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PRESENTED BY:-
DIVYA
BHARAT AGGARWAL
4 types
Type
1
Type
2
gestational
Pre-
diabetes
 Type 1 diabetes is also known as
insulin-dependent diabetes, and is
caused by the body attacking it’s
own pancreas with antibodies.
 It could also be the result of faulty
beta cells in the pancreas that
normally produce insulin.
 In type 2 dm the body
does not produce enough
insulin for proper function,
or the cells in the body do
not react to insulin (insulin
resistance).
Gestational Diabetes is the third main
form of diabetes and occurs in females
during pregnancy. Some women have
very high levels of glucose in their
blood, and their bodies are unable to
produce enough insulin to transport all
of the glucose into their cells, resulting
in progressively rising levels of glucose.
 Careful meal planning to ensure
adequate pregnancy nutrients without
excess fat and calories
 Daily exercise
 Controlling pregnancy weight gain
 Taking insulin to control blood sugar
levels if needed.
Impaired fasting
glycaemia or impaired
fasting glucose refers to
a condition in which the
fasting blood glucose is
elevated above what is
considered normal levels
but is not high enough to
be classified as diabetes
mellitus.
 Cardiovascular disease
 Kidney disease (diabetic
nephropathy)
 Nerve disease (diabetic
neuropathy)
 Eye disease (diabetic
retinopathy)
 Pregnancy complications
3 Ways of testing Diabetes
HbA1c FPGTT OGTT
FPGTT-Fasting Plasma
Glucose Tolerance TEST
The OGTT (oral glucose
tolerance test)
A1C test The FPG (fasting
plasma glucose)
test
The OGTT (oral
glucose tolerance
test)
DIABETES at least 6.5%
means diabetic
at least 126
mg/dl
at least 200
mg/dl
PREDIABETES between 5.7%
and 5.99%
between 100
mg/dl and 125.99
mg/dl
between 140 and
199.9 mg/dl
NORMAL less than 5.7%
means normal
less than 100
mg/dl
less than 140
mg/dl
RANGES OF DIABETES DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
 There is no known preventive measure for type 1
diabetes.
 Type 2 diabetes can often be prevented by a person
being a normal body weight, physical exercise, and
following a healthful diet.
•Oral medicines
•Insulin injections
•Surgery
•Lifestyle
 Biguanides
 Dopamine Agonist
 DPP-4 Inhibitors
 Meglitinides
 Sulfonylureas
 Insulin is a hormone that controls
blood sugar. There are many types
of insulin used to treat diabetes.
Insulins Examples
Rapid acting Insulins - insulin aspart
Short acting Insulins - regular insulin
Intermediate Insulins - insulin NPH
Long acting insulins - insulin glagine
Premixed Insulins - insulin lispro protamine
SITES OF
INSULIN
INJECTION
 A pancreas transplant is occasionally
considered for people with type 1 diabetes
who have severe complications of their
disease.
 Weight loss surgery in those with obesity
and type 2 diabetes is often an effective
measure.
 Maintain or return to
a healthy weight
 Focus on fruits and
veggies
 Cut out the sugary
drinks
 Cut back on TV time
 Physical activity
 A potential future treatment for type 1 diabetes is gene
therapy. Researchers have identified a faulty gene which
means that people with the gene are more likely to
develop diabetes. In the future, this gene could be
replaced by a fully-working version of the gene. This
could prevent people from getting diabetes in the first
place or reverse the condition in people who have
developed the condition.
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 5.  Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, and is caused by the body attacking it’s own pancreas with antibodies.  It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin.
  • 6.  In type 2 dm the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).
  • 7. Gestational Diabetes is the third main form of diabetes and occurs in females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.
  • 8.  Careful meal planning to ensure adequate pregnancy nutrients without excess fat and calories  Daily exercise  Controlling pregnancy weight gain  Taking insulin to control blood sugar levels if needed.
  • 9. Impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired fasting glucose refers to a condition in which the fasting blood glucose is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.  Cardiovascular disease  Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy)  Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy)  Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy)  Pregnancy complications
  • 13. 3 Ways of testing Diabetes HbA1c FPGTT OGTT
  • 14.
  • 16. The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
  • 17. A1C test The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) DIABETES at least 6.5% means diabetic at least 126 mg/dl at least 200 mg/dl PREDIABETES between 5.7% and 5.99% between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl NORMAL less than 5.7% means normal less than 100 mg/dl less than 140 mg/dl RANGES OF DIABETES DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
  • 18.  There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.  Type 2 diabetes can often be prevented by a person being a normal body weight, physical exercise, and following a healthful diet.
  • 20.  Biguanides  Dopamine Agonist  DPP-4 Inhibitors  Meglitinides  Sulfonylureas
  • 21.  Insulin is a hormone that controls blood sugar. There are many types of insulin used to treat diabetes.
  • 22. Insulins Examples Rapid acting Insulins - insulin aspart Short acting Insulins - regular insulin Intermediate Insulins - insulin NPH Long acting insulins - insulin glagine Premixed Insulins - insulin lispro protamine
  • 24.  A pancreas transplant is occasionally considered for people with type 1 diabetes who have severe complications of their disease.  Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type 2 diabetes is often an effective measure.
  • 25.  Maintain or return to a healthy weight  Focus on fruits and veggies  Cut out the sugary drinks  Cut back on TV time  Physical activity
  • 26.  A potential future treatment for type 1 diabetes is gene therapy. Researchers have identified a faulty gene which means that people with the gene are more likely to develop diabetes. In the future, this gene could be replaced by a fully-working version of the gene. This could prevent people from getting diabetes in the first place or reverse the condition in people who have developed the condition.