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Digital Divides
     and Bridges:
     Technology Use
     Among Youth

Amanda Lenhart | Pew Research Center
                          Annenberg
                       April 13, 2012
Internet adoption over time by teens & adults
% within each age group who go online


   100%
                                                                    95%
                                                                    94%
     90%
                                                                    87%
     80%             •
                                                                    74%
     70%

     60%                                                                        12-17
                                                                                18-29
     50%
                                                                                30-49
     40%                                                            41%         50-64
                                                                                65+
     30%

     20%

     10%

      0%
       Nov 04        Nov 06        Nov 07   Feb 08   Sept 09   July 11




                                                                    4/18/2012           2
Digging down to differences
Internet use
•   Latino youth slightly less likely than whites to use the internet
    (88% vs. 97%)
•   Youth from low income/low SES environments slightly more likely
    to go online less frequently
     – more likely to say that they use the internet 1-2 days a week
        or less often.


Computer ownership
•   No racial or ethnic differences
•   Low education households – where parents have a HS diploma
    or less, are substantially less likely to have youth who say they
    “own” a computer. (65% vs. 80%)



                                                     4/18/2012          3
4/18/2012   4
Smartphone ownership
• 23% of all teens have a
  smartphone; as do one third
  of mobile phone owners
• Age is most important in
  determining cell or
  smartphone ownership
• Once cell ownership hurdle
  is crossed, no differences in
  smartphone ownership by
  race, income.
• Is it a smartphone? Latino
  youth less certain that their
  phone is a smartphone (24%
  not sure, vs. 10% of whites).

                                  4/18/2012   5
4/18/2012   6
Teen social network & Twitter use
Based on teen internet users




              100%
                                                                                        80%
               80%                                                      73%
                                                          65%
                                           60%
               60%         55%


               40%

                                                                                        16%
               20%
                                                                         8%

                 0%
                         Nov 2006       Nov 2007        Feb 2008      Sept 2009    July 2011

                                 Use online social networking sites       Use Twitter




                                                                                              4/18/2012   7
Differences in Social Media Use
Twitter shows big differences
    – 34% of online African-American teens use Twitter
    – 11% of online white teens use Twitter
    – 13% of online Latino teens use Twitter
    – Lower income teens (under 30K hhd inc) more likely to use
      than higher income teens.
    – Girls more than boys – youngest boys 12-13 are laggards


Social network site use more broadly adopted
    – Lowest income teens use SNS more than highest income
      teens
    – Girls more than boys
    – Older teens more than younger teens


                                                4/18/2012         8
Teens’ privacy settings on social media sites
Based on teen SNS or Twitter users (n=623)




                                             2%

                                                  17%         Public


                                                              Partially
                                                              Private
                                                        19%   Private
                                                              (friends only)
                      62%
                                                              Don't know /
                                                              Refused




                                                              4/18/2012        9
Are people your age mostly kind or mostly unkind to
one another on social network sites?
% of teens and adults who use social media

                                              teens 12-17 (n=623)   adults 18+ (n=1047)


                                                                                                      69%
     People are mostly kind
                                                                                                            85%*

                                                          20%*
 People are mostly unkind
                                              5%

                                                   11%*
                        Depends
                                              5%

                                         1%
                    Don't know
                                             4%

                                        0%
                         Refused
                                         1%




                                                                                          4/18/2012          10
How often do you witness online cruelty &
meanness?
% of teens and adults who use social media


                          teens 12-17 (n=623)             adults 18+ (n=1047)

                           Frequently                   12%*
                                                   7%

                          Sometimes                                 29%*
                                                              18%

            Only once in a while                                                  47%
                                                                                  44%

                                  Never                 11%
                                                                    29%*

                          Don't know         1%
                                              2%




.

                                                                      4/18/2012         11
In the past 12 months when you have
been on a social network site, has
anyone been mean or cruel to you?
% of teens and adults who use social media


                       teens 12-17 (n=623)            adults 18+ (n=1047)

                           Yes                15%
                                             13%

                           No                                       85%
                                                                    86%

              Don't know             0%
                                     1%

                                 0%          20%    40%   60%   80% 100%



                                                                     4/18/2012   12
Have you ever received advice about how to
    use the internet and cell phones responsibly
    and safely from any of these people or
    places?
                                         Parents                                                                                     86%

             Teacher or another adult at school                                                                          70%

   Television, radio, newspapers or magazines                                                             54%

                        Sister, brother or cousin                                                   46%

Older relative like an aunt, uncle or grandparent                                                   45%

                           Friend or schoolmate                                                     45%

        Youth or church group leader, or coach                                                40%

                                       Websites                                         34%

          Internet or cell phone service provider                           21%

                                        Librarian                       18%

                  Someone or somewhere else                     10%

                                                    0%       10%      20%         30%    40%        50%    60%       70%       80%   90%   100%

                                                         % of teen internet or cell phone users (n=778)
                                                                                                                 4/18/2012                    13
Final thoughts

• Digital differences have moved beyond classic
  access issues of the last decade
• Mobile is a more universal access point
• But may be exposing some of our children to
  meanness and cruelty
• Newer differences should not be immediately
  pathologized




                                    4/18/2012     14
New Pew Report:
                        Digital Differences
           http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Digital-
                         differences.aspx



Amanda Lenhart
Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project
http://www.pewinternet.org
@amanda_lenhart

                                    photo by arcticpenguin
        Title of presentation                                4/18/2012   15

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Digital Divides and Bridges: Technology Use Among Youth

  • 1. Digital Divides and Bridges: Technology Use Among Youth Amanda Lenhart | Pew Research Center Annenberg April 13, 2012
  • 2. Internet adoption over time by teens & adults % within each age group who go online 100% 95% 94% 90% 87% 80% • 74% 70% 60% 12-17 18-29 50% 30-49 40% 41% 50-64 65+ 30% 20% 10% 0% Nov 04 Nov 06 Nov 07 Feb 08 Sept 09 July 11 4/18/2012 2
  • 3. Digging down to differences Internet use • Latino youth slightly less likely than whites to use the internet (88% vs. 97%) • Youth from low income/low SES environments slightly more likely to go online less frequently – more likely to say that they use the internet 1-2 days a week or less often. Computer ownership • No racial or ethnic differences • Low education households – where parents have a HS diploma or less, are substantially less likely to have youth who say they “own” a computer. (65% vs. 80%) 4/18/2012 3
  • 5. Smartphone ownership • 23% of all teens have a smartphone; as do one third of mobile phone owners • Age is most important in determining cell or smartphone ownership • Once cell ownership hurdle is crossed, no differences in smartphone ownership by race, income. • Is it a smartphone? Latino youth less certain that their phone is a smartphone (24% not sure, vs. 10% of whites). 4/18/2012 5
  • 7. Teen social network & Twitter use Based on teen internet users 100% 80% 80% 73% 65% 60% 60% 55% 40% 16% 20% 8% 0% Nov 2006 Nov 2007 Feb 2008 Sept 2009 July 2011 Use online social networking sites Use Twitter 4/18/2012 7
  • 8. Differences in Social Media Use Twitter shows big differences – 34% of online African-American teens use Twitter – 11% of online white teens use Twitter – 13% of online Latino teens use Twitter – Lower income teens (under 30K hhd inc) more likely to use than higher income teens. – Girls more than boys – youngest boys 12-13 are laggards Social network site use more broadly adopted – Lowest income teens use SNS more than highest income teens – Girls more than boys – Older teens more than younger teens 4/18/2012 8
  • 9. Teens’ privacy settings on social media sites Based on teen SNS or Twitter users (n=623) 2% 17% Public Partially Private 19% Private (friends only) 62% Don't know / Refused 4/18/2012 9
  • 10. Are people your age mostly kind or mostly unkind to one another on social network sites? % of teens and adults who use social media teens 12-17 (n=623) adults 18+ (n=1047) 69% People are mostly kind 85%* 20%* People are mostly unkind 5% 11%* Depends 5% 1% Don't know 4% 0% Refused 1% 4/18/2012 10
  • 11. How often do you witness online cruelty & meanness? % of teens and adults who use social media teens 12-17 (n=623) adults 18+ (n=1047) Frequently 12%* 7% Sometimes 29%* 18% Only once in a while 47% 44% Never 11% 29%* Don't know 1% 2% . 4/18/2012 11
  • 12. In the past 12 months when you have been on a social network site, has anyone been mean or cruel to you? % of teens and adults who use social media teens 12-17 (n=623) adults 18+ (n=1047) Yes 15% 13% No 85% 86% Don't know 0% 1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 4/18/2012 12
  • 13. Have you ever received advice about how to use the internet and cell phones responsibly and safely from any of these people or places? Parents 86% Teacher or another adult at school 70% Television, radio, newspapers or magazines 54% Sister, brother or cousin 46% Older relative like an aunt, uncle or grandparent 45% Friend or schoolmate 45% Youth or church group leader, or coach 40% Websites 34% Internet or cell phone service provider 21% Librarian 18% Someone or somewhere else 10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % of teen internet or cell phone users (n=778) 4/18/2012 13
  • 14. Final thoughts • Digital differences have moved beyond classic access issues of the last decade • Mobile is a more universal access point • But may be exposing some of our children to meanness and cruelty • Newer differences should not be immediately pathologized 4/18/2012 14
  • 15. New Pew Report: Digital Differences http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Digital- differences.aspx Amanda Lenhart Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org @amanda_lenhart photo by arcticpenguin Title of presentation 4/18/2012 15