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Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
An integrated approach to assessing and
improving meat/milk safety and nutrition in
the Ethiopian sheep and goat value chain
Tamsin Dewé1
Kristina Roesel1,2
Aklilu Fekele3
Getachew Legesse4
Delia Grace1
1. International Livestock Research Institute
(ILRI)
2. Freie Universität Berlin
3. Addis Ababa University
4. International Centre for Agricultural
Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Introduction
• Animal-source foods in sub-Saharan
Africa
– majority produced by smallholder farmers
– high nutritional value
– important cause of food-borne disease
• Improving food safety
– traditional policies are not really
appropriate in these settings
– trade-off with lost nutritional benefits
– new risk-based approaches assess whether
there is a genuine public health threat, and
how to mitigate it
2
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Project aim
• Safe Food, Fair Food
– rapid, integrated assessment of food safety risks
and nutritional benefits within selected livestock
value chains
– identify areas for interventions and further work
3
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Methods
• Ethiopia and small ruminants
– >80% human population lives in rural areas (WHO, 2011)
– ~66 million sheep and goats(Negassa et al., 2011)
– value chain has growth potential
4
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Methods
• Participatory techniques used
– participatory rural appraisals (PRA)
and focus group discussions (FGD)
– rapid, cheap way to get information
in data-scarce environment
– engages communities as part of risk
management/communication
• Topics covered
– meat/milk production and
consumption, food safety and
quality, food preparation
– also animal health, zoonoses
5
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Methods
• PRA and FGD with producers and consumers at seven rural sites
6
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Results: meat
• Peak production and
consumption during
major festivals (arrows)
– extensive fasting periods
– reliance on small
ruminants as ‘walking
cash’
– home slaughter
• One exception
– pastoral site in southern
Ethiopia where meat
frequently consumed
7
Percentage of annual meat consumption
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Results: meat
• Risky preparation/consumption
habits:
– eating raw meat/offal
– eating sick animals
– possible cross-contamination
• Risk-mitigating practices:
– hygiene at slaughter
– meat freshly cooked (minimal
storage)
– often cooked thoroughly
8
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Results: milk
• Production and
consumption highly
seasonal
– peaks after the long
rains (bracket)
– fasting
– productivity
limitations
– community/local
distribution
• Important food for
children
9
Percentage of annual milk consumption
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Results: milk
• Risky preparation/consumption
habits:
– drinking raw milk (varied by site)
• Risk-mitigating practices:
– discarding abnormal milk
– boiling milk
– fermentation?
– cultural taboo preventing
consumption
10
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Conclusions: meat
• Reduced exposure to hazards in
rural areas
– infrequent consumption of sheep
and goat meat
– nutritional losses >> food safety
risk?
– further work to determine impact
• Some areas at greater risk of
food-borne disease
– pastoral sites
– meat seems to be eaten more
frequently in richer urban areas
11
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Conclusions: milk
• Exposure to food-borne hazards occurs more
frequently
– mitigated by simple interventions (boiling)
– risk to children drinking directly from animal
• Also an under-utilised source of animal protein
– production limitations
– cultural elements
12
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Conclusions: Ethiopia
• Trade-off between food safety and nutritional
benefits occurs within sheep and goat value chain
in Ethiopia
• Further research into food safety risks warranted,
including at other points in the value chain
• Improving livelihoods by increasing intake of
animal-source foods is a complex problem
– increased production (milk>meat)
– improved economic status (meat>milk)
– religious/cultural factors
– increased consumption  increased risk
13
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
Acknowledgements
• GIZ
• Collaborators and field personnel
– Addis Ababa University
– Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute
(ARARI)
– Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre (MARC)
– Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (OARI)
– Southern Agricultural Research Institute (SARI)
– Somali Region Pastoral and Agro-pastoral
Research Institute (SoRPARI)
• Aynalem Haile & Barbara Rischkowsky, ICARDA
• Barbara Szonyi, ILRI
• The communities at Abergelle, Atsbi, Borena,
Doyogena, Horro, Menz and Shinelle sites
14
Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté
15

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An integrated approach to assessing and improving meat and milk safety and nutrition in the Ethiopian sheep and goat value chain

  • 1. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté An integrated approach to assessing and improving meat/milk safety and nutrition in the Ethiopian sheep and goat value chain Tamsin Dewé1 Kristina Roesel1,2 Aklilu Fekele3 Getachew Legesse4 Delia Grace1 1. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) 2. Freie Universität Berlin 3. Addis Ababa University 4. International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
  • 2. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Introduction • Animal-source foods in sub-Saharan Africa – majority produced by smallholder farmers – high nutritional value – important cause of food-borne disease • Improving food safety – traditional policies are not really appropriate in these settings – trade-off with lost nutritional benefits – new risk-based approaches assess whether there is a genuine public health threat, and how to mitigate it 2
  • 3. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Project aim • Safe Food, Fair Food – rapid, integrated assessment of food safety risks and nutritional benefits within selected livestock value chains – identify areas for interventions and further work 3
  • 4. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Methods • Ethiopia and small ruminants – >80% human population lives in rural areas (WHO, 2011) – ~66 million sheep and goats(Negassa et al., 2011) – value chain has growth potential 4
  • 5. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Methods • Participatory techniques used – participatory rural appraisals (PRA) and focus group discussions (FGD) – rapid, cheap way to get information in data-scarce environment – engages communities as part of risk management/communication • Topics covered – meat/milk production and consumption, food safety and quality, food preparation – also animal health, zoonoses 5
  • 6. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Methods • PRA and FGD with producers and consumers at seven rural sites 6
  • 7. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Results: meat • Peak production and consumption during major festivals (arrows) – extensive fasting periods – reliance on small ruminants as ‘walking cash’ – home slaughter • One exception – pastoral site in southern Ethiopia where meat frequently consumed 7 Percentage of annual meat consumption
  • 8. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Results: meat • Risky preparation/consumption habits: – eating raw meat/offal – eating sick animals – possible cross-contamination • Risk-mitigating practices: – hygiene at slaughter – meat freshly cooked (minimal storage) – often cooked thoroughly 8
  • 9. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Results: milk • Production and consumption highly seasonal – peaks after the long rains (bracket) – fasting – productivity limitations – community/local distribution • Important food for children 9 Percentage of annual milk consumption
  • 10. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Results: milk • Risky preparation/consumption habits: – drinking raw milk (varied by site) • Risk-mitigating practices: – discarding abnormal milk – boiling milk – fermentation? – cultural taboo preventing consumption 10
  • 11. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Conclusions: meat • Reduced exposure to hazards in rural areas – infrequent consumption of sheep and goat meat – nutritional losses >> food safety risk? – further work to determine impact • Some areas at greater risk of food-borne disease – pastoral sites – meat seems to be eaten more frequently in richer urban areas 11
  • 12. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Conclusions: milk • Exposure to food-borne hazards occurs more frequently – mitigated by simple interventions (boiling) – risk to children drinking directly from animal • Also an under-utilised source of animal protein – production limitations – cultural elements 12
  • 13. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Conclusions: Ethiopia • Trade-off between food safety and nutritional benefits occurs within sheep and goat value chain in Ethiopia • Further research into food safety risks warranted, including at other points in the value chain • Improving livelihoods by increasing intake of animal-source foods is a complex problem – increased production (milk>meat) – improved economic status (meat>milk) – religious/cultural factors – increased consumption  increased risk 13
  • 14. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté Acknowledgements • GIZ • Collaborators and field personnel – Addis Ababa University – Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI) – Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre (MARC) – Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (OARI) – Southern Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) – Somali Region Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Research Institute (SoRPARI) • Aynalem Haile & Barbara Rischkowsky, ICARDA • Barbara Szonyi, ILRI • The communities at Abergelle, Atsbi, Borena, Doyogena, Horro, Menz and Shinelle sites 14
  • 15. Conférence internationale Africa 2013 sur l’Ecosanté 15