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DIGITAL CURRENCY AND ITS IMPACT ON
ECONOMY
Introduction
Technological progress, and its applications specifically in the financial sector,
is resulting in higher adoption of digital services in addition to the considerable
shift to cashless and contactless transaction methods. During the pandemic
this has prompted central banks and financial institutions to examine even
more closely the potential benefits of introducing a new form of central bank
money through the issuance of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). The
ongoing shift from traditional economic transactions towards more data-driven
and platform-enabled activities emphasises the importance of the digital
economy. For the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, promoting financial innovation is
one of the key drivers behind researching and experimenting with CBDC use
cases and investigating its related potentials and drawbacks and its alignment
with the Saudi Central Bank’s policy objectives as well as Saudi Arabia’s Vision
2030 strategy.
CBDC definition
Central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital payment and
settlement medium denominated in the national unit of account that
is a direct liability of the central bank. CBDC represents a third form
of central bank money that coexists with the two other forms:
banknotes and bank reserves. It is fully fungible, one-to-one at par
with cash and central bank reserves. CBDC can be categorised into
three main types: retail CBDC, wholesale CBDC and cross-border
CBDC. In a simplified description, a CBDC would be equivalent to a
digital banknote that could be used for two purposes: transactions
and settlements by individuals and businesses in the case of a retail
CBDC, and transactions and settlements between financial
institutions only in the case of a wholesale CBDC
The difficulties, challenges and potential
benefits associated with CBDC
1.Technical challenges
Another major challenge is related to CBDCs’ technical
infrastructure and application. Many possible difficulties
could arise at the technical level, for example relating to
internet connectivity, especially in rural areas,
interoperability with the existing systems, or cyber attacks.
2. Financial literacy
Financial literacy of the public is a serious challenge,
especially for central banks whose primary objective
behind issuing a CBDC is promoting financial inclusion.
Even if a country’s digitalisation in daily life and in the
financial services industry has increased, this does not
necessarily imply an increase in financial literacy
among its population. It may make it even harder for
specific segments of the population to access and use
the new technologies and the related digital services
which if not properly managed could result in financial
exclusion of those segments
Motivations behind issuing CBDC
1.Financial innovation
A CBDC is about financial innovation, with the
introduction of a new medium that serves as an
enabler for a digital financial market. CBDC can be
compared to the introduction of banknotes during the
second half of the 19th century, aiming to bring new
convenience to payments and responding to an
evolving payments landscape to ensure central bank
money will remain future proof.
2.Payment diversity
The diversification in payment methods implied by the
adoption of a new medium would enhance choice and
competition in the payments sector. Access to CBDC for
digital payments would make the safety of central bank
money available to a broader range of payment
applications, increasing overall system stability.
3.Financial inclusion
The central bank could potentially promote financial
inclusion by providing access to a digital means of
payment for the unbanked population. Similarly, for
the underbanked population, the CBDC could serve as
the foundation for new and potentially cheaper
financial services provided by the private sector.
Fintechs, for instance, could build upon the CBDC
infrastructure to provide cheaper services accessible to
the portion of the population that does not have
access to an extended range of financial services, e.g.
due to costs
4.Cross-border payments
Cross-border payments may involve numerous
participants/intermediaries, time zones and jurisdictions
with varying regulatory requirements, which greatly
increases complexity, making such transactions slow and
costly to process. The functionalities offered by CBDC are
likely to have their biggest impact on international
payments. A CBDC infrastructure could be deployed in a
foreign jurisdiction, or designed to integrate several
jurisdictions or to be interoperable with other currency
systems through participation of non-residents, direct
connections between networks, or common technological
standards applied to the networks
Conclusion
There are numerous key motivations for implementing
a CBDC around the world, including fostering payment
innovation domestically, allowing for a higher quality in
payments in a cross-border context, and responding to
the reduction in the use of cash by the general public.
Despite the fact that the issuance of a CBDC is
associated with numerous benefits, it is also associated
with some potential risks such as legal and regulatory
issues as well as technical challenges. In conclusion,
while the majority of jurisdictions report similar
motivations and challenges, CBDC has given central
banks a new role in promoting financial innovation.

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digital currency.pptx

  • 1. DIGITAL CURRENCY AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMY Introduction Technological progress, and its applications specifically in the financial sector, is resulting in higher adoption of digital services in addition to the considerable shift to cashless and contactless transaction methods. During the pandemic this has prompted central banks and financial institutions to examine even more closely the potential benefits of introducing a new form of central bank money through the issuance of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). The ongoing shift from traditional economic transactions towards more data-driven and platform-enabled activities emphasises the importance of the digital economy. For the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, promoting financial innovation is one of the key drivers behind researching and experimenting with CBDC use cases and investigating its related potentials and drawbacks and its alignment with the Saudi Central Bank’s policy objectives as well as Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 strategy.
  • 2. CBDC definition Central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital payment and settlement medium denominated in the national unit of account that is a direct liability of the central bank. CBDC represents a third form of central bank money that coexists with the two other forms: banknotes and bank reserves. It is fully fungible, one-to-one at par with cash and central bank reserves. CBDC can be categorised into three main types: retail CBDC, wholesale CBDC and cross-border CBDC. In a simplified description, a CBDC would be equivalent to a digital banknote that could be used for two purposes: transactions and settlements by individuals and businesses in the case of a retail CBDC, and transactions and settlements between financial institutions only in the case of a wholesale CBDC
  • 3. The difficulties, challenges and potential benefits associated with CBDC 1.Technical challenges Another major challenge is related to CBDCs’ technical infrastructure and application. Many possible difficulties could arise at the technical level, for example relating to internet connectivity, especially in rural areas, interoperability with the existing systems, or cyber attacks.
  • 4. 2. Financial literacy Financial literacy of the public is a serious challenge, especially for central banks whose primary objective behind issuing a CBDC is promoting financial inclusion. Even if a country’s digitalisation in daily life and in the financial services industry has increased, this does not necessarily imply an increase in financial literacy among its population. It may make it even harder for specific segments of the population to access and use the new technologies and the related digital services which if not properly managed could result in financial exclusion of those segments
  • 5. Motivations behind issuing CBDC 1.Financial innovation A CBDC is about financial innovation, with the introduction of a new medium that serves as an enabler for a digital financial market. CBDC can be compared to the introduction of banknotes during the second half of the 19th century, aiming to bring new convenience to payments and responding to an evolving payments landscape to ensure central bank money will remain future proof.
  • 6. 2.Payment diversity The diversification in payment methods implied by the adoption of a new medium would enhance choice and competition in the payments sector. Access to CBDC for digital payments would make the safety of central bank money available to a broader range of payment applications, increasing overall system stability.
  • 7. 3.Financial inclusion The central bank could potentially promote financial inclusion by providing access to a digital means of payment for the unbanked population. Similarly, for the underbanked population, the CBDC could serve as the foundation for new and potentially cheaper financial services provided by the private sector. Fintechs, for instance, could build upon the CBDC infrastructure to provide cheaper services accessible to the portion of the population that does not have access to an extended range of financial services, e.g. due to costs
  • 8. 4.Cross-border payments Cross-border payments may involve numerous participants/intermediaries, time zones and jurisdictions with varying regulatory requirements, which greatly increases complexity, making such transactions slow and costly to process. The functionalities offered by CBDC are likely to have their biggest impact on international payments. A CBDC infrastructure could be deployed in a foreign jurisdiction, or designed to integrate several jurisdictions or to be interoperable with other currency systems through participation of non-residents, direct connections between networks, or common technological standards applied to the networks
  • 9. Conclusion There are numerous key motivations for implementing a CBDC around the world, including fostering payment innovation domestically, allowing for a higher quality in payments in a cross-border context, and responding to the reduction in the use of cash by the general public. Despite the fact that the issuance of a CBDC is associated with numerous benefits, it is also associated with some potential risks such as legal and regulatory issues as well as technical challenges. In conclusion, while the majority of jurisdictions report similar motivations and challenges, CBDC has given central banks a new role in promoting financial innovation.