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Human Development
 the pattern of movement or change
that begins at conception and
continues through the life span
includes growth and decline
can be positive or negative
Developmental Task Theory (Robert
Havighurst:
• Infancy - Early Childhood (birth to 5
years)
• Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years )
• Adolescence (13 to 18 years)
• Early adulthood (19 to 29 years)
• Middle Adulthood (30-60 years)
• Later Maturity (60>)
"The developmental-task concept occupies middle
ground between two opposed theories of education:
Theory of Freedom
“that the child will develop best if left as free as possible”
Theory of Constraint
“that the child must learn to become a worthy,
responsible adult through restraints imposed by his
society.”
A developmental task is midway between an individual
need and societal demand. It assumes an active learner
interacting with an active social environment" (1971, p.
vi).
The Developmental Task Concept
Robert Havighurst(1952, 1972, 1982) has identified
critical developmental tasks that occur throughout the
life span. Although our interpretations of these tasks
naturally change over the years and with new research
findings. Havighurst's developmental tasks offer lasting
testimony to the belief that we continue to develop
throughout our lives.
The Developmental Task Concept
From examining the changes in your own life span you
can see that critical tasks arise at certain times in our
lives. Mastery of these tasks is satisfying and
encourages us to go on to new challenges. Difficulty
with them slows progress toward future
accomplishments and goals. As a mechanism for
understanding the changes that occur during the life
span.
The Developmental Task Concept
Havinghurst (1972) defines a developmental task as one
that arises at a certain period in our lives, the successful
achievement of which leads to happiness and success
with later tasks; while leads to unhappiness, social
disapproval, and difficulty with later tasks.
Havighurst uses lightly different age groupings, but the
basic divisions are quite similar to those used in this
book.
He identifies three sources of developmental tasks
(Havighurst, 1972):
• Tasks that arise from physical maturation. For
example, learning to walk, talk, and behave
acceptably with the opposite sex during
adolescence; adjusting to menopause during middle
age
• Tasks that from personal sources. For example,
those that emerge from the maturing personality
and take the form of personal values and aspirations,
such as learning the necessary skills for job success.
• Tasks that have their source in the pressures of
society. For example, learning to read or learning the
role of a responsible citizen.
He identifies three sources of developmental tasks
(Havighurst, 1972):
• Tasks that arise from physical maturation. For
example, learning to walk, talk, and behave
acceptably with the opposite sex during
adolescence; adjusting to menopause during middle
age
• Tasks that from personal sources. For example,
those that emerge from the maturing personality
and take the form of personal values and aspirations,
such as learning the necessary skills for job success.
• Tasks that have their source in the pressures of
society. For example, learning to read or learning the
role of a responsible citizen.
Infancy and early childhood(birth till
6 years old)
-in this stage, the child begins to
learn different physical activities like
walking, crawling as well as starting to
read and forming concepts.
Ages 0-5
1. Learning to walk.
2. Learning to take solid foods
3. Learning to talk
4. Learning to control the elimination of body
wastes
5. Learning sex differences and sexual modesty
6. Forming concepts and learning language to
describe social and physical reality.
7. Getting ready to read
8. Learning to distinguish right from wrong and
developing a conscience
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF INFANCY AND
EARLY CHILDHOOD:
Middle childhood (6-12 years old)
-middle childhood is then where the
child learns different
physical skills for simple games; as
well as developing
concepts for everyday living.
Ages 6-12
1. Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary
games.
2. Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself
as a growing organism
3. Learning to get along with age-mates
4. Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine
social role
5. Developing fundamental skills in reading,
writing, and calculating
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF INFANCY AND
EARLY CHILDHOOD:
Ages 6-612
6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday
living.
7. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale
of values
8. Achieving personal independence
9. Developing attitudes toward social groups and
institution
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF INFANCY AND
EARLY CHILDHOOD:
Adolescence (13-18 years old)
-during the adolescence period, the
child achieves more mature relations
with others. The child gets to knows
oneself and prepares himself for the
coming years.
Ages 13-18
1. Achieving new and more mature relations with
age-mates of both sexes
2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
3. Accepting one's physique and using the body
effectively
4. Achieving emotional independence of parents
and other adults
5. Preparing for marriage and family life
Preparing for an economic career
6. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system
as a guide to behavior; developing an ideology
7. Desiring and achieving socially responsible
behavior
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF ADOLESCENCE
Early adulthood (18-30 years old)
-here one is now ready to settle down
and begin a family as well as a new
life. One looks for a career to help in
raising himself and his family;
practicing as well socially.
Ages 19-29
1. Selecting a mate
2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
3. Learning to live with a marriage partner
4. Starting a family
5. Rearing children
6. Managing a home
7. Getting started in an occupation
8. Taking on civic responsibility
9. Finding a congenial social group
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF EARLY ADULTHOOD
Middle age (30-60 years old)
- the middle age, is where one is able
to see clearly to his future, here one
is then able to help his children as
well as other teenagers to become
more responsible. Here one also is
able to adapt to everything that is
happening to him physically,
emotionally even socially.
Ages 30-60
1. Helping teenage children to become happy and
responsible Adults
2. Achieving adult social and civic responsibility
3. Satisfactory career achievement
4. Developing adult leisure time activities
5. Relating to one’s spouse as a person
6. Accepting the physiological changes of middle
age
7. Adjusting to aging parent
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF MIDDLE
ADULTHOOD
Later maturity (60 years old and
over)
- in this stage, one is adjusting to the
happenings of his
life. Here, one needs to adjust to
understand everything
especially in death.
Ages 61-and over
1. Adjusting to decreasing strength and health
2. Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
3. Adjusting to death of spouse
4. Establishing relations with one’s own age group
5. Meeting social and civic obligations
6. Establishing satisfactory living quarters
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF LATER MATURITY
By virtue of being born to humanity,
every human being has a right to the
development and fulfillment of his
potential as a human being.

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Developmental-Tasks-and-Education.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Human Development  the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the life span includes growth and decline can be positive or negative
  • 3. Developmental Task Theory (Robert Havighurst: • Infancy - Early Childhood (birth to 5 years) • Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years ) • Adolescence (13 to 18 years) • Early adulthood (19 to 29 years) • Middle Adulthood (30-60 years) • Later Maturity (60>)
  • 4. "The developmental-task concept occupies middle ground between two opposed theories of education: Theory of Freedom “that the child will develop best if left as free as possible” Theory of Constraint “that the child must learn to become a worthy, responsible adult through restraints imposed by his society.” A developmental task is midway between an individual need and societal demand. It assumes an active learner interacting with an active social environment" (1971, p. vi).
  • 5. The Developmental Task Concept Robert Havighurst(1952, 1972, 1982) has identified critical developmental tasks that occur throughout the life span. Although our interpretations of these tasks naturally change over the years and with new research findings. Havighurst's developmental tasks offer lasting testimony to the belief that we continue to develop throughout our lives.
  • 6. The Developmental Task Concept From examining the changes in your own life span you can see that critical tasks arise at certain times in our lives. Mastery of these tasks is satisfying and encourages us to go on to new challenges. Difficulty with them slows progress toward future accomplishments and goals. As a mechanism for understanding the changes that occur during the life span.
  • 7. The Developmental Task Concept Havinghurst (1972) defines a developmental task as one that arises at a certain period in our lives, the successful achievement of which leads to happiness and success with later tasks; while leads to unhappiness, social disapproval, and difficulty with later tasks. Havighurst uses lightly different age groupings, but the basic divisions are quite similar to those used in this book.
  • 8. He identifies three sources of developmental tasks (Havighurst, 1972): • Tasks that arise from physical maturation. For example, learning to walk, talk, and behave acceptably with the opposite sex during adolescence; adjusting to menopause during middle age • Tasks that from personal sources. For example, those that emerge from the maturing personality and take the form of personal values and aspirations, such as learning the necessary skills for job success. • Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society. For example, learning to read or learning the role of a responsible citizen.
  • 9. He identifies three sources of developmental tasks (Havighurst, 1972): • Tasks that arise from physical maturation. For example, learning to walk, talk, and behave acceptably with the opposite sex during adolescence; adjusting to menopause during middle age • Tasks that from personal sources. For example, those that emerge from the maturing personality and take the form of personal values and aspirations, such as learning the necessary skills for job success. • Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society. For example, learning to read or learning the role of a responsible citizen.
  • 10. Infancy and early childhood(birth till 6 years old) -in this stage, the child begins to learn different physical activities like walking, crawling as well as starting to read and forming concepts.
  • 11. Ages 0-5 1. Learning to walk. 2. Learning to take solid foods 3. Learning to talk 4. Learning to control the elimination of body wastes 5. Learning sex differences and sexual modesty 6. Forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality. 7. Getting ready to read 8. Learning to distinguish right from wrong and developing a conscience DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD:
  • 12. Middle childhood (6-12 years old) -middle childhood is then where the child learns different physical skills for simple games; as well as developing concepts for everyday living.
  • 13. Ages 6-12 1. Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. 2. Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism 3. Learning to get along with age-mates 4. Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role 5. Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD:
  • 14. Ages 6-612 6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday living. 7. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values 8. Achieving personal independence 9. Developing attitudes toward social groups and institution DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD:
  • 15. Adolescence (13-18 years old) -during the adolescence period, the child achieves more mature relations with others. The child gets to knows oneself and prepares himself for the coming years.
  • 16. Ages 13-18 1. Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role 3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively 4. Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults 5. Preparing for marriage and family life Preparing for an economic career 6. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior; developing an ideology 7. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF ADOLESCENCE
  • 17. Early adulthood (18-30 years old) -here one is now ready to settle down and begin a family as well as a new life. One looks for a career to help in raising himself and his family; practicing as well socially.
  • 18. Ages 19-29 1. Selecting a mate 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role 3. Learning to live with a marriage partner 4. Starting a family 5. Rearing children 6. Managing a home 7. Getting started in an occupation 8. Taking on civic responsibility 9. Finding a congenial social group DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF EARLY ADULTHOOD
  • 19. Middle age (30-60 years old) - the middle age, is where one is able to see clearly to his future, here one is then able to help his children as well as other teenagers to become more responsible. Here one also is able to adapt to everything that is happening to him physically, emotionally even socially.
  • 20. Ages 30-60 1. Helping teenage children to become happy and responsible Adults 2. Achieving adult social and civic responsibility 3. Satisfactory career achievement 4. Developing adult leisure time activities 5. Relating to one’s spouse as a person 6. Accepting the physiological changes of middle age 7. Adjusting to aging parent DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
  • 21. Later maturity (60 years old and over) - in this stage, one is adjusting to the happenings of his life. Here, one needs to adjust to understand everything especially in death.
  • 22. Ages 61-and over 1. Adjusting to decreasing strength and health 2. Adjusting to retirement and reduced income 3. Adjusting to death of spouse 4. Establishing relations with one’s own age group 5. Meeting social and civic obligations 6. Establishing satisfactory living quarters DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF LATER MATURITY
  • 23. By virtue of being born to humanity, every human being has a right to the development and fulfillment of his potential as a human being.