 4. When will their school basketball matches begin ? 5. Who can we contact for more information ? Example 5: Instruction Read the text and click the box on the left side to see the answer ! • Prepare a pan and some eggs • Put some water in the pan • Put some eggs in the pan • Turn on the stove • Put the pan on it • Wait until the water is boiled • Wait for 4 minutes • The boiled eggs are ready 1. How many household appliances do we need ? 2. The text is a kind of … 3. “Turn on the stove” . What is the antonym in the sentence of “turn on “ ? 4. Where do you put the pan 47
  • 48. Tujuan Pembelajaran 5.3: Siswa dapat Mengidentifikasi ciri kebahasaan teks fungsional pendek, pengumuman  NOTICES 48
  • 49. Notice atau peringatan adalah informasi singkat dan sederhana yang bertujuan untuk orang banyak. Notice digunakan untuk member informasi, instruksi atau peringatan kepada publik. Peringatan ini harus mudah di pahami dan mudah dibaca. Oleh karena itu, peringatan selalu memgunakan kata-kata yang sederhana serta ditulis dengan jenis huruf (font) yang sederhana pula dan dengan ukuran besar. Salah satu bentuk notice adalah caution. Caution adalah peringatan atau saran yang ditujukan untuk public tentang sebuah bahaya atau risiko yang mungkin terjadi. Jika tidak diindahkan akan menyebabkan terluka bahkan dapat kehilangan nyawa. A notice is a board or a sign displaying information or a warning. A notice is also called a caution. It is usually in the form of instructions or prohibitions. To make notices, we usually use the pattern below: Verb base + ……………… Don’t + verb base + …………… No + noun No + verb-ing The Functions 1. Prohibition notifies people not to do something. People may find this kind of notice in a public places. 2. Caution or warning warns people to be careful in handling something. Ignoring the notice may cause injury or breaking the facilities. 3. Guidance gives information to people to do something appropriately. 4. The informational notice provides information that could be useful for people. 49
  • 50. Prohibition Caution Guidance Informational notice Contoh ; 1. No smoking 6. No entry 2. Keep the room clean 7. Put the books to the shelf 3. Don’t touch the cable 8. Don’t leave the room dirty 4. No littering 9. Keep your room tidy 5. Push 10. Wet paint Contoh lain; Keep your surrounding clean Keep silent Exam is in progress Staff only Show your member card before You enter the library Pincipal is available Put your bags and jacket here No cycling on the footpath Keep off the grass Turn off your mobile phone during the lesson Waiting room Access for residents only Exercise : 50
  • 51. 1. Where doe the notice exist? 2. What does the word expectant mean? 3. What should the people do according to the notice? Aswer : 1. in a public transportation 2. expectant means pregnant 3. Let the seats for such persons mentioned in the notice 1. What is the purpose of the notice? 2. Who should follow the instruction? 3. Where do you probably find this notice? 51
  • 52. Answer : 1. To inform the people that the stair is only for emergency 2. Anyone who uses the facilities 3. In a public building 1. Where do you find such a notice? 2. What should the driver do before turning left? 3. Should we wait the lamp turn to green? Answer : 1. on a street 2. stop and see whether or not the traffic is safe enough to turn left. 3. No 52
  • 53. 1. What should the passenger do to their baggage? 2. Where do you find such a notice? 3. What should people do when spotting an unattended baggage? Answer : 1. Their should keep the baggage. 2. in a public transportation 3. Telling the driver about it 1. Their should keep the baggage. 2. in a public transportation 3. Telling the driver about it  GREETING CARDS 53
  • 54. Greeting card (kartu ucapan) adalah kartu yang mengekspresikan persahabatan atau perasaan yang lain. Kartu ucapan biasanya diberi gambar dan tulisan yang menarik. Kartu ucapan diberikan untuk member perhatian kepada orang lain. Kartu ucapan dapat berupa : 4. Birthday card, diberikan pada saat seseorang berulang tahun, 5. Thank you card, diberikan untuk mengungkapkan rasa terima kasih, 6. Get well card, diberikan kepada seseorang yang sakit untuk mengungkapkan harapan agar lekas sembuh, 7. Congratulation card, diberikan untuk mengucapkan selamat kepada seseorang, 8. Holiday card, diberikan kepada seseorang yang sedang berlibur. Greeting Cards functions as an expression of sympathy and care to others. 1. The purpose : a. To congratulate someone' achievement b. To express sympathy on someone's c. To motivate someone on gaining achivement 2 . The Important points a. Clarify a clear purpose b. Use a appraisal diction c. Accurate addressee exercise : 54
  • 55. 1. Who is the best team at school? 2. What kind of text is that? 3. What does the word your in the text refer to? 1. Why does Tya send the text? 2. What does the word wishing in the text mean? 3. What is the text about?  LETTERS Letter (surat) adalah sarana komunikasi tertulis yang biasanya dikirim lewat pos. Surat biasanya dimasukkan dalam amplop dan dibubuhi perangko (apabila dikirim lewat pos). surat terdiri atas beberapa bagian, yairu: a. Alamat pengirim surat yang dituju (the inside address), b. Tanggal penulisan surat ( the date of writing the letter), 55
  • 56. c. Alamat orang yang dituju ( the inside address), d. Salam pembuka (salutation/greeting), e. Isi surat (the body of the letter), dan f. Penutup (closing), berisi tanda tangan dan nama pengirim surat. Surat terdiri atas 2 macam, yaitu surat pribadi dan surat bisnis. Surat pribadi baisanya bersifat informal. Sementara itu, surat bisnis bersifat formal dan sangat terikat pada turan yang berlaku.  LABEL Label adalah keterangan yang terdapat di bagian luar kemasan sebuah produk/barang. Di label produk biasanya terdapat kalimat yang menunjukkan keunggulan produk, petunjuk penggunaan, komposisi produk, serta indikasi.  SHORT MESSAGES Short message (pesan pendek) adalah surat pendek yang berfungsi member tahu seseorang tentang sesuatu. Pesan pendek diberikan ketika kita tidak dapat bertemu secara langsung dengan orang yang kita maksud/inginkan. Invitation 1. Function / Purpose : To invite someone to attend an occation. 2. The Structure/Parts : The Addressee (The person invited) Salutation The message (the content of the messag) The Sender 3. The requirements :a. It should have an accurate addressee b. It gives clear time, place, and activity 56
  • 57. c. It provides sufficient information about the inviter. d. Express that the writer is looking forward to seeing person e. If there is a dress code, state it in the lower left-hand corner Tujuan Pembelajaran 6.1: Siswa dapat Menulis kalimat pendek dan sederhana Menulis teks fungsional pendek dan sederhana 1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ⇒ digunakan untuk menerngkan kegiatan yang terulang/ menjadi kebiasaan . Time signal /keterngan waktu *letaknya diakhir / awal kalimat a) everyday (d)every week b) every month (e)twice a week c) on Sunday (f)once a day *letaknya sebelum kata kerja : a) always (d)ever b) sometimes (e)often 57
  • 58. c) usually (f)seldom PATTERN/RUMUS : (+) s(i,you,we,they) + vi+o+adv (-) s(i,you,we,they) + do not +vi+o+adv (?) Do + s(i,you,we,they) + vi+o+adv? (+) s(he,she,it) + vis/es+o+adv (-) s(he,she,it) + does not +vi+o+adv (?) Does + s(he,she,it) + vi+o+adv? Ex; A. (+) the students work together every day. (-) we do not grow jasmine in the garden. (?) do you usually alone? B. (+) she always speaks loudly. (-)he does not often walk fast. (?) does she usually bring a dictionary? Kata kerja yang ditambah –es, kata kerja (verb) yang berakhiran ; 1) SS = KISS + ES 2) CH = WATCH + ES 3) SH = WASH + ES 4) X = BOX + ES 5) O = GO + ES 6) Y = (sebelum kata huruf mati, maka “y” berubah menjadi “i” Ex; study studies Note :catatan Has =menggunakan subyek she,he,it. Have = menggunakan subyek i,you,we,they. Ex; -She has long hair and beautiful eyes. -I have some books about agriculture. 2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE ⇒ digunakan untuk menerangkan kejadian di waktu lampau Time Signal / Keterangan Waktu ; a) yesterday e) last week b) ……ago f) just now c) 3 days ago g) this morning d) last……. 58
  • 59. PATTERN / RUMUS ; (+) S + V1 + O + Adv (-) S+ did not + V1 + O + Adv (?) Did + s+ V1 + O + Adv? Ex; -Mahfud went to the beach yesterday. -Zahra did not go to the beach yesterday. -Did Zahra go to the beach yesterday? PERUBAHAN KATA GANTI ORANG MENURUT KEDUDUKANNYA DALAM KALIMAT SUBJECT VERB OBJECT POSSESIVE/MILIK HE - HIM HIS…. SHE - HER HER… IT - IT IT’S… I - ME MY… WE - US OUR… THEY - THEM THEIR… YOU - YOU YOUR… 59
  • 60. Tujuan Pembelajaran 6.2: Siswa dapat Menyusun kalimat acak menjadi teks yang terpadu berbentuk Procedure/Report Menulis Essay berbentuk Procedure FRIED CHICKEN First, grind the spices until they mixed and soft. Next, put the chicken in the bowl and pour fresh water into it and then put the grinder spices on it, stir well. Then, after they stirred well, boil the chicken until the flesh cooked and the colour changes into white. After that, fry the chicken using vegetable oil until the color becomes brownish. Finally, we put the chicken on the plate and add some sauce or chili. The fried chicken is ready to eat. Germinating petuni a seeds aim (goal) Follow these instructions to germinate 60
  • 61. pertunia seeds. You will need: • a packet of petunia seeds • a seed tray or small pots materials and • loamy friable soil or potting mix equipment • water • fertiliser. 1. Fill seed tray with soil. 2. Incorporate fertiliser into soil. 3. Scatter seeds on the surface of the soil. 4. Cover seeds with a 3 mm layer of soil. Press firmly. 5. Spray water to moisten the seed bed. steps 6. Place seed tray in warm, sunny position (at least 25 deg. C). 7. Keep soil moist by watering gently while seeds are germinating. Seeds will germinate in approximately 10 – 14 days. How to Make Fried Rice Would you like to make a nice, steaming, pan full of fried rice? Fried rice is very easy to make, also delicious. It can be prepared in many ways, this is just one of them. It takes 20 minutes to prepare and it goes with lots of things! Read on to learn how to make this excellent dish: Ingredients • White Rice that’s previously been cooked and refrigerated • Two Carrots • 1/2 an Onion • Celery • 3 Eggs • Beef Bullion • Black Pepper 61
  • 62. Garlic Powder • Ground Ginger • Soy Sauce • Butter • Vegetable Oil • Shrimp,Chicken,and/or pork/tofu(optional) Steps 1. Put about 6 cups of rice into your rice cooker. Let it steam until its ready. 2. Wash the vegetables. Then dice the carrots, and onions into small pieces. Set them aside for the next step. 3. Add oil and heat up the pan to 100 degrees. 4. Toss the Vegetables into the pan for about 3 minutes.Then toss in the carrots and onions for 3 minutes with the. Add the 1 teaspoon of salt into the pan. 5. Boil the chicken or shrimp with the rest of the ingredients(optional) 6. Put a bit more oil into the frying pan. 7. Toss the rice in carefully. 8. Add an egg and scramble with the other ingredients. Add approximately 2 to 3 tablespoons of soy sauce while frying. 9. Put fried rice on a dish and it’s ready to serve! Tips • You can substitute butter for oil. • There are many things you can pair up with fried rice. Here are some ideas: o Eggs o Tofu o Chicken o Ham o Beef o Inside pita bread with salsa, ham, and melted cheese 62
  • 63. o Serve with dumplings o Soup • It’s recommended to use overnight left-over rice for fried rice because it is firmer than freshly cooked rice. This will prevent rice sticking together while stir frying. Warnings • Use caution when operating any cooking surface or container to avoid injury. • Be careful when you cut the vegetables. • Beware when performing and “frying” operation as oil tends to “spit” from cooking surfaces, and some food items will actually explode when exposed to hot enough oil. Adverb of manner : Keterangan cara ⇒ Digunakan untuk menyatakan “ bagaimana cara “ suatu tindakan dilakukan. Cara Pembentukannya : 1. dengan menambah akhiran –ly pada kata sifatnya(ajective) ; Example; No adjective/kt sifat Adverb of Manner Meaning 1. brave bravely Dengan berani 2. bright brightly Dengan terang 3. careful carefully Dengan hati-hati 4. correct correctly Dengan benar 5. polite politely Dengan sopan 6. slowly slowly Dengan pelan 7. quick quickly Dengan cepat Contoh kalimat : 1) She works carefully. 2) Mr.Joko drives his car slowly. 3) He usually washes the clothes quickly. ADVERB OF MANNER ( keterangan cara) = sama tulisanya dengan kata sifatnya (adjective) No Adjective/kt sifat Adverb of Manner Meaning 1. hard hard Dengan keras 2. fast fast dengan cepat 3. late late Dengan lambat Contoh kalimat : 1) We must work hard now. 2) He runs fast. 63
  • 64. 3) Atni always dances well.  EXCEPTION( PERKECUALIAN ) : GOOD menjadi WELL Activity 1: Answer the question orally! 1. Rearrange the following jumbled sentences in a good order! 2. Write a procedure text telling how to operate a computer! 3. Write a report on a certain kind of thing or place around you! SUPLEMEN Common Errors In English GOODS - The goods was not delivered in time. (X) - The goods were not delivered in time. (V) "Goods" adalah kata benda jamak dan diikuti kata kerja jamak. GOODS - He had very little money and very few goods. (X) - He had very little money and very few possessions. (V) ''goods'' = things for sale : leather goods ''possessions'' = semua benda (hal) yang dimiliki seseorang. GO OUT - As soon as the bus stopped, he went out. (X) - As soon as the bus stopped, he got off. (V) pemakaian GET ON/OFF : get on/off a bus/train/plane dan lain-lainnya. GOSSIP - She told me gossips about all her relations. (X) - She told me a lot of gossip about all her relations. (V) gossip (uncountable) menerangkan sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kehidupan pribadi orang- orang. Catatan : 'bits/pieces of gossip' GUARANTEE - May I remind you that the cassette recorder is still in guarantee. (X) - May I remind you that the cassette recorder is still under guarantee. (V). (be) under guarantee, NOT in MISTAKE - I rarely do more than three mistakes in an essay. (X) - I rarely make more than three mistakes in an essay. (V) yang biasa dipakai ialah = make a mistake, BUKAN ''do''. 64
  • 65. OUT - I felt very cold when I went out the room. (X) - I felt very cold when I went out of the room. (V) Out berfungsi sebagai adverb. 'Tita went out, leaving just the two of us in the room,' Out berfungsi sebagai preposition. Sebagai catatan, dalam percakapan imformal OUT kadang-kadang dipakai daripada OUT OF. Contoh :'I saw someone jump out the window'. NOISE - I turned on the radio but there was no noise. (X) - I turned on the radio but there was no sound. (V) NOISE = suara keras yang tidak menyenangkan, The noise of the traffic gave ne headache. SOUND = sesuatu (suara) yang ditangkap telinga. The sound of a guitar; the sound of music. NO MATTER - No matter he tries hard, he never succeeds in passing. (X) - No matter how hard he tries, he never succeeds in passing. (V) no matter how much he studies.........+ main clause no matter how often he goes..........+main clause no matter how well he plays ...........+ main clause. etc + main clause - No matter the recession, sales remained high. - In spite of the recession, sales remained high. NO MATTER selalu diikuti oleh kata WH. No matter what.....; no matter how; no matter who.......etc ACCORDING TO 1. According to me, we should spend more money on education. (X) 2. In my opinion, we should spend more money on education. (V) kata "according to" tidak bisa diikuti oleh "me" atau "us". - According to him, we should spend more money on education.(V) - According to the head master, we should spend more money on education.(V) ACTUAL - We'd like to know more about the actual progress. (X) - We'd like to know the present/current progress, not the progress in the past. (V) actual = real (kebalikan dari 'guessed', 'supposed' dll. We think he is over sixty but his actual age is forty-five. present/current = kejadian atau yang sedang terjadi sekarang. ACTUALLY - We need to produce and export more than we do actually. (X) - We need to produce and export more than we do at present. (V). actually = fakta (selain apa yang dikatakan atau dipikirkan), sesungguhnya (untuk menambahkan apa yang sudah dikatakan). People think we've got lots of money, but actually we're very poor. at present = saat ini ADDRESS - She will give me her adress. (X) - She will give me her address. (V) address = selalu double "d" ADVICE (1) - We adviced him to tell the reporter. (X) - We advised him to tell the reporter. (V) advice = kata benda 65
  • 66. advise = kata kerja ADVICE (2) - The teacher gave us a good advice. (X). - The teacher gave us some good advice. (V) advice adalah kata benda yang tidak bsa dihitung (uncountable) Alternatif pemakaian : The teacher gave us a good piece of advice. ADVISE - I asked my doctor for her advise. (X). - I asked my doctor for her advice. (V) advise = kata kerja advice = kata benda. AFFECT - It's a magazine about internet and their affects on our lives. (X) - It's a magazine about internet and their effects on our lives. (V) AFFECT (dengan AFF) adalah kata kerja. To affect = sesuatu yang mempunyai EFFECT (efek/dampak). "Smoking affects your health" (= Smoking has an effect on your health). AFFORD (1) - A newspaper can be afforded by most people. (X) - Most people can afford a newspaper. (V) "Afford" jarang dipakai dipakai di kalimat pasif. AFFORD (2) - Andy couldn't afford paying for his education. (X) - Andy couldn't afford to pay for his education. (V) afford (to do) something AFFORD (3) - William couldn't afford himself to buy his son any book (X) - William couldn't afford to buy his son any book. (V) afford bukan REFLEXIVE VERB AFFORD (4) - I want to get my money bicycle back because I can't afford the money for a new one. (X) - I want to get my bicycle back because I can't afford (to buy) a new one.(V) money, jarang sekali digunakan sebagai object afford. AFRAID - The road to the show was very busy and we were afraid to miss the show. (X) - The road to the show was very busy and we were afraid of missing the show (V) be afraid to do something = takut melakukan sesuatu atau tidak bersedia melakukan sesuatu karena anda ketakutan. be afraid of doing something = khawatir tentang sesuatu yang akan terjadi AGENDA - In the right-hand pocket you will find a little black agenda that I need urgently. (X) - In the right-hand pocket you will find a little black diary that I need urgently. (V) agenda = sebuah daftar topik untuk diskusi/pembicaraan di dalam suatu pertemuan. diary = sebuah buku dimana seseorang menulis perjanjian, atau hal-hal yang perlu diingat/dilakukan, atau hal-hal yang perlu diingat. AGES - The glasses haven't been washed since ages. (X) - The glasses haven't been washed for ages. (V) since = awal dari suatu periode 66
  • 67. AGO - It is a month ago since I left Germany. (X) - It is a month since I left Germany. (V) Catatan : jangan pakai kata "ago" sebelum kata "since". - I'm writing in reply to your letter that I've received two days ago. (X) - I'm writing in reply to your letter that I received two days ago. (V) Catatan : Bentuk Present Perfect Tense tidak dipakai dengan kata-kata yang berpola Past Time seperti yesterday, last week, a year ago. - The inspector asked to see his ticket, as I had done few minutes ago. (X) - The inspector asked to see his ticket, as I had done a few minutes before.(V) Catatan : Kata ago dipakai untuk menerangkan suatu periode waktu di masa yang lampau yang tidak diukur dari kejadian sekarang. a few minutes ago = beberapa menit yang lalu a few minutes before = beberapa men t sebelumnya. 67
  • 68. 68