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Desserts and 
puddings 15 This chapter covers the following outcomes from Diploma 
unit 213: Produce hot and cold desserts and puddings 
Outcome 213.1 Prepare and cook cold desserts 
Outcome 213.2 Finish cold desserts 
Outcome 213.3 Prepare and cook hot desserts and puddings 
Outcome 213.4 Finish hot desserts and puddings 
Working through this chapter could also provide the 
opportunity to practise the following Functional Skills at 
Level 2: 
Functional Maths Analysing – recognise and use 2D representations of 3D 
objects; find area, perimeter and volume of common shapes 
In this chapter you will learn how to: 
Identify different types of hot and cold desserts 
Identify the main ingredients and their quality points and 
quantities 
Prepare hot and cold desserts and puddings 
Cook hot desserts and puddings 
Check, finish and decorate cooked desserts and 
puddings 
Identify the temperature for the cooking, holding, 
service and storage of finished desserts and 
puddings 
You will learn to make basic desserts 
and puddings including: 
ice cream 
vanilla mousse 
panna cotta 
crème caramel 
pavlova 
American-style pancakes 
fruit crumble. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 483 13/09/2010 10:29
484 
Types of desserts and puddings 
Desserts and puddings all have one thing in common – most people 
love them. The art of making desserts and puddings can be learnt by 
everyone, but some chefs have a particular passion for creating them. 
Basic hot and cold desserts and puddings include: 
Ice creams: made from milk, cream, sugar, eggs and flavouring, 
then churned in an ice-cream maker to achieve a smooth texture 
and consistency. Ice cream is available in many different flavours. 
Mousses: cold desserts such as chocolate or fruit mousse, 
generally light and airy in texture, often held together with a 
setting agent such as gelatine. 
Egg-based desserts: can be served hot or cold. Cold desserts 
include crème brûlée, crème caramel and baked egg custard. 
Hot desserts include bread and butter pudding and cabinet 
pudding. Egg-based desserts also include meringues. 
Batter-based desserts: these are usually fried, e.g. pancakes 
and fritters. 
Milk puddings: can be served hot or cold. They may have fruit 
added. Examples include semolina and rice pudding. 
Sponge-based desserts: these include steamed sponges and 
bakewell tart. 
Fruit-based desserts: these include fruit flans, Eve’s pudding, 
fruit crumble and summer puddings. 
Ice cream 
Ice cream is normally made using a sorbetière (ice-cream maker). It 
can be made using a normal household freezer, but the ice cream 
will not be such good quality. 
A sorbetière slowly churns and freezes the ice-cream mixture. As 
the mixture freezes ice crystals are produced. These are kept small 
by the churning action. Small ice crystals mean high-quality ice 
cream with a smooth texture. 
Freezing the ice-cream mixture in a normal freezer produces larger 
ice crystals so the texture is not so smooth. 
Ice cream is generally made using high-risk products so it must be 
stored below –22°C. This temperature makes the ice cream hard to 
serve. Remove ice cream from the freezer and place it in the fridge 
before service to make it easier to serve. 
Top marks! 
If making individual items 
make sure each mould/dish is 
the same size. 
Try this! 
Draw a size chart to guide 
you on the correct sizes for 
all items. 
Top marks! 
Ensure there are sufficient 
garnishes for each portion but 
do not over/under garnish 
– sometime less is more! 
Remember! 
Melted ice cream must not be 
re-frozen. 
Desserts and puddings 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
485 
Definition 
Infuse: to soak something in 
liquid so that the liquid will 
take on its flavour. 
Chef’s tip 
If the pan has any burnt milk 
left on it, use a clean pan. 
Chef’s tip 
To stop the milk burning, 
sprinkle some of the sugar 
from the recipe onto the 
bottom of the saucepan, 
then add the milk but do not 
stir. The sugar on the base 
of the pan will protect the 
lactose and stop the milk from 
burning before it boils. 
Chef’s tip 
Ice cream should not be 
grainy. It should be smooth 
without large ice crystals. This 
is achieved by quick freezing. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 3 
Finishing 2 
Vanilla ice cream 
milk 1 litre 
vanilla pod ½ 
egg yolks 5 
caster sugar 375g 
double cream 500ml 
Method 
1 Put the milk into a pan and warm it. 
2 Split the vanilla pod and scrape out the seeds. Put the pod 
into the warm milk to infuse. 
3 Put the egg yolks and sugar into a bowl and whisk together 
until light and fluffy. 
4 Bring the milk to the boil and add to egg mixture. Mix with 
a spatula. 
5 Put the mixture back into the saucepan. 
6 Cook the mixture over a gentle heat until the mixture coats 
the back of the spatula. To test, stir the mixture well, take 
out the spatula and draw a spoon through the mixture. The 
mixture should not rejoin quickly. 
7 Strain through a conical strainer and allow to cool. 
8 When the mixture is completely cool, add the cream and freeze. 
To freeze in a sorbetière: transfer the mixture into the sorbetière, 
churn and freeze. Once the mixture has doubled in volume and is 
firm, transfer it to a clean container, cover and store in the freezer 
until required for service. 
To freeze in a freezer: cover and put into the freezer. Stir every 
30 minutes until firm. Freeze until ready for service. 
This basic recipe can be used for many different flavours, by 
removing the vanilla pod and substituting other ingredients: 
Chocolate: added to the milk before boiling. 
Fruit: puréed and added after the double cream. 
Dried fruits or nuts: added just before the final freezing stage. 
Alcohol: added after the double cream. 
There are many different-flavoured ice creams available commercially. 
Some establishments buy these in because they lack suitable 
equipment or qualified staff to make home-made ice cream. It may 
also make compiling and costing menus more effective. 
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Desserts and puddings 
486 
Mousse 
Mousse is light in texture and is normally served chilled. 
Gelatine 
Mousse is set using gelatine. Too little gelatine and the mousse will 
not set, too much gelatine and the mousse will set too hard and 
the texture will be tough. 
Gelatine comes in either powder or leaf form. Leaf gelatine is a 
more expensive form of gelatine but is a superior product. 
Gelatine needs to be soaked in cold water before use. The best 
way to soak powdered gelatine is to measure the correct amount 
of water and sprinkle the powder onto the water and allow it to 
sponge. 
Leaf gelatine turns into a jellied mass when soaked in water. The 
remaining water is thrown away and the jellied mass squeezed to 
remove as much excess water as possible. 
Gelatine is made from beef bones and therefore not suitable 
for vegetarians. A setting agent suitable for vegetarians and 
vegans is made from seaweed and is known as agar agar; it is 
usually available in flake form. It has weaker setting properties 
than gelatine. It must be used in accordance with manufacturer’s 
instructions. 
Chef’s tip 
Do not overcook the mixture for 
ice cream, bavarois or mousse 
or it will curdle and will have 
to be thrown away. Too much 
heat will cause the egg to cook 
and separate from the milk. 
Small pieces of egg will be 
evident in the milk and it will 
not thicken. 
Figure 15.1 Gelatine – leaf and powdered Figure 15.2 Agar agar 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
487 
Vanilla mousse 
leaf gelatine 40g 
cold water for soaking gelatine 
caster sugar 150g 
egg yolks 6 
milk 400ml 
vanilla pod 1 
double cream 700ml 
granulated sugar 150g 
egg whites 6 
Serves 8–10 
Method 
1 Soak the leaf gelatine in cold water. 
2 Cream together the caster sugar, egg yolks and a little milk. 
3 Put the remaining milk into a pan. Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. 
This type of mousse can be flavoured with coffee and/or chocolate. 
To make coffee mousse, replace the vanilla pod with instant coffee 
to taste and colour. To make chocolate mousse, replace the vanilla 
pod with 100g grated chocolate. Add it to the milk before boiling. 
Chef’s tip 
Mousse should be light and 
aerated. Ensure cream is 
evenly mixed without any 
visible streaks. 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing 3 
Put the pod into the remaining milk. 
4 Bring the milk to the boil and infuse the vanilla pod. 
5 Bring the milk to the boil again and add to egg mixture. Mix with a spatula. 
6 Put the mixture back into the saucepan. 
7 Cook the mixture over a gentle heat until the mixture coats the back of the spatula. 
To test, stir the mixture well, take out the spatula and draw a spoon through the 
mixture. The mixture should not rejoin quickly. 
8 Squeeze the water out of the soaked gelatine and add the gelatine to the hot mix. 
Dissolve the gelatine completely. 
9 Strain the mixture through a fine-meshed conical strainer and allow to cool. 
10 Whisk the double cream until it just peaks and put it into the fridge. 
11 Put the granulated sugar into a pan and just cover with water. Bring to the boil and 
skim to remove any impurities. Cook the sugar until it reaches 120°C. 
12 While the sugar is cooking, whisk the egg whites until they peak and slowly pour in 
the hot sugar. Continue whisking until the meringue is firm. 
13 Fold the whipped cream into the cold mousse base and then fold in the meringue. 
14 Pour the mix into serving dishes or moulds and place in the fridge to set. 
15 When set, decorate with rosettes of whipped cream and any other garnish as 
directed by the establishment. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 487 13/09/2010 10:29
How to create rosettes 
1 Whip cream until stiff. 
2 Transfer into a savoury piping bag with a medium five-star piping 
tube. 
3 Pipe the rosettes directly onto the mousse. 
4 Keep the piping bag upright when piping. 
Bavarois 
488 
Figure 15.3 Creating a rosette 
Did you know? 
Vanilla is a flavouring agent. 
Vanilla pods grow in the 
shape of long black sticks and 
are found on a climbing plant 
that belongs to the orchid 
family, native to Central 
America but nowadays also 
grown in Madagascar. 
For more information about 
vanilla visit www.heinemann. 
co.uk/hotlinks and enter the 
express code 3736P. 
Preparation 4 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing 2 Vanilla bavarois 
gelatine 3 leaves 
caster sugar 50g 
eggs 2 
milk 250ml 
vanilla essence to taste 
double cream 240ml 
Makes 6 × 6cm mousse ring 
Method 
1 Put the gelatine in a bowl and soak it in cold water. 
2 Separate the egg yolks and egg whites. 
3 Put the sugar and egg yolks into another bowl. Whisk them 
together. 
4 Put the milk and vanilla essence into a pan and boil them. 
5 Pour the hot milk over the sugar and egg mixture and mix. 
6 Get a clean bowl and a conical strainer. 
7 Pour the mixture into a clean saucepan. 
8 Return to the heat and stir gently using a wooden spoon. 
9 Once the mixture starts to thicken, remove from the heat 
and pour through the strainer into the clean bowl. Do not 
boil. 
10 Take the soaked gelatine out of the water and squeeze out 
the excess water. 
11 Gently stir it into the warm mixture until fully dissolved. 
12 Allow the mixture to cool down. 
13 While the mixture is cooling, half whip the double cream 
until it starts to thicken. 
14 Once the egg mixture starts to set, gently fold in the 
whipped cream. 
15 Whip the egg whites to a stiff snow (until the egg white peaks 
and the peaks do not drop to one side) and gently fold in. 
16 Fill moulds as required and store in the fridge until ready 
for service. 
Chef’s tip 
Bavarois should be light and 
just set. Too much gelatine will 
lead to a rubbery texture and 
too little means it will not hold 
its shape. 
Gelatine is available in 
powder and leaf form. Most 
pastry chefs tend to use leaf, 
which has to be softened 
in cold water before being 
added to a hot liquid. 
Desserts and puddings 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
489 
To make chocolate bavarois, add 50g dark chocolate to the milk 
before boiling. 
To make coffee bavarois, add 10g instant coffee powder to the milk 
before boiling. 
To make fruit bavarois, make the base recipe with only 125ml milk 
and add 125g fruit purée after the gelatine has been added. Serve 
with fruit coulis, page 515. 
Panna cotta 
Panna cotta is an Italian vanilla mousse made without eggs, that 
has the consistency of jelly. ‘Panna cotta’ means ‘cooked cream’. 
Did you know? 
Panna cotta only needs to be 
cooled on ice before filling 
the moulds if vanilla pods 
have been used. Vanilla seeds 
are heavier than cream and 
milk. If the panna cotta is put 
into the moulds while still hot, 
the vanilla seeds will sink to 
the bottom and the flavour will 
be concentrated at the base. 
Cooling the panna cotta on 
ice will distribute the vanilla 
seeds evenly. 
Chef’s tip 
Wash the used vanilla skin 
under cold water to remove 
any dairy products, dry the skin 
on top of the oven and mix with 
caster sugar to produce vanilla-flavoured 
sugar. 
Chef’s tip 
Panna cotta should be 
light and just set. Too much 
gelatine will lead to a rubbery 
texture and too little means it 
will not hold its shape. 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
Panna cotta 
gelatine 2 leaves 
vanilla pod ½ 
double cream 380ml 
milk 130ml 
caster sugar 60g 
Serves 8 
Method 
1 Soak the gelatine in cold water. 
2 Cut the vanilla pod lengthways and scrape out the seeds 
with the back of a knife. 
3 Boil the cream, milk, vanilla seeds and vanilla skin. 
4 Put the sugar into a clean bowl. Pour the hot vanilla cream 
through a strainer over the sugar. 
5 Mix together using a whisk. 
6 Cool down over a bowl of ice and fill eight small dariole 
moulds just before setting. 
7 Serve with fresh fruits, fruit compote or fruit sauces. 
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Desserts and puddings 
490 
Fruit mousse 
Egg-based desserts 
Many egg-based desserts combine milk or cream, eggs, sugar and 
flavouring. The egg mix cooks and sets the liquid content. 
Any egg custard mixture needs enough eggs to set the liquid (milk 
or cream). Cream gives a much richer texture, but costs more. 
Excess heat while cooking egg custard dishes will result in the egg 
and liquid separating – known as ‘curdling’. Overcooking the custard 
mix will leave a clear liquid on the surface of the cooked product. 
Chef’s tip 
Try to use seasonal fruits and 
adjust the sugar according 
to the fruit, e.g. less for 
strawberries than for rhubarb. 
Chef’s tip 
The lemon juice will enhance 
the flavour of the fruit purée. 
Try this! 
How many desserts do you 
know which are made using 
from egg custard? What are 
the main ingredients of egg 
custard? Why is a bain-marie 
used? 
Worksheet 46 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing 2 
Fruit mousse 
gelatine 4 leaves 
fruit purée 250g 
juice of a lemon 1 
caster sugar 80g 
double cream 250ml 
egg whites 2 
Serves 6 
Method 
1 Soak the gelatine in cold water. 
2 Put the fruit purée, lemon juice and sugar into a bowl and 
whisk together. 
3 Put the double cream into another bowl and half whip it 
until it thickens slightly. 
4 Take the soaked gelatine out of the water, squeeze out the 
excess water and put the gelatine into a clean saucepan. 
5 Add 3 tbsps of the fruit purée and dissolve the gelatine 
over a moderate heat. 
6 Put the rest of the fruit purée into a bowl. Whisk the 
gelatine mixture into the fruit purée. 
7 Whip the egg whites until stiff. 
8 Just before the fruit mixture starts to set, fold in the 
whipped cream and egg white. 
9 Fill 6cm mousse rings and chill until set. 
10 Store in the fridge until ready for service. 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
491 
Did you know? 
Nutmeg is the dried seed of 
a fruit from an evergreen tree 
grown in South-east Asia. It 
is available either whole or 
in powdered form. Whole 
nutmeg is grated very finely to 
extract the spice. 
Did you know? 
This mixture can also be cooked 
inside a blind-baked sweet 
pastry case. See Chapter 15. 
Chef’s tip 
Egg-based desserts should 
be smooth in texture, just set 
and cooked gently so the 
egg doesn’t scramble and 
overcook, leaving a grainy 
texture with pockets of air. 
Too much heat will also lead the sugar in the custard mix to 
produce bubbles throughout the mixture. 
To reduce the risk of overheating the custard mix, most egg custard-based 
desserts are cooked in a bain-marie. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing – 
Egg custard 
eggs 6 
granulated sugar 150g 
milk 565ml 
vanilla pod 1 
nutmeg, grated to taste 
Serves 6–8 
Method 
1 Put the eggs and sugar into a bowl. Whisk to mix, but do not 
incorporate air as this will affect the final product. 
2 Put the milk into a saucepan. Split the vanilla pod and put 
the seeds into the milk. Warm the milk to infuse the flavour. 
Do not boil. 
3 Pour the hot milk onto the egg and sugar mixture. Whisk to 
mix but do not make frothy. 
4 Strain through a conical strainer. 
5 Transfer to a buttered dish and grate nutmeg onto the 
surface. 
6 Cook in a bain-marie for approximately 30 to 35 minutes 
at 200°C. 
7 Once cooked allow to cool. Store in the fridge until required 
for service. 
Queen of puddings is another egg custard-based dessert with 
added raspberry jam and cake crumbs. It is finished with crossed 
meringue and then each space is filled alternately with apricot and 
raspberry jam. 
It is a very sweet, very decorative dessert. The egg custard mix can 
also be flavoured with lemon zest. 
Cabinet pudding is egg custard with mixed dried fruits and sponge, 
served with sauce anglaise. 
Marcus says 
With a hot dessert, such as 
an egg custard tart, use fresh 
free range eggs for maximum 
colour, flavour and silkiness. 
When making egg custard 
tart, remember to pour the 
egg mixture into the tart whilst 
it is still in the oven – this 
allows you to fill right to the 
top without having to carry it! 
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Desserts and puddings 
492 
Diplomat pudding is a Cabinet pudding served cold, turned out of 
its cooking dish and decorated with whipped cream. 
Bread and butter pudding 
With the addition of sliced bread, sultanas and butter, another very 
popular dessert can be made. 
Definition 
Brioche: yeast dough that 
has been enriched with eggs 
and butter. It is similar to 
croissants. 
Preparation 2 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 2 
Bread and butter pudding 
eggs 6 medium 
granulated sugar 150g 
milk 500ml 
vanilla pod 1 
sultanas 100g 
white bread 250g (approx 7 slices) 
butter 100g 
Cooking time 30–35 minutes 
Oven temperature 190°C 
Serves 6 
Method 
1 Make the egg custard as normal. 
2 Butter and sugar a pie dish. 
3 Wash and dry the sultanas. 
4 Butter the bread and cut each slice into 
four triangles. (The crusts can be removed 
if required.) 
5 Layer the pie dish with alternate layers of buttered bread 
and sultanas. Finish with a layer of buttered bread. Do not 
use any sultanas on the top layer as they will burn during 
cooking and taste bitter. 
6 Pass the egg custard through a conical strainer onto the 
bread. Allow the bread to soak up the egg custard mixture 
for at least 30 minutes. 
7 Place the dish into a deep tray. Half fill the tray to make a 
bain-marie. 
8 Bake the pudding until set and golden brown. Serve hot. 
A modern twist on this classic dessert is to replace the milk with 
cream and glaze the top with sugar after cooking to give a crisp sweet 
topping. Another twist is to use brioche instead of normal sandwich 
bread. By adding melted chocolate or chocolate powder to the egg 
custard mixture you can create a chocolate bread and butter pudding. 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
493 
Did you know? 
The reason for washing down 
the side of the pan when 
boiling sugar is to stop the 
liquid sugar from crystallising. 
Chef’s tip 
Put a clean unused cleaning 
cloth into the bottom of the 
bain-marie before you put the 
moulds in. This prevents the 
base of the moulds getting 
too hot. 
Preparation 2 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 1 
Crème caramel 
For the egg custard: 
milk 850ml 
sugar 90g 
eggs 6 
vanilla essence to taste 
For the caramel: 
sugar 180g 
water 90ml and 20ml 
Oven temperature 140–150°C 
Cooking time 30–40 minutes 
Serves 6 
Method 
1 Make the egg custard as normal. 
2 Make a caramel by mixing the sugar 
and 90ml of water in a heavy-bottomed 
saucepan. 
3 Dissolve the sugar and bring it to the boil. Skim. 
4 With a clean pastry brush and some clean water, 
wash down the inside of the saucepan to remove any 
sugar crystals from the edge. Continue washing down 
throughout the boiling process. 
5 Cook the sugar until an amber colour has been achieved, 
approx. 15–20 minutes. 
6 Add the 20ml of water. This will stop the cooking process 
and thin down the sugar to produce a caramel sauce. 
7 Pour the caramel into some greased moulds and allow to 
set. The caramel will set more quickly if the moulds are put 
into cold water. 
8 Strain the egg custard mix onto the caramel. 
9 Transfer the moulds into a bain-marie. 
10 Cook in the oven until the custard is set. 
11 When cooked remove from the bain-marie and allow to 
cool. 
12 When completely cold remove from the moulds and serve. 
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494 
How to remove the Crème caramel from the moulds 
1 Tilt the mould onto its side at 90° and loosen the edge of the 
custard from the mould. Continue all the way round. 
2 Turn the mould upside down onto a serving plate, hold the plate 
and the mould and shake to loosen. 
3 Remove the mould. 
4 Any remaining caramel should be poured over the custard. 
Crème brûlée 
Crème brûlée translates as burnt cream, which indicates how the 
dessert is finished prior to service. Crème brûlée can be served hot 
or cold. 
Remember! 
The caramel should be rich 
and amber in colour, the 
surface of the cream should 
be smooth and not full of 
bubbles. The cream should 
stand proud and not dipped 
in the middle. 
Chef’s tip 
Make sure the salamander 
has been pre-heated or the 
sugar will take a long time to 
brown and the custard mix 
will overheat and curdle. 
Chef’s tip 
Brûlées can also be 
caramelised using a blow 
torch, but keep the flame 
moving so an even glaze can 
be achieved. 
Preparation 2 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 2 
Crème brûlée 
egg yolks 10 
eggs 2 
caster sugar 150g 
double cream 1000ml 
vanilla pod 1 
demerara sugar for topping 
Oven temperature 140–150°C 
Cooking time 30–40 minutes 
Serves 8–10 
Method 
1 Make the custard as for egg custard. Then poach the custard 
in a bain-marie as for crème caramels. 
2 Once set, sprinkle an even coating of demerara sugar onto 
the surface. 
3 Glaze the sugar to a light brown colour under a salamander. 
4 Once glazed, serve. 
Brûlée can be caramelised using a 
blow torch or a salamander 
Desserts and puddings 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
495 
Meringues 
A meringue is a mixture of whipped egg whites and sugar. Usually, 
caster sugar is used as the grains are much smaller and more 
easily suspended in the bubbles of the whipped egg white. 
When making hot or cold meringue, there are a few basic rules that 
must be followed: 
All whipping equipment must be free from grease. Plastic bowls 
are not recommended; use either stainless steel or glass, as 
these can be scalded with very hot water to remove the grease. 
If you dry the bowl, use clean disposable tissue, not a cloth. A 
cloth could transfer grease to the surface of the equipment. 
The easiest way to make meringue is by machine. However, if 
making by hand, use a stainless steel balloon whisk. This type of 
whisk allows more air to be incorporated quickly. 
Egg yolks consist mainly of fat and if any traces of yolk are present in 
the egg white, it will prevent the egg white whipping to a stiff peak. 
Once made, the meringue mixture must be used straight away 
or the egg and sugar will start to separate and the egg white will 
start to turn back into liquid as the air escapes. 
There are three different types of meringue: 
1 Cold meringue (French meringue), used for cakes, sponges and 
pavlovas. 
2 Hot meringue (Swiss meringue), used for piping shells and nests. 
3 Boiled meringue (Italian meringue), used for mousses, ice 
parfaits and lemon meringue. 
Definition 
Stiff peak: when the peaks of 
the whipped egg white stand 
up without falling to one side. 
The final test is to turn the 
bowl upside down to see if 
the white drops out. 
Chef’s tip 
A pinch of salt in the egg white 
helps the whipping process. 
Chef’s tip 
Do not use granulated sugar 
as this will give a coarse 
mixture. 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – Cold meringue 
1 part of egg white to 2 parts of caster sugar 
For example: 
egg white 100g 
caster sugar 200g 
Method 
1 Whisk the egg white in a clean bowl on the highest setting of 
a mixing machine. 
2 Whisk until tripled in size. 
3 Slowly add the sugar in small amounts while the machine is 
still running on full speed. 
4 Turn the machine off once all the sugar has been 
incorporated and use as required. 
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Desserts and puddings 
496 
Video presentation 
Watch Finishing a flan for an 
alternative method of making 
hot meringue. Try out both 
methods and see which you 
prefer. 
Chef’s tip 
Meringues are normally one 
part egg white to two parts 
sugar. Weigh the egg whites 
and double the sugar to get 
the correct amount. 
Chef’s tip 
A pinch of salt or cream of 
tartar helps the whipping 
process by creating a stiff 
meringue and increasing the 
volume. 
The meringue should be well 
aerated and not grainy; this is 
a sign of over whipping. 
Cracked meringues are the 
result of too much moisture, or 
too much egg white to sugar. 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
Hot meringue 
1 part of egg white to 2 parts of caster sugar 
Method 
1 Put the sugar and egg white into a clean mixing bowl that 
will fit onto a machine. Combine using a hand whisk. 
2 Put the bowl onto a bain-marie and whisk until the sugar 
has dissolved. To check this, remove the bowl from the heat 
and dip in a wooden spoon. Remove the wooden spoon and 
rub a finger over the spoon. If the mixture feels gritty, return 
it to the heat and whisk until the sugar has dissolved. 
3 Fit the bowl onto the machine, attach the whisk and whisk on 
the highest setting until the mixture is cold and in a stiff peak. 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
4 Use as required. 
Boiled meringue 
granulated sugar 300g 
water 90ml 
cream of tartar pinch 
egg white 150g 
Method 
1 Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar in a clean 
saucepan. Combine with a metal spoon. 
2 Put the pan on a low heat. Wash the sides of the pan down with 
water and a clean brush (as for caramel for crème caramel). 
3 Bring to the boil. 
4 Boil the sugar mixture to 118°C. Test using a sugar 
thermometer. Do not stir the sugar, just let it boil. 
5 In the meantime, whisk the egg white to a stiff snow using a 
machine on the highest setting. 
6 Once 118°C is reached, remove from the heat and pour 
slowly into the whipped egg white while the machine is still 
running on full speed. Take care not to burn yourself. 
7 Continue whipping until the mixture is cold and forms 
stiff peaks. 
8 Use as required. 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
497 
Chef’s tip 
Undercooking will cause the 
meringues to weep, if not 
used over a period of time. 
Do not store meringue in the 
refrigerator as this will cause 
them to go soft because sugar 
in the meringue will draw in 
moisture from the atmosphere. 
Granulated sugar is used in this type of meringue because it is a 
cleaner type of sugar with fewer impurities than caster sugar. In this 
method the sugar has to be boiled with the water and therefore the 
granulated sugar is more suitable. 
Cream of tartar is found in the juice of grapes, after they have been 
fermented in winemaking. It is classified as an acid, available in the 
form of a powder and used in baking powder. It helps to stabilise 
meringue once it has been whisked. 
Pavlova 
Pavlova is a meringue dish that is soft and chewy inside with a 
crunchy outside. Cornflour and vinegar are added to the meringue. 
Did you know? 
Pavlova was named after 
Anna Pavlova, a Russian 
ballerina. 
Definition 
Chantilly cream: cream 
that has been sweetened, 
flavoured and lightly whipped 
(see Chapter 16 for recipe). 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing – Pavlova 
egg whites 100g 
caster sugar 200g 
vinegar 5ml 
cornflour 5g 
Serves 6–8 
Method 
1 Make meringue as previously described 
(cold meringue, steps 1–4). 
2 Fold in the cornflour and vinegar. 
3 Transfer onto silicone paper and bake at 
a temperature of 140°C for approximately 
two hours. 
4 Cool and decorate with fruit and 
Chantilly cream. 
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498 
Meringue shells, cases, nests and vacherins 
These are all made with Swiss meringue and piped with star or 
plain piping tubes. 
They can be dried on top of the oven overnight or dried in an oven on 
a low heat of about 90°C. This could take four to eight hours. Make 
sure that meringue products are not dried at too hot a temperature 
as they may discolour and lose their characteristic white colour. 
Vacherins can either be large or individual round gateau-type 
meringues filled with fruit and cream and then decorated. 
Milk puddings 
Milk puddings were considered an old-fashioned or more traditional 
pudding. However, they are now becoming more modern by using 
contemporary methods of cooking and presentation, e.g. with the 
use of coconut milk, chocolate and various fruits. 
When cooking milk-based puddings, the mixture should be stirred 
constantly to avoid burning. The grains used should be cooked 
through before serving and not have a bite to them. 
Chef’s tip 
Vanilla extract or a vanilla 
pod can be added to improve 
the flavour. Alternatively, try 
adding lemon zest. 
Did you know? 
Sago and tapioca puddings 
are made in the same way. 
Desserts and puddings 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 1 
Finishing 1 
Semolina pudding 
milk 1 litre 
semolina 90g 
sugar 120g 
butter 30g 
Serves 8–10 
Method 
1 Heat the milk in a saucepan. When it has nearly boiled, 
sprinkle in the semolina, stirring well. 
2 Simmer for 15–20 minutes. 
3 Add the sugar and butter. Stir to dissolve. 
4 Serve immediately or transfer to a serving dish and brown 
under the grill. 
Healthy eating 
Many people suffer from 
allergies to milk and dairy 
products. Make sure your 
customers are aware of any 
potential allergens in the food 
you prepare for them (see 
pages 47, 141 and 142). 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
499 
Did you know? 
French rice pudding is 
enriched with eggs and butter. 
It is baked in a similar way to 
a soufflé. 
Chef’s tip 
Ensure rice is cooked through 
and tender, with a good ratio 
of creamy liquid to rice. 
Preparation 2 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 2 
French rice pudding 
vanilla pod 1 
milk 2 litres 
pudding rice 180g 
butter 75g 
caster sugar 180g 
eggs 5 medium 
icing sugar 25g 
Oven temperature 180°C 
Cooking time 20 minutes 
Serves 10 
Method 
1 Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. 
2 Put the milk into a heavy-based pan. Add the vanilla pod 
and seeds. 
3 Bring the milk to the boil. Remove vanilla pod. 
4 Reduce the heat. Sprinkle the rice into the pan. Stir to stop 
the rice sticking together. 
5 Simmer until the rice is cooked and the milk is thick and 
creamy. 
6 Butter and sugar the individual serving dishes. 
7 Put the remaining butter and sugar in a mixing bowl. 
Cream together. 
8 Separate the eggs. Add the egg yolks to the creamed 
butter/sugar mixture and mix well. Keep the egg whites. 
9 Slowly add the cooked rice to the butter/sugar mixture. Stir 
to prevent the egg yolks curdling. 
10 Whisk together the egg whites until they peak. 
11 Carefully fold the egg white into the rice mixture. 
12 Put the mixture in the serving dishes. 
13 Place the dishes in a bain-marie and bake in the oven. 
14 When cooked, dredge the surface with icing sugar and 
return to the oven for a few minutes to glaze. 
15 Serve immediately. 
See Chapter 13, page 436 for a recipe for Baked rice pudding. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 499 13/09/2010 10:29
Batter-based desserts 
Batter-based desserts can be as simple as a lemon pancake or a 
more classic dish like crêpes suzette. Batter can also be used as a 
light crispy coating used to protect fruit during cooking. 
Pancakes 
Pancakes should be cooked in crêpe pans, which are small flat 
pans which make tossing the pancakes easier. They can also be 
cooked in frying pans but tossing them is a little more difficult. 
Definition 
Crêpes: the French term for 
pancakes. Crêpes need to be 
as thin as possible. 
Figure 15.4 Crêpe pan 
Desserts and puddings 
500 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 1 
Basic pancake batter 
soft flour 240g 
salt a pinch 
milk 565ml 
eggs 2 
melted butter 30g 
Method 
1 Sift the flour and salt together into a bowl. 
2 Add the milk and eggs and whisk together until smooth. 
3 Whisk in the melted butter. 
4 Allow to rest for at least 60 minutes or the pancakes 
will be tough and rubbery. Whisk after resting. 
5 Heat the crêpe pan, add a little vegetable oil (butter 
will burn and make the pancake taste burnt and bitter). 
6 Coat the base of the pan with the hot oil and pour 
off any excess. (Too much oil will not only make the 
pancake greasy, it will also splash back and cause a 
serious burn.) 
7 Fill a small ladle with pancake batter and pour the batter 
into the centre of the pan. Lift the pan and coat the base 
of the pan with the batter ensuring a thin even coat. 
8 Put the pan back onto the heat, and cook the batter. When all 
the liquid has cooked, the pancake is ready to be turned over. 
Lift one edge of the pancake off the pan to check the colour; 
it should be a light golden brown. 
9 To turn the pancake over, use a palette knife to run around 
the edge of the pancake to loosen it and make sure it has not 
stuck to the pan. Slide the palette knife under the pancake 
and turn it over to cook on the other side. 
10 Once cooked, turn onto an overturned plate if the pancake 
is to be served later, or onto a serving dish if being served 
straight away. 
Chef’s tip 
Crêpes should be thin and 
have a good even colour 
on both sides to avoid raw 
patches. If being used later, 
layer the crêpes with sheets of 
silicone paper. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 500 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
501 
Ideas for service: 
Lemon pancakes: prepare and cook pancakes as described, turn 
out onto a plate, sprinkle with caster sugar and fold into four. 
Serve with lemon quarters. 
Jam pancakes: prepare and cook pancakes as described, turn 
out onto a plate, spread a spoon of red jam on each and roll up. 
Sprinkle with caster sugar and serve. 
Apple pancakes: apple pancakes are the same as jam 
pancakes, but with apple purée instead of jam. Refer to fruit-based 
desserts (page 509–510) for making apple purée. 
American-style pancakes 
American-style pancakes are made using a slightly thicker batter 
that has a raising agent added, normally baking powder. Due 
to their thickness the batter needs sweetening, unlike normal 
pancakes that have jam, lemon and sugar etc. 
Try this! 
Find out what faults there 
might be in pancake batters 
and the problems these can 
cause. Find out some possible 
recipes for yeast and pancake 
batters. 
Worksheet 47 
Chef’s tip 
American-style pancakes 
should be light and fluffy and 
cooked through. These are 
better served immediately. 
Investigate! 
What else could be used to 
make the pancake lighter 
in texture? 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 1 
American-style pancakes 
soft flour 135g 
salt 3g 
milk 140ml 
egg 1 large 
baking powder 10g 
caster sugar 50g 
Method 
1 Follow steps 1–4 for basic pancake batter. 
2 Add the baking powder just before cooking the 
pancakes, otherwise the effectiveness of the baking 
powder will be destroyed. 
3 Cook the pancakes on a griddle. Pour the batter 
onto the hot surface about the size of a saucer. Cook and 
turn the pancakes. 
4 Serve with maple syrup, fruit, ice cream, whipped cream or 
any sweet flavourings and accompaniments specified by 
the establishment. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 501 13/09/2010 10:29
Fritters 
Fritters can be either sweet or savoury. Examples of sweet fritters: 
Apple fritters: peel and core apples, slice into four rings and 
keep covered in acidulated water (water with a squeeze of lemon 
juice). Drain well and dip the apple rings into flour and then into 
batter (see recipes below). Place into the deep fat fryer and cook 
on both sides until golden brown. Remove from fryer, drain well 
and coat in either plain or cinnamon sugar. 
Banana fritters: do not prepare the bananas until required as 
they will turn black. Peel and cut the bananas into approximately 
5cm pieces, place into the batter and cook as for apple fritters. 
Can be served with apricot sauce. 
Pineapple fritters: remove the skin from the pineapple, slice into 
rings approximately 1cm thick, remove the core, and proceed as 
for apple fritters. 
The frying batter is used to protect the items being fried, and gives 
them a crunchy texture. 
A raising agent is needed for a frying batter to be light and fluffy. It 
could be whipped egg white, baking powder or yeast. The type of fritter 
and the establishment will determine the type of frying batter used. 
After frying, transfer the cooked product to a colander and allow to drain. 
Serve as per menu requirements. Fritters are best served straight after 
cooking. Leaving them to cool will cause the batter to turn soggy. 
Frying batters 
Healthy eating 
To encourage healthy eating, 
do not coat the fritters 
in sugar. They could be 
sweetened with honey as an 
alternative. 
502 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
Egg white batter 
soft flour 240g 
salt a pinch 
cold water 300ml 
egg whites 2 
Method 
1 Sift the flour and salt together into a bowl. 
2 Gradually add the cold water, whisking well to a smooth batter. 
3 Allow to rest for a minimum of 20 minutes before using. 
4 Whisk the egg whites until they are stiff. 
5 Fold the egg whites into the batter. 
6 Use straight away. 
Chef’s tip 
Batters used for fritters should 
be light and not made too far 
in advance. The fritters should 
be served immediately, or 
the fruit inside will make the 
batter become soggy. 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 502 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
503 
Did you know? 
The vinegar in the batter helps 
to make the batter crispy and 
reacts with the baking powder 
to create carbon dioxide. 
The yellow colouring helps to 
make the batter turn golden 
brown during cooking. 
Remember! 
Test the temperature of the 
fat in the deep fat fryer by 
dropping a small amount of 
batter into the hot oil; it should 
rise to the surface and start to 
cook. Once brown it should 
be crisp but not greasy. 
If the test piece is greasy but 
light in colour, the fat is too 
cold. If it is golden brown but 
raw inside, the fat is too hot. 
Adjust the temperature to suit 
the product. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
Baking powder batter 
soft flour 240g 
salt a pinch 
vinegar 30ml 
yellow colouring 4 drops 
water 280ml 
baking powder 20g 
Method 
1 Sift the flour and salt together in a bowl. Add the vinegar 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
and colouring. 
2 Gradually add the cold water, whisking well to form a 
smooth batter. 
3 Add the baking powder just before cooking and whisk well. 
Yeast batter 
strong flour 240g 
salt a pinch 
fresh yeast 30g 
yellow colouring 4 drops 
water 300ml 
Method 
1 Sift the flour and salt into a bowl. Add the yeast and colouring. 
2 Gradually add the cold water, whisking well to form a 
smooth batter. 
3 Prove for 30–40 minutes before using. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 503 13/09/2010 10:29
504 
Sponge-based desserts 
Sponge-based desserts can be a combination of different products 
or a simple steamed sponge pudding. For more information about 
making sponges, see Chapter 17. 
Steamed sponge pudding 
Steamed sponge pudding is a sponge that is cooked in a steamer; 
it can be served with a variety of toppings and sauces: 
Blackcap pudding has currants on the top. 
Golden sponge pudding has golden syrup on the top. 
Chocolate sponge pudding has chocolate-flavoured sponge and 
is normally served with chocolate sauce. To make it, replace 
50g flour with 50g cocoa powder. 
Jam/marmalade sponge pudding has jam or marmalade on the top. 
Did you know? 
Apricot glaze is made with 
apricot jam, sugar and water. 
It is used to make the surface 
of sweet products shine. 
Apricot jam is used because 
apricots are very low in 
pectin. The glaze does not 
stain or change the colour of 
the final product and does not 
affect the taste. However, if 
the apricot glaze burns it will 
darken and taste bitter. 
Definition 
Pectin: a natural setting agent 
found in fruit. 
Definition 
Dariole moulds: cylindrical 
moulds which are available in 
different sizes. 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills 1 
Finishing – 
Basic sponge pudding 
soft flour 250g 
baking powder 5g 
butter 250g 
caster sugar 250g 
eggs 4 medium 
Serves 10 
Method 
1 Sift the flour and baking powder together into a bowl. 
2 Flour and butter ten individual moulds. 
3 Cream together the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. 
4 Beat in the egg a little at a time. 
5 Add the sifted flour and baking powder. Lightly mix until 
incorporated. Do not over mix. 
6 Use as required. 
All the sponges can be prepared individually or for portioning. 
Use dariole moulds or pudding bowls. The insides of these must be 
buttered and floured. Once they are prepared, do not touch the inside 
as this could cause the cooked pudding to stick to the mould. 
Put the topping at the bottom of the dish and the sponge mixture 
on top. 
Chef’s tip 
As with all sponges, the 
mixture should not be 
overbeaten when adding the 
flour. This will overwork the 
gluten, causing shrinkage and 
not a light, aerated sponge. 
Desserts and puddings 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
505 
Do not over-fill the mould as the sponge will 
expand during cooking. Cover the top of the 
mould with a piece of greased greaseproof paper 
to prevent the steam penetrating the sponge. 
Cooking times will depend on the size of the 
mould, but individual sponges can take up to 
40 minutes, whereas large ones can take up 
to two hours. 
Another popular sponge pudding is Sticky toffee 
pudding, which has soaked dates and is a soft 
sponge. Some recipes include nuts, so customers 
need to be informed in case one of them has a 
nut allergy. 
Eve’s pudding is a sponge and apple dessert. 
The apple is placed in a baking dish and covered 
with a basic sponge. It is then baked and 
normally served with fresh egg custard. 
See pages 509–510 for how to prepare 
the apples. 
Soufflés 
Some people will not even attempt to make a soufflé because they 
are so worried about it rising and then collapsing. A soufflé is an 
easy dessert to make, as long as you follow these simple rules: 
Sponge puddings can be served with a variety of sauces 
and toppings 
Do not over-mix the egg white when folding into the base mix 
(panade). 
Butter and sugar the moulds well. 
Make sure the oven is set at the right temperature. 
Serve immediately. 
There are three ways to make a soufflé: 
Roux method: the roux and beurre manie methods produce a 
heavier, more pudding-like texture but this means the soufflé will 
not collapse so readily. 
Beurre manie method: here the panade is made differently to the 
roux method, but otherwise the ingredients and method are the same. 
Crème patissière method: this is the most popular method used 
in industry as it allows each order to be freshly cooked, therefore 
offering greater flexibility during service. 
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506 
Roux method 
1 Butter and sugar the ramekin dishes. Clean 
off any sugar from the rim of the dish as this 
can cause the mixture to stick to the edge 
which will stop the soufflé rising correctly. 
2 Separate the eggs. 
3 Put the milk in a pan and heat gently. 
4 Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. 
Add both to the milk to infuse. 
5 Add half the sugar to the milk. 
6 Melt the butter in another pan. Add the flour 
and make a roux. 
7 Remove the vanilla pod from the milk. Slowly 
add the hot milk to the roux (as if making a 
white sauce). This makes the panade. 
8 Allow the panade to cool slightly. Add the egg 
yolks one at a time and beat into the panade 
until smooth. 
9 Whisk the egg whites to a peak. Be careful 
not to make them too dry or they will not fold 
into the panade easily. 
You can incorporate different flavourings into a soufflé to 
adapt the different product (see page 508) 
10 Add a quarter of the egg white to the panade, 
and mix. This will loosen the panade and 
make it easier to fold the remaining egg white 
into the mix. 
11 Add the remaining sugar to the remaining 
egg white and whisk. Gently fold this mixture 
into the panade. 
12 Three-quarters fill the ramekins. 
13 Put the dishes into a bain-marie on the stove. 
14 Simmer until the mixture reaches the top 
of the dish then carefully transfer the bain-marie 
into the oven. 
15 Bake in the oven until risen and golden 
brown on the top. 
16 Turn out of the dishes before service. 
17 Dust with icing sugar. 
18 Serve immediately with Crème anglaise (see 
page 516). 
Preparation 3 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing 2 
Vanilla soufflé 
butter 60g, plus extra for 
lining dishes 
caster sugar 60g, plus extra for 
lining dishes 
eggs 5 medium 
vanilla pod 1 
milk 300ml 
plain flour 60g 
Oven temperature 205°C 
Cooking time 7–10 minutes 
Serves 8 using size 1 
ramekin dishes 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 506 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
507 
Preparation X 
Cooking skills X 
Finishing X 
Beurre manie method 
1 Follow steps 1 to 5 from roux method. 
2 Cream the butter in a mixing bowl. 
3 Add the flour. Mix to make the beurre manie. 
4 When the milk is simmering remove the vanilla pod. 
5 Add small amounts of the beurre manie to the hot milk and 
stir. Allow each piece of beurre manie to dissolve before 
adding more. The panade should be smooth and thick. 
6 Continue with steps 8–17 from the roux method. 
Preparation X 
Cooking skills X 
Finishing X 
Crème patissière method 
For the crème patissière base: 
milk 300ml 
vanilla pod 1 
egg yolks 2 medium 
caster sugar 50g 
plain flour (sifted) 40g 
Method 
1 Put the milk in a pan. Split the vanilla pod and remove seeds. 
Add both to the milk. Warm gently to infuse the flavour. 
2 Put the egg yolks and caster sugar in a mixing bowl. Whisk 
together until light and fluffy. 
3 Sift the flour. Add to the egg/sugar mixture and beat until 
smooth. 
4 Bring the milk to the boil. Remove vanilla pod. 
5 Pour the hot milk onto the egg/sugar/flour mixture and mix 
well. 
6 Return the mixture to the pan and cook out until thick and 
smooth. 
7 Transfer to a dish and allow to cool. 
8 Cover with a cartouche, to prevent skinning. 
Chef’s tip 
Soufflés should have a flat 
level top and straight sides. 
This shows good even mixing, 
well prepared moulds and 
correct cooking. 
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Desserts and puddings 
508 
Different flavours can be incorporated into the crème patissière 
base. Try adding 75g of grated chocolate to the milk and allowing it 
to dissolve. For a fruity flavour add the finely grated zest of 2 lemons, 
oranges or limes to the milk and warm gently to infuse the flavour (as 
with vanilla). The milk will separate but this will not affect the base 
when made into the panade. 
When completing the soufflé, flavours can be added before the 
final egg white, i.e. after step 10. For a hazelnut flavour add 120g 
ground hazelnuts. For a coffee flavour add 60g liquid coffee. For an 
almond flavour add 120g ground almonds. For a fruit flavour add 20g 
fruit purée. 
Cooking times and temperatures 
Large soufflés should be baked for 20–25 minutes at a 
temperature of 175°C. 
Individual soufflés should be baked for 7–10 minutes at a 
temperature of 205°C. 
Fruit-based desserts 
Fruit-based desserts can be as simple as a Fresh fruit salad or a 
Rhubarb crumble. All fruit-based desserts have flexibility which can 
be adjusted to suit every establishment. 
Chef’s tip 
Check the bottom of the pan 
before cooking out the crème 
patissière base. If the milk has 
caught, use a clean pan. The 
lactose in the milk can cause 
the crème patissière to burn. 
Preparation X 
Cooking skills X 
Finishing X 
To complete the soufflé 
butter 50g 
caster sugar 75g 
crème patissière base 8 tbsp 
lemon juice 1 
egg yolks 2 medium 
egg whites 8 medium 
Serves 6 using size 1 ramekin dishes 
Method 
1 Butter and sugar 6 ramekin dishes. 
2 Put 8 tbsp of crème patissière base in a mixing bowl. Add 
the lemon juice and egg yolks. 
3 Follow steps 9–17 from roux method. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 508 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
509 
Preparation of fruit 
All fruit should be washed and dried before preparing or eating. 
Apples need to be peeled, cored and quartered. Apples tend to 
turn brown very quickly once peeled. To prevent this, peeled apples 
should be kept in acidulated water. There are hundreds of varieties 
of apples, from the common Granny Smith to pink lady. Each apple 
has its own level of sweetness and crispness. 
Bramley apples are normally used for cooking but eating apples can 
also be cooked. They require less cooking time and less sugar. 
For fruit salad the quarters should be sliced into small pieces. 
Healthy eating 
Some people are allergic to 
certain fruits – most commonly 
red fruits, pineapple and 
kiwi – so you should specify 
exactly which fruits you 
have used in your recipes. 
Remember, cooked fruits are 
generally less likely to cause 
an allergic reaction. 
Healthy eating 
The vitamins and nutrients 
found in apples are just under 
the skin, so use a vegetable 
peeler to remove the peel. To 
increase roughage in people’s 
diets leave the peel on. 
Syrup 
When making fresh fruit salad, keep the pieces of fruit roughly the 
same size. 
Fresh fruit salads normally have a base syrup to stop the fruit 
discolouring after being prepared. Fruit has a natural sugar called 
fructose, so the base syrup does not need to be too sweet, 
however this does depend on the type of fruit being used. 
Place all the fruit together and add sufficient stock syrup to cover 
the fruit. Just before service, peel and slice the bananas and add 
them. Gently stir to mix the fruit and syrup and serve. 
The syrup could be a simple stock syrup or even an unsweetened 
fruit juice. Stock syrup is a mixture of sugar and water, dissolved 
and boiled together. See page 517 for flavours. 
Definition 
Acidulated water: water with 
lemon juice added to it. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 1 
Finishing – 
Stock syrup 
sugar 720g 
water 565ml 
Method 
1 Put the sugar and water into a saucepan. 
2 Boil them and skim off any impurities. 
3 Cool and use as required. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 509 13/09/2010 10:29
510 
Cooking apples should be peeled, cored, quartered and kept in 
acidulated water until ready for cooking. The time of year and 
the variety of apple used will determine whether the apple needs 
additional water and sugar added during cooking. As a rough guide 
only, 1kg of cooking apples needs 125g sugar. After cooking, taste 
the apples and add extra sugar if required, or if too sweet add 
some lemon juice. 
How to cook apples 
1 Put sugar into a saucepan, add the drained apple slices and 
squeeze half a lemon over the top. 
2 Put a tight-fitting lid on and place on the heat to cook. The steam 
created should provide enough liquid to cook the apples. Water 
can be added if necessary. 
3 Test to see if the apple is cooked by tasting a small piece. If 
using the fruit in pieces, it should be soft but still firm. For purée, 
cook slightly longer until there is no bite left. 
4 Remove the fruit from the pan and allow to cool. 
5 To purée the fruit, use a food processor. Purée can also be made 
using a potato masher, but it will not be so smooth. 
Oranges should be peeled and segmented, but the most important 
part is to make sure there is no pith left on the segments. 
How to peel an orange 
1 To peel the orange, top and tail it first, so that you can see how 
thick the skin is. 
2 Run a vegetable knife from the top of the fruit to the bottom, 
judging the correct thickness to remove all the pith and skin. 
3 Once the first slice has been removed it will allow the next piece 
to be removed more easily, as you can then see how much skin 
to remove each time to remove all the pith and skin. Continue 
removing slices round the orange until all the skin and pith has 
been removed. Try to keep the round shape of the orange. 
How to segment an orange 
The orange is then ready to cut into segments which should be free 
from pith, pips or the membrane which divides up the inside of the 
orange. There are two different methods to achieve this: 
Chef’s tip 
When preparing fruit-based 
desserts, fruit must be in prime 
condition with no damage or 
contamination. Fruit is always 
at its best in season, when 
it is more readily available, 
tastes better and is correctly 
ripened. 
Desserts and puddings 
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Types of desserts and puddings 
511 
1 2 3 
Place a container underneath 
the orange. Hold the peeled 
fruit in one hand and run a 
paring knife down towards the 
centre of the fruit just inside the 
segment membrane. 
Once the centre is reached 
push the segment away from 
the centre. 
The segment should come away 
from the membrane on the 
other side. Continue until all the 
segments have been removed. 
Squeeze the remaining pulp to 
remove any juice that remains. 
Method 2 This is similar to method 1, but instead of pushing the 
segment away from the centre, cut the other side of the segment 
away from the membrane too. Method 2 is slightly easier but can 
cause more waste. 
Bananas should not be prepared until required for service. Bananas 
turn brown very quickly and in fruit salad they will go black and spoil 
the presentation of the fruit. Bananas can be coated in lemon juice 
to slow down but not stop the browning process. 
Peel the banana and cut slices about 3mm thick. If using bananas for 
fritters, cut them into three or four depending on the size of the fruit. 
Grapes should be halved and the seed removed. 
Kiwi fruit should be topped and tailed and peeled in the same way 
as oranges. Once peeled, slice and use as required. 
Pears are either red or green and are also available in many 
varieties. Some are suitable for cooking. The normal method of 
cooking pears is poaching. 
Pears can be peeled with a vegetable peeler and cored, then cut 
into quarters and then into smaller pieces to go into fruit salad. 
To poach pears, do not core them until after poaching as this will 
help stop them falling apart. Pears can be poached in stock syrup, 
red wine or even sweet dessert wine. It depends on the dessert 
being produced, but the method of poaching is the same. 
Investigate! 
Find the names of four 
types of pears suitable 
for cooking and a suitable 
recipe for each. 
Worksheet 49 
Method 1 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 511 13/09/2010 10:29
512 
How to poach pears 
1 Peel the pears and keep them covered in acidulated water. 
2 Bring the poaching liquid to the boil and remove from the heat. 
3 Put the pears into the liquid and cover with a cartouche. 
4 Put back onto the heat and simmer gently for 10–25 minutes 
depending on the type of pear and the liquid being used. 
5 The pears will change colour slightly to a translucent pale colour. 
Chef’s tip 
Slightly under ripe pears are 
better for poaching as they 
can be cooked for longer and 
take on more flavour. 
Cook fruits under a cartouche 
to keep them submerged to 
help retain colour. Fruit compote 
Fruit compote is a mixture of stewed fruit which can be made with 
soft fruit, hard fruit and dried fruit. 
Soft fruit should be chosen, washed and covered in hot stock 
syrup. Cool and serve as required. 
Dried fruit should be washed and soaked overnight in cold water. 
Then sugar is added and the fruit is gently cooked in its juice. It is 
cooled and served as required. 
Hard fruit should be washed, prepared, put in a shallow dish and 
covered in stock syrup. Put a cartouche on top and place in the 
oven to stew until the fruit is tender. Allow to cool in the syrup and 
serve as required. 
Fruit crumbles 
Crumbles are a very popular but simple baked dessert. A crumble 
has fruit on the bottom and a topping of butter, flour and sugar. 
Sometimes the fruit is cooked before the crumble topping is placed 
on top. This depends on the type of fruit used. For example, apples, 
rhubarb and gooseberries should be cooked, whereas raspberries, 
blackberries and peaches can be used raw. 
Chef’s tip 
Fruit compotes can be served 
at breakfast or with sweet 
sauces and ice cream. They 
can also be flavoured with 
alcohol. The fruit should retain 
its original colour, so the 
correct preparation method is 
important. 
Try this! 
For more general information 
on fruits, visit www. 
heinemann.co.uk/hotlinks and 
enter the express code 3736P. 
Use a cartouche (a circle of 
greaseproof paper) to keep 
the fruit submerged 
A modern pear belle 
Helene 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 512 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
513 
Investigate! 
Find five ingredients that 
could be used to make the 
crumble topping healthier 
to eat. 
Worksheet 50 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 1 
Finishing – 
Crumble 
flour 450g 
butter 200g 
sugar 200g 
fruit 1.5kg 
Serves 8–10 
Method 
1 Rub all the ingredients together to achieve a sandy 
texture. 
2 Put approx 1.5kg of prepared fruit in an ovenproof dish. 
3 Sprinkle the crumble mixture on top of the fruit. Do not 
press the topping mixture down as this compacts the 
topping and makes it soggy. 
4 Bake in a moderate oven until the fruit is cooked and the 
crumble topping is golden brown. 
Fruit flans 
Apple meringue flan is a simple dessert, but care is still needed to 
produce it well. An apple meringue is a blind-baked sweet paste flan 
(see Chapter 16), three-quarters filled with apple purée and with 
meringue piped on top. 
To finish the flan, sprinkle caster sugar on top and bake in a 
moderate oven until the top is golden brown and the apple is hot. 
When piping the meringue, keep it even and level as any peaks will 
burn during cooking. 
Lemon meringue flan is prepared in exactly the same way as apple 
meringue; just replace the apple with lemon filling. Lemon filling is 
available pre-made or in powdered form, or it can be made from fresh 
ingredients. 
Apple flan is a blind-baked sweet paste flan, three-quarters filled 
with apple purée, topped off with sliced raw apple. Sprinkle with 
sugar and cook in a moderate oven until the apple slices are 
cooked and browned. Coat with apricot glaze. 
Fruit flans are completed differently from apple flans. First the case 
is filled with pastry cream and then fruit is overlapped on top to 
completely cover the pastry cream. It is then coated in apricot glaze 
to protect the fruit from discoloration. 
Chef’s tip 
Fruit crumbles should have a 
fruit to crumble topping ratio 
of approximately 3:1. More 
topping may result in the 
mixture being undercooked, 
giving a raw floury topping. 
The fruit should be cooked 
through and have a crisp 
topping. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 513 13/09/2010 10:29
Preparation 2 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing – 
Pastry cream 
milk 850ml 
vanilla pod 1 (can be replaced with essence or extract) 
egg yolks 8 
sugar 240g 
plain flour 120g 
Method 
1 Put the milk into a saucepan. Split the vanilla pod and put 
seeds into the milk, add the pod and infuse over a low heat. 
2 Put the egg yolks and sugar into a bowl and whisk together 
until light. 
3 Sift the flour and add to the egg mixture. Mix to a smooth paste. 
4 Bring the milk to the boil and remove the pod. 
5 Gradually add the milk to the sugar mix and stir well. 
6 Put the mixture into a clean pan and bring it back to the boil, 
stirring continuously. 
7 Pour into a clean bowl and cover with a cartouche to prevent 
skinning. Allow to cool. 
514 
Video presentation 
Watch Finish a flan to see 
this being produced. You may 
also find Prepare sweet paste 
(rubbing in method); Line 
a flan ring; and Bake blind 
useful. 
Definition 
Slake: a mixture of cornflour 
or custard powder mixed with 
cold liquid. 
Desserts and puddings 
Preparation 2 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing – 
Lemon filling for lemon 
meringue flan 
sugar 120g 
water 150ml 
lemon juice 60g 
cornflour 25g 
butter 30g 
egg yolks 2 
Method 
1 Put the sugar and half the water into a pan over a low heat. 
2 Dissolve the sugar. Add the lemon juice. Bring to the boil. 
3 Dissolve the cornflour in the remaining water to make a 
slake. Add to the water and lemon juice and cook until the 
mixture thickens. 
4 Add the melted butter. 
5 Whisk in the egg yolks. 
6 Remove from the heat. Pour into a cooked flan case and 
allow to cool. 
Chef’s tip 
The pastry should be crisp 
with a good layer of filling 
and an even coloured 
meringue. If under baked, the 
meringue will weep onto the 
filling underneath. 
Chef’s tip 
Pastry cream is more 
commonly known as Crème 
Patissiére by pastry chefs 
Crème patissiére should have 
a smooth creamy texture and 
be well flavoured. 
The following page shows the step-by-step method for making 
Crème patissiére. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 514 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
515 
1 2 3 4 
Combine the dry 
ingredients and egg 
yolks to a smooth 
paste and infuse milk 
with vanilla. 
Pour the infused milk 
slowly onto the paste 
and whisk thoroughly. 
Sweet sauces 
Coulis 
A fruit coulis is made with soft fruit, e.g. strawberries or 
raspberries, and sugar. Icing sugar is normally used as it sweetens 
the fruit and provides a smooth sauce. 
Did you know? 
The word coulis means sifted. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
Fruit coulis 
soft fruit 25g 
icing sugar 50g 
lemon juice 3–4 drops 
Serves approx 4–6 
Method 
1 Wash and dry the fruit. 
2 Liquidise the fruit, icing sugar and lemon juice. 
3 Pass the mixture through a sieve into a clean bowl. 
4 Check the taste. If the coulis is too tart (sour) add 
icing sugar to taste. 
5 Check the consistency. If the coulis is too thick, add a little 
stock syrup (see page 509). 
Pass through a 
chinoise into a clean 
pan and cook out, 
beating constantly. 
Place into a clean 
bowl, then dust with a 
little caster sugar to 
prevent skinning. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 515 13/09/2010 10:29
516 
Custard sauce 
This is sometimes called Crème anglaise. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills 2 
Finishing – 
Custard sauce 
caster sugar 75g 
milk 300ml 
double cream 300ml 
vanilla pod 1 
egg yolks 8 medium 
Makes 750ml 
Method 
1 Put the sugar into a saucepan. 
2 Add the milk and cream. 
3 Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. Add the pod 
and seeds to the milk/cream mixture. 
4 Warm the mixture gently to infuse the flavour. 
5 Whisk the egg yolks together until they are light. 
6 Bring the milk/cream mixture to the boil. 
7 Take off the heat. Remove the vanilla pod. 
8 Pour the hot milk/cream mixture onto the eggs yolks. Mix. 
9 Return the mixture to the pan and reheat until it thickens. 
Do not boil the mixture or it will curdle. 
10 Test the sauce. It should coat the back of a spoon. 
11 Serve immediately. Do not reheat. 
Chef’s tip 
Crème anglaise should be 
smooth and have a pouring 
consistency. Be careful, as a 
grainy texture can be caused 
by overcooking and the egg 
scrambling. 
Chef’s tip 
Any unused sauce can be 
used as a base for ice cream. 
See page 485 for more 
information. 
Cooked fruit sauce 
This sauce could be made using apples, pears or apricots. 
Preparation 1 
Cooking skills – 
Finishing – 
Cooked fruit sauce 
fruit 450g 
caster sugar 100g 
water 150ml 
lemons 1 
Method 
1 Prepare the fruit as required. 
2 Put all the ingredients in a saucepan and simmer until the 
fruit is tender. 
3 Liquidise and push through a sieve. 
4 Check the taste. If the sauce is tart, add more sugar. 
5 Allow to cool. Store in a refrigerator and use as required. 
Chef’s tip 
Fruit sauces should be vibrant 
in colour, smooth and reflect 
the fruit’s natural taste. 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 516 13/09/2010 10:29
Types of desserts and puddings 
517 
Flavoured syrup 
Flavoured syrup can be made by adding flavouring to simple stock 
syrup, see page 509. The thickness of the syrup is determined by 
the sugar content and how much it is reduced. 
Flavour Method When added 
Orange and cinnamon Add orange zest and a cinnamon stick At the cooking stage 
Cinnamon Add a cinnamon stick At the cooking stage 
Vanilla Infuse a vanilla pod Add once the syrup is the correct consistency 
and while it is still hot 
Lemon Add lemon zest At the cooking stage 
Chocolate Add cocoa powder Add at the cooking stage. After cooking, pass 
the syrup through muslin to remove the powder 
Coffee Add strong coffee Once the stock syrup is the right consistency 
Lime Add lime zest At the cooking stage 
Rose Add rose water to taste Once the stock syrup is the right consistency 
Ginger Use the syrup from crystallised ginger Once the stock syrup is the right consistency 
Lavender Add eight spikes of lavender Add at the cooking stage. Allow the syrup to 
cool to infuse the flavour, then strain 
Figure 15.6 Dessert service 
Lime, lemon grass 
and ginger 
Add lemon grass, kaffir lime leaves 
and chopped ginger root 
Add at the cooking stage. Allow the syrup to 
cool to infuse the flavour, then strain 
Mint Add mint leaves Add once the stock syrup is the right 
consistency. Allow to cool to infuse the 
flavour, then strain 
Figure 15.5 Flavourings for stock syrup 
These desserts and puddings are only a small 
sample of the vast selection available, but 
mastering them is the first step to understanding 
how to produce fantastic hot and cold desserts 
and puddings. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 517 13/09/2010 10:29
518 
Finishing and decorating 
techniques for deserts and 
pastries 
This section covers a range of finishing and decorating techniques 
that you can use on desserts and puddings. 
The finish is provided to complement the flavour, texture and colour, 
and to lift the product visually. This can be achieved by using a 
variety of products, from simple dustings to nuts, praline, fruit, 
chocolate and cream. 
When you finish a product, remember that the decoration should 
not overpower the main dish. 
Disposable and Savoy piping 
bags. Disposable bags should not 
be washed and reused and are 
therefore more hygienic 
A selection of plain and star piping 
nozzles, plastic, polycarbonate and 
metal 
Alternative methods of filling a piping bag 
Holding a piping bag Piping a rosette. 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 518 13/09/2010 10:29
Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 
519 
Finishing techniques using fresh cream 
Cream should be used to enhance a product and not dominate, as 
it is very rich. 
Piped cream – for the best results use an appropriate nozzle, plain 
or star, in a clean piping bag. Hold the bag in the hand or over a 
measuring jug and place in the whipped cream. Do not overfill the 
bag. Squeeze out any air, then twist the bag in between thumb and 
finger of the piping hand to create a tight bag. Pipe out practice 
runs onto a clean surface or plate before beginning to decorate the 
product. 
Piped rosettes – hold the piping bag approximately 1cm above the 
product. Using the top hand to squeeze and the bottom hand to 
guide, apply even pressure to pipe in a circular motion, raising the 
bag until the required height is reached. 
Running piping – using the same holding technique, hold the bag at 
approximately 45 degrees to the product, then pipe in a back and 
forth motion to create a pearl type effect. 
Using the same technique again, this time use a spiral motion 
working towards you in a clockwise direction. This can also be 
contrasted by working the next row anticlockwise. 
Quenelle – this is an oval shape achieved by either working the 
whipped cream in-between two spoons which have been dipped in 
hot water, or dragging a warmed spoon across the surface of the 
cream allowing the cream to roll. 
Dragging a spoon to form a quenelle The finished quenelle 
Running piping finish 
Spiral piping finish 
A selection of cream finishes 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 519 13/09/2010 10:29
520 
Finishing and decorating techniques 
using chocolate 
Chocolate can be used in many ways to finish off or enhance a 
dessert. You can use several different techniques, such as 
piping working on acetate 
piped motifs transfer sheets 
run outs cut outs. 
In order to carry out the above techniques you need to be aware of 
the following types of and methods of working with chocolate. 
The two main types of chocolate used are Bakers/compound 
chocolate. which does not require tempering or, for a better flavour 
and finish, Couverture chocolate, which needs to be tempered 
before use. 
Bakers/compound chocolate is not really a chocolate; it is a 
combination of cocoa, vegetable fats and sweeteners and is used 
mainly for coating purposes. 
Couverture is a combination of cocoa, cocoa butter (minimum 32%), 
sugar and milk powder (milk chocolate). It is a far superior product 
but does require more skill to work with. 
Before these techniques can be carried out, all equipment must be 
to hand (mise en place), clean and dry. Do not attempt to begin the 
task before you are ready. Working on a cool, clean, dry surface is 
important. 
Tempering is the process which gives chocolate three main 
characteristics: 
shine – high gloss mirror-like finish 
snap – good tempering gives a strength to the chocolate which 
gives a sharp snap when broken 
retraction – chocolate comes away from a surface due to 
shrinkage. 
Couverture is available in pellet and block form and is already 
tempered in its delivered state. However, overheating will break the 
temper and so the chocolate will need to be retempered. 
To carry out large scale tempering, other methods are implemented 
(covered at L3). However, for small amounts, the following methods 
are adequate. 
Chef’s tip 
In order to finish desserts with 
piped cream, the cream must 
be tightly whipped to give 
clean defined edges. Always 
use a good quality nozzle. 
Piping is a skill that must be 
practised. Make up some 
instant potato and practise on 
an area. Keep scraping up 
the mixture and reusing. 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 520 13/09/2010 10:29
Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 
521 
Microwave 
In a heatproof bowl place finely chopped couverture or 
couverture buttons. 
Place in the microwave on high heat for approx 40 seconds. 
Remove and stir – the buttons should just be starting to soften. 
Return to the microwave and repeat but reduce the time to 
around 10–15 seconds. 
Remove and stir – look for a mixture where half the buttons have 
melted and half are still visible. 
Beat thoroughly until all buttons have melted, using the heat in 
the couverture to do this. 
If required, place back into the microwave for short 5 second 
bursts and keep beating until smooth and glossy – do not be 
tempted to leave too long as this will break the temper. 
Test by placing on the back of a pallet knife. Place in a cool area 
for around 15 minutes. If the chocolate is tempered it will come 
clean away from the pallet knife. 
Piping 
This can be done by using a chocolate 
ganache, a combination of chocolate and 
cream, using an appropriate nozzle and 
bag and piping directly onto a product 
e.g. an Easter egg, biscuits or gateau, in 
an attractive decoration. Do not be tempted 
to pipe too much decoration: the piping 
should just be used to enhance the product. 
Piped motifs 
These are usually done using a paper cone 
and can be anything from ‘Happy Birthday’ 
or a logo (maybe a hotel’s name). This 
technique should be practised beforehand, 
as the piping is usually done straight onto a 
product, e.g. a gateau. 
These decorative pieces have been created using transfer 
sheets (see pages 522–3) 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 521 13/09/2010 10:29
522 
Chef’s tip 
Do not overfill the paper 
cone with chocolate. Also, 
have several cones made in 
advance. 
A small amount of stock 
syrup/alcohol can be added 
to the chocolate to slightly 
stiffen the mixture and give a 
high gloss shine. 
Run outs 
Run outs are a more abstract type of decoration used for decorating 
desserts and gateaux. To ensure even-sized decoration, draw 
parallel lines onto silicone paper, turn the paper over and, using a 
paper cone, pipe your decoration using the lines as a guide. 
Various designs of chocolate run 
out. Note the guide lines to ensure 
even sizing. 
Run outs are often used to decorate 
gateaux 
Acetate 
This is a clear plastic sheet. The chocolate is evenly spread out and 
allowed to set, then cut out or broken. This gives a high gloss shine 
to the finish. 
Transfer sheets 
These are pre-made sheets of plastic with printed, coloured cocoa 
butter designs. The sheets are spread evenly with tempered 
chocolate and allowed to set and can then be broken into abstract 
shapes or cut out. Tempered chocolate can also be dragged onto a 
sheet to give a petal effect. 
Cut outs 
After coating the transfer sheets, allow the chocolate to set to just 
touch dry, then the chocolate can be cut freehand into shape, e.g. 
triangles, wavy lines etc. Alternatively, cutters such as fluted or 
plain pastry cutters can be used. 
Chef’s tip 
Once the chocolate has 
begun to set on the sheet, 
cut shapes and turn the sheet 
over onto a flat surface. This 
prevents the chocolate curling 
and keeps the product flat. 
Always try to work with 
chocolate in a cool (15– 
16°C) draught free room. 
Chocolate should not be 
stored in a fridge but in an 
airtight container in a cool 
dark place. 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 522 13/09/2010 10:30
Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 
523 
Drag tempered chocolate onto the 
transfer sheet or acetate on the 
edge of a table 
Once set, remove carefully – try to 
avoid touching with fingers 
Place an amount of tempered 
chocolate onto the transfer sheet 
Place into a curved container or half 
pipe 
Spread evening in a single smooth 
motion, trying to avoid going back 
and forth 
A completed decorative piece, using 
transfer sheets and run outs 
Using transfer sheets 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 523 13/09/2010 10:30
524 
Other techniques 
Dusting with icing sugar or cocoa powder from a fine sieve or 
muslin cloth lifts the presentation from the plate. Ground dried 
fruits can also be used. 
Dusting with icing sugar through a 
fine sieve 
Decorating with cocoa through a 
muslin bag 
Praline is a combination of caramel and toasted skinned hazelnuts 
mixed together, allowed to set and finally ground into a powder. 
Other nuts can also be used. 
Nuts can be used in various ways from being skinned and left 
whole to being finely chopped or powdered. Use a single type, such 
as pistachio, or a combination. 
Using praline to add texture, colour 
and flavour 
Using nuts as garnish Using chopped pistachios to add 
texture, colour and flavour 
Desserts and puddings 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 524 13/09/2010 10:30
Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 
525 
Fruits are also used; they should always be used in season for 
best flavour and price and they should complement the dish they 
are served with, e.g. sharp fruits, such as raspberries, work well 
with sweet white chocolate. Tossing the fruit in some coulis or icing 
sugar will give an extra glaze or shine. 
Step-by-step creation of a fruit finish. Always try to use fruits that are in season and which complement the dish 
Decoration of desserts may use fresh fruit, fresh cream, chocolate, sauces, dusting, or any combination of these 
methods 
Step-by-step decoration of a gateaux. Remember, the decoration must not overpower the finished product – less is 
more 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 525 13/09/2010 10:30
Desserts and puddings 
526 
Test yourself! 
1 What setting agent is used in mousse? 2 What is a sorbetière? 
3 True or false? It is safe to re-freeze melted 
ice cream. 
5 How would you prepare the following for a 
fruit salad: 
a bananas 
b kiwi 
c grapes 
d apples. 
7 What ingredients do you need to make 
rhubarb crumble? 
9 Name three suitable finishes for a cold 
dessert dish. 
Practice assignment tasks 
4 Why does milk boil over? 
6 How can you reduce the risk of overheating 
the custard mix when making an egg 
custard-based dessert? 
8 At what temperature should you store 
ice cream? 
10 What is a cartouche and what is it used 
for? 
Prepare and cook desserts and puddings 
Task 1 
You have been selected to represent your restaurant at a local competition. You need to produce 
a trio of desserts (including hot desserts and cold desserts). 
Design two desserts, one hot and one cold, which could be served in a trio of desserts, e.g. hot 
dark chocolate mousse, white chocolate ice cream and milk chocolate mousse. 
Task 2 
Complete a report on how eggs are used in the production of cooked desserts and puddings. 
Task 3 
Research how desserts and puddings can be adapted to be healthier options and complete a 
summary of your findings. Include four examples of adapted recipes. 
Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 526 13/09/2010 10:30

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DESSERTS

  • 1. Desserts and puddings 15 This chapter covers the following outcomes from Diploma unit 213: Produce hot and cold desserts and puddings Outcome 213.1 Prepare and cook cold desserts Outcome 213.2 Finish cold desserts Outcome 213.3 Prepare and cook hot desserts and puddings Outcome 213.4 Finish hot desserts and puddings Working through this chapter could also provide the opportunity to practise the following Functional Skills at Level 2: Functional Maths Analysing – recognise and use 2D representations of 3D objects; find area, perimeter and volume of common shapes In this chapter you will learn how to: Identify different types of hot and cold desserts Identify the main ingredients and their quality points and quantities Prepare hot and cold desserts and puddings Cook hot desserts and puddings Check, finish and decorate cooked desserts and puddings Identify the temperature for the cooking, holding, service and storage of finished desserts and puddings You will learn to make basic desserts and puddings including: ice cream vanilla mousse panna cotta crème caramel pavlova American-style pancakes fruit crumble. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 483 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 2. 484 Types of desserts and puddings Desserts and puddings all have one thing in common – most people love them. The art of making desserts and puddings can be learnt by everyone, but some chefs have a particular passion for creating them. Basic hot and cold desserts and puddings include: Ice creams: made from milk, cream, sugar, eggs and flavouring, then churned in an ice-cream maker to achieve a smooth texture and consistency. Ice cream is available in many different flavours. Mousses: cold desserts such as chocolate or fruit mousse, generally light and airy in texture, often held together with a setting agent such as gelatine. Egg-based desserts: can be served hot or cold. Cold desserts include crème brûlée, crème caramel and baked egg custard. Hot desserts include bread and butter pudding and cabinet pudding. Egg-based desserts also include meringues. Batter-based desserts: these are usually fried, e.g. pancakes and fritters. Milk puddings: can be served hot or cold. They may have fruit added. Examples include semolina and rice pudding. Sponge-based desserts: these include steamed sponges and bakewell tart. Fruit-based desserts: these include fruit flans, Eve’s pudding, fruit crumble and summer puddings. Ice cream Ice cream is normally made using a sorbetière (ice-cream maker). It can be made using a normal household freezer, but the ice cream will not be such good quality. A sorbetière slowly churns and freezes the ice-cream mixture. As the mixture freezes ice crystals are produced. These are kept small by the churning action. Small ice crystals mean high-quality ice cream with a smooth texture. Freezing the ice-cream mixture in a normal freezer produces larger ice crystals so the texture is not so smooth. Ice cream is generally made using high-risk products so it must be stored below –22°C. This temperature makes the ice cream hard to serve. Remove ice cream from the freezer and place it in the fridge before service to make it easier to serve. Top marks! If making individual items make sure each mould/dish is the same size. Try this! Draw a size chart to guide you on the correct sizes for all items. Top marks! Ensure there are sufficient garnishes for each portion but do not over/under garnish – sometime less is more! Remember! Melted ice cream must not be re-frozen. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 484 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 3. Types of desserts and puddings 485 Definition Infuse: to soak something in liquid so that the liquid will take on its flavour. Chef’s tip If the pan has any burnt milk left on it, use a clean pan. Chef’s tip To stop the milk burning, sprinkle some of the sugar from the recipe onto the bottom of the saucepan, then add the milk but do not stir. The sugar on the base of the pan will protect the lactose and stop the milk from burning before it boils. Chef’s tip Ice cream should not be grainy. It should be smooth without large ice crystals. This is achieved by quick freezing. Preparation 1 Cooking skills 3 Finishing 2 Vanilla ice cream milk 1 litre vanilla pod ½ egg yolks 5 caster sugar 375g double cream 500ml Method 1 Put the milk into a pan and warm it. 2 Split the vanilla pod and scrape out the seeds. Put the pod into the warm milk to infuse. 3 Put the egg yolks and sugar into a bowl and whisk together until light and fluffy. 4 Bring the milk to the boil and add to egg mixture. Mix with a spatula. 5 Put the mixture back into the saucepan. 6 Cook the mixture over a gentle heat until the mixture coats the back of the spatula. To test, stir the mixture well, take out the spatula and draw a spoon through the mixture. The mixture should not rejoin quickly. 7 Strain through a conical strainer and allow to cool. 8 When the mixture is completely cool, add the cream and freeze. To freeze in a sorbetière: transfer the mixture into the sorbetière, churn and freeze. Once the mixture has doubled in volume and is firm, transfer it to a clean container, cover and store in the freezer until required for service. To freeze in a freezer: cover and put into the freezer. Stir every 30 minutes until firm. Freeze until ready for service. This basic recipe can be used for many different flavours, by removing the vanilla pod and substituting other ingredients: Chocolate: added to the milk before boiling. Fruit: puréed and added after the double cream. Dried fruits or nuts: added just before the final freezing stage. Alcohol: added after the double cream. There are many different-flavoured ice creams available commercially. Some establishments buy these in because they lack suitable equipment or qualified staff to make home-made ice cream. It may also make compiling and costing menus more effective. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 485 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 4. Desserts and puddings 486 Mousse Mousse is light in texture and is normally served chilled. Gelatine Mousse is set using gelatine. Too little gelatine and the mousse will not set, too much gelatine and the mousse will set too hard and the texture will be tough. Gelatine comes in either powder or leaf form. Leaf gelatine is a more expensive form of gelatine but is a superior product. Gelatine needs to be soaked in cold water before use. The best way to soak powdered gelatine is to measure the correct amount of water and sprinkle the powder onto the water and allow it to sponge. Leaf gelatine turns into a jellied mass when soaked in water. The remaining water is thrown away and the jellied mass squeezed to remove as much excess water as possible. Gelatine is made from beef bones and therefore not suitable for vegetarians. A setting agent suitable for vegetarians and vegans is made from seaweed and is known as agar agar; it is usually available in flake form. It has weaker setting properties than gelatine. It must be used in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. Chef’s tip Do not overcook the mixture for ice cream, bavarois or mousse or it will curdle and will have to be thrown away. Too much heat will cause the egg to cook and separate from the milk. Small pieces of egg will be evident in the milk and it will not thicken. Figure 15.1 Gelatine – leaf and powdered Figure 15.2 Agar agar Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 486 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 5. Types of desserts and puddings 487 Vanilla mousse leaf gelatine 40g cold water for soaking gelatine caster sugar 150g egg yolks 6 milk 400ml vanilla pod 1 double cream 700ml granulated sugar 150g egg whites 6 Serves 8–10 Method 1 Soak the leaf gelatine in cold water. 2 Cream together the caster sugar, egg yolks and a little milk. 3 Put the remaining milk into a pan. Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. This type of mousse can be flavoured with coffee and/or chocolate. To make coffee mousse, replace the vanilla pod with instant coffee to taste and colour. To make chocolate mousse, replace the vanilla pod with 100g grated chocolate. Add it to the milk before boiling. Chef’s tip Mousse should be light and aerated. Ensure cream is evenly mixed without any visible streaks. Preparation 3 Cooking skills – Finishing 3 Put the pod into the remaining milk. 4 Bring the milk to the boil and infuse the vanilla pod. 5 Bring the milk to the boil again and add to egg mixture. Mix with a spatula. 6 Put the mixture back into the saucepan. 7 Cook the mixture over a gentle heat until the mixture coats the back of the spatula. To test, stir the mixture well, take out the spatula and draw a spoon through the mixture. The mixture should not rejoin quickly. 8 Squeeze the water out of the soaked gelatine and add the gelatine to the hot mix. Dissolve the gelatine completely. 9 Strain the mixture through a fine-meshed conical strainer and allow to cool. 10 Whisk the double cream until it just peaks and put it into the fridge. 11 Put the granulated sugar into a pan and just cover with water. Bring to the boil and skim to remove any impurities. Cook the sugar until it reaches 120°C. 12 While the sugar is cooking, whisk the egg whites until they peak and slowly pour in the hot sugar. Continue whisking until the meringue is firm. 13 Fold the whipped cream into the cold mousse base and then fold in the meringue. 14 Pour the mix into serving dishes or moulds and place in the fridge to set. 15 When set, decorate with rosettes of whipped cream and any other garnish as directed by the establishment. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 487 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 6. How to create rosettes 1 Whip cream until stiff. 2 Transfer into a savoury piping bag with a medium five-star piping tube. 3 Pipe the rosettes directly onto the mousse. 4 Keep the piping bag upright when piping. Bavarois 488 Figure 15.3 Creating a rosette Did you know? Vanilla is a flavouring agent. Vanilla pods grow in the shape of long black sticks and are found on a climbing plant that belongs to the orchid family, native to Central America but nowadays also grown in Madagascar. For more information about vanilla visit www.heinemann. co.uk/hotlinks and enter the express code 3736P. Preparation 4 Cooking skills – Finishing 2 Vanilla bavarois gelatine 3 leaves caster sugar 50g eggs 2 milk 250ml vanilla essence to taste double cream 240ml Makes 6 × 6cm mousse ring Method 1 Put the gelatine in a bowl and soak it in cold water. 2 Separate the egg yolks and egg whites. 3 Put the sugar and egg yolks into another bowl. Whisk them together. 4 Put the milk and vanilla essence into a pan and boil them. 5 Pour the hot milk over the sugar and egg mixture and mix. 6 Get a clean bowl and a conical strainer. 7 Pour the mixture into a clean saucepan. 8 Return to the heat and stir gently using a wooden spoon. 9 Once the mixture starts to thicken, remove from the heat and pour through the strainer into the clean bowl. Do not boil. 10 Take the soaked gelatine out of the water and squeeze out the excess water. 11 Gently stir it into the warm mixture until fully dissolved. 12 Allow the mixture to cool down. 13 While the mixture is cooling, half whip the double cream until it starts to thicken. 14 Once the egg mixture starts to set, gently fold in the whipped cream. 15 Whip the egg whites to a stiff snow (until the egg white peaks and the peaks do not drop to one side) and gently fold in. 16 Fill moulds as required and store in the fridge until ready for service. Chef’s tip Bavarois should be light and just set. Too much gelatine will lead to a rubbery texture and too little means it will not hold its shape. Gelatine is available in powder and leaf form. Most pastry chefs tend to use leaf, which has to be softened in cold water before being added to a hot liquid. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 488 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 7. Types of desserts and puddings 489 To make chocolate bavarois, add 50g dark chocolate to the milk before boiling. To make coffee bavarois, add 10g instant coffee powder to the milk before boiling. To make fruit bavarois, make the base recipe with only 125ml milk and add 125g fruit purée after the gelatine has been added. Serve with fruit coulis, page 515. Panna cotta Panna cotta is an Italian vanilla mousse made without eggs, that has the consistency of jelly. ‘Panna cotta’ means ‘cooked cream’. Did you know? Panna cotta only needs to be cooled on ice before filling the moulds if vanilla pods have been used. Vanilla seeds are heavier than cream and milk. If the panna cotta is put into the moulds while still hot, the vanilla seeds will sink to the bottom and the flavour will be concentrated at the base. Cooling the panna cotta on ice will distribute the vanilla seeds evenly. Chef’s tip Wash the used vanilla skin under cold water to remove any dairy products, dry the skin on top of the oven and mix with caster sugar to produce vanilla-flavoured sugar. Chef’s tip Panna cotta should be light and just set. Too much gelatine will lead to a rubbery texture and too little means it will not hold its shape. Preparation 3 Cooking skills – Finishing – Panna cotta gelatine 2 leaves vanilla pod ½ double cream 380ml milk 130ml caster sugar 60g Serves 8 Method 1 Soak the gelatine in cold water. 2 Cut the vanilla pod lengthways and scrape out the seeds with the back of a knife. 3 Boil the cream, milk, vanilla seeds and vanilla skin. 4 Put the sugar into a clean bowl. Pour the hot vanilla cream through a strainer over the sugar. 5 Mix together using a whisk. 6 Cool down over a bowl of ice and fill eight small dariole moulds just before setting. 7 Serve with fresh fruits, fruit compote or fruit sauces. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 489 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 8. Desserts and puddings 490 Fruit mousse Egg-based desserts Many egg-based desserts combine milk or cream, eggs, sugar and flavouring. The egg mix cooks and sets the liquid content. Any egg custard mixture needs enough eggs to set the liquid (milk or cream). Cream gives a much richer texture, but costs more. Excess heat while cooking egg custard dishes will result in the egg and liquid separating – known as ‘curdling’. Overcooking the custard mix will leave a clear liquid on the surface of the cooked product. Chef’s tip Try to use seasonal fruits and adjust the sugar according to the fruit, e.g. less for strawberries than for rhubarb. Chef’s tip The lemon juice will enhance the flavour of the fruit purée. Try this! How many desserts do you know which are made using from egg custard? What are the main ingredients of egg custard? Why is a bain-marie used? Worksheet 46 Preparation 3 Cooking skills – Finishing 2 Fruit mousse gelatine 4 leaves fruit purée 250g juice of a lemon 1 caster sugar 80g double cream 250ml egg whites 2 Serves 6 Method 1 Soak the gelatine in cold water. 2 Put the fruit purée, lemon juice and sugar into a bowl and whisk together. 3 Put the double cream into another bowl and half whip it until it thickens slightly. 4 Take the soaked gelatine out of the water, squeeze out the excess water and put the gelatine into a clean saucepan. 5 Add 3 tbsps of the fruit purée and dissolve the gelatine over a moderate heat. 6 Put the rest of the fruit purée into a bowl. Whisk the gelatine mixture into the fruit purée. 7 Whip the egg whites until stiff. 8 Just before the fruit mixture starts to set, fold in the whipped cream and egg white. 9 Fill 6cm mousse rings and chill until set. 10 Store in the fridge until ready for service. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 490 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 9. Types of desserts and puddings 491 Did you know? Nutmeg is the dried seed of a fruit from an evergreen tree grown in South-east Asia. It is available either whole or in powdered form. Whole nutmeg is grated very finely to extract the spice. Did you know? This mixture can also be cooked inside a blind-baked sweet pastry case. See Chapter 15. Chef’s tip Egg-based desserts should be smooth in texture, just set and cooked gently so the egg doesn’t scramble and overcook, leaving a grainy texture with pockets of air. Too much heat will also lead the sugar in the custard mix to produce bubbles throughout the mixture. To reduce the risk of overheating the custard mix, most egg custard-based desserts are cooked in a bain-marie. Preparation 1 Cooking skills 2 Finishing – Egg custard eggs 6 granulated sugar 150g milk 565ml vanilla pod 1 nutmeg, grated to taste Serves 6–8 Method 1 Put the eggs and sugar into a bowl. Whisk to mix, but do not incorporate air as this will affect the final product. 2 Put the milk into a saucepan. Split the vanilla pod and put the seeds into the milk. Warm the milk to infuse the flavour. Do not boil. 3 Pour the hot milk onto the egg and sugar mixture. Whisk to mix but do not make frothy. 4 Strain through a conical strainer. 5 Transfer to a buttered dish and grate nutmeg onto the surface. 6 Cook in a bain-marie for approximately 30 to 35 minutes at 200°C. 7 Once cooked allow to cool. Store in the fridge until required for service. Queen of puddings is another egg custard-based dessert with added raspberry jam and cake crumbs. It is finished with crossed meringue and then each space is filled alternately with apricot and raspberry jam. It is a very sweet, very decorative dessert. The egg custard mix can also be flavoured with lemon zest. Cabinet pudding is egg custard with mixed dried fruits and sponge, served with sauce anglaise. Marcus says With a hot dessert, such as an egg custard tart, use fresh free range eggs for maximum colour, flavour and silkiness. When making egg custard tart, remember to pour the egg mixture into the tart whilst it is still in the oven – this allows you to fill right to the top without having to carry it! Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 491 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 10. Desserts and puddings 492 Diplomat pudding is a Cabinet pudding served cold, turned out of its cooking dish and decorated with whipped cream. Bread and butter pudding With the addition of sliced bread, sultanas and butter, another very popular dessert can be made. Definition Brioche: yeast dough that has been enriched with eggs and butter. It is similar to croissants. Preparation 2 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 2 Bread and butter pudding eggs 6 medium granulated sugar 150g milk 500ml vanilla pod 1 sultanas 100g white bread 250g (approx 7 slices) butter 100g Cooking time 30–35 minutes Oven temperature 190°C Serves 6 Method 1 Make the egg custard as normal. 2 Butter and sugar a pie dish. 3 Wash and dry the sultanas. 4 Butter the bread and cut each slice into four triangles. (The crusts can be removed if required.) 5 Layer the pie dish with alternate layers of buttered bread and sultanas. Finish with a layer of buttered bread. Do not use any sultanas on the top layer as they will burn during cooking and taste bitter. 6 Pass the egg custard through a conical strainer onto the bread. Allow the bread to soak up the egg custard mixture for at least 30 minutes. 7 Place the dish into a deep tray. Half fill the tray to make a bain-marie. 8 Bake the pudding until set and golden brown. Serve hot. A modern twist on this classic dessert is to replace the milk with cream and glaze the top with sugar after cooking to give a crisp sweet topping. Another twist is to use brioche instead of normal sandwich bread. By adding melted chocolate or chocolate powder to the egg custard mixture you can create a chocolate bread and butter pudding. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 492 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 11. Types of desserts and puddings 493 Did you know? The reason for washing down the side of the pan when boiling sugar is to stop the liquid sugar from crystallising. Chef’s tip Put a clean unused cleaning cloth into the bottom of the bain-marie before you put the moulds in. This prevents the base of the moulds getting too hot. Preparation 2 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 1 Crème caramel For the egg custard: milk 850ml sugar 90g eggs 6 vanilla essence to taste For the caramel: sugar 180g water 90ml and 20ml Oven temperature 140–150°C Cooking time 30–40 minutes Serves 6 Method 1 Make the egg custard as normal. 2 Make a caramel by mixing the sugar and 90ml of water in a heavy-bottomed saucepan. 3 Dissolve the sugar and bring it to the boil. Skim. 4 With a clean pastry brush and some clean water, wash down the inside of the saucepan to remove any sugar crystals from the edge. Continue washing down throughout the boiling process. 5 Cook the sugar until an amber colour has been achieved, approx. 15–20 minutes. 6 Add the 20ml of water. This will stop the cooking process and thin down the sugar to produce a caramel sauce. 7 Pour the caramel into some greased moulds and allow to set. The caramel will set more quickly if the moulds are put into cold water. 8 Strain the egg custard mix onto the caramel. 9 Transfer the moulds into a bain-marie. 10 Cook in the oven until the custard is set. 11 When cooked remove from the bain-marie and allow to cool. 12 When completely cold remove from the moulds and serve. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 493 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 12. 494 How to remove the Crème caramel from the moulds 1 Tilt the mould onto its side at 90° and loosen the edge of the custard from the mould. Continue all the way round. 2 Turn the mould upside down onto a serving plate, hold the plate and the mould and shake to loosen. 3 Remove the mould. 4 Any remaining caramel should be poured over the custard. Crème brûlée Crème brûlée translates as burnt cream, which indicates how the dessert is finished prior to service. Crème brûlée can be served hot or cold. Remember! The caramel should be rich and amber in colour, the surface of the cream should be smooth and not full of bubbles. The cream should stand proud and not dipped in the middle. Chef’s tip Make sure the salamander has been pre-heated or the sugar will take a long time to brown and the custard mix will overheat and curdle. Chef’s tip Brûlées can also be caramelised using a blow torch, but keep the flame moving so an even glaze can be achieved. Preparation 2 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 2 Crème brûlée egg yolks 10 eggs 2 caster sugar 150g double cream 1000ml vanilla pod 1 demerara sugar for topping Oven temperature 140–150°C Cooking time 30–40 minutes Serves 8–10 Method 1 Make the custard as for egg custard. Then poach the custard in a bain-marie as for crème caramels. 2 Once set, sprinkle an even coating of demerara sugar onto the surface. 3 Glaze the sugar to a light brown colour under a salamander. 4 Once glazed, serve. Brûlée can be caramelised using a blow torch or a salamander Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 494 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 13. Types of desserts and puddings 495 Meringues A meringue is a mixture of whipped egg whites and sugar. Usually, caster sugar is used as the grains are much smaller and more easily suspended in the bubbles of the whipped egg white. When making hot or cold meringue, there are a few basic rules that must be followed: All whipping equipment must be free from grease. Plastic bowls are not recommended; use either stainless steel or glass, as these can be scalded with very hot water to remove the grease. If you dry the bowl, use clean disposable tissue, not a cloth. A cloth could transfer grease to the surface of the equipment. The easiest way to make meringue is by machine. However, if making by hand, use a stainless steel balloon whisk. This type of whisk allows more air to be incorporated quickly. Egg yolks consist mainly of fat and if any traces of yolk are present in the egg white, it will prevent the egg white whipping to a stiff peak. Once made, the meringue mixture must be used straight away or the egg and sugar will start to separate and the egg white will start to turn back into liquid as the air escapes. There are three different types of meringue: 1 Cold meringue (French meringue), used for cakes, sponges and pavlovas. 2 Hot meringue (Swiss meringue), used for piping shells and nests. 3 Boiled meringue (Italian meringue), used for mousses, ice parfaits and lemon meringue. Definition Stiff peak: when the peaks of the whipped egg white stand up without falling to one side. The final test is to turn the bowl upside down to see if the white drops out. Chef’s tip A pinch of salt in the egg white helps the whipping process. Chef’s tip Do not use granulated sugar as this will give a coarse mixture. Preparation 3 Cooking skills – Finishing – Cold meringue 1 part of egg white to 2 parts of caster sugar For example: egg white 100g caster sugar 200g Method 1 Whisk the egg white in a clean bowl on the highest setting of a mixing machine. 2 Whisk until tripled in size. 3 Slowly add the sugar in small amounts while the machine is still running on full speed. 4 Turn the machine off once all the sugar has been incorporated and use as required. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 495 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 14. Desserts and puddings 496 Video presentation Watch Finishing a flan for an alternative method of making hot meringue. Try out both methods and see which you prefer. Chef’s tip Meringues are normally one part egg white to two parts sugar. Weigh the egg whites and double the sugar to get the correct amount. Chef’s tip A pinch of salt or cream of tartar helps the whipping process by creating a stiff meringue and increasing the volume. The meringue should be well aerated and not grainy; this is a sign of over whipping. Cracked meringues are the result of too much moisture, or too much egg white to sugar. Preparation 3 Cooking skills – Finishing – Hot meringue 1 part of egg white to 2 parts of caster sugar Method 1 Put the sugar and egg white into a clean mixing bowl that will fit onto a machine. Combine using a hand whisk. 2 Put the bowl onto a bain-marie and whisk until the sugar has dissolved. To check this, remove the bowl from the heat and dip in a wooden spoon. Remove the wooden spoon and rub a finger over the spoon. If the mixture feels gritty, return it to the heat and whisk until the sugar has dissolved. 3 Fit the bowl onto the machine, attach the whisk and whisk on the highest setting until the mixture is cold and in a stiff peak. Preparation 3 Cooking skills – Finishing – 4 Use as required. Boiled meringue granulated sugar 300g water 90ml cream of tartar pinch egg white 150g Method 1 Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar in a clean saucepan. Combine with a metal spoon. 2 Put the pan on a low heat. Wash the sides of the pan down with water and a clean brush (as for caramel for crème caramel). 3 Bring to the boil. 4 Boil the sugar mixture to 118°C. Test using a sugar thermometer. Do not stir the sugar, just let it boil. 5 In the meantime, whisk the egg white to a stiff snow using a machine on the highest setting. 6 Once 118°C is reached, remove from the heat and pour slowly into the whipped egg white while the machine is still running on full speed. Take care not to burn yourself. 7 Continue whipping until the mixture is cold and forms stiff peaks. 8 Use as required. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 496 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 15. Types of desserts and puddings 497 Chef’s tip Undercooking will cause the meringues to weep, if not used over a period of time. Do not store meringue in the refrigerator as this will cause them to go soft because sugar in the meringue will draw in moisture from the atmosphere. Granulated sugar is used in this type of meringue because it is a cleaner type of sugar with fewer impurities than caster sugar. In this method the sugar has to be boiled with the water and therefore the granulated sugar is more suitable. Cream of tartar is found in the juice of grapes, after they have been fermented in winemaking. It is classified as an acid, available in the form of a powder and used in baking powder. It helps to stabilise meringue once it has been whisked. Pavlova Pavlova is a meringue dish that is soft and chewy inside with a crunchy outside. Cornflour and vinegar are added to the meringue. Did you know? Pavlova was named after Anna Pavlova, a Russian ballerina. Definition Chantilly cream: cream that has been sweetened, flavoured and lightly whipped (see Chapter 16 for recipe). Preparation 3 Cooking skills 2 Finishing – Pavlova egg whites 100g caster sugar 200g vinegar 5ml cornflour 5g Serves 6–8 Method 1 Make meringue as previously described (cold meringue, steps 1–4). 2 Fold in the cornflour and vinegar. 3 Transfer onto silicone paper and bake at a temperature of 140°C for approximately two hours. 4 Cool and decorate with fruit and Chantilly cream. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 497 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 16. 498 Meringue shells, cases, nests and vacherins These are all made with Swiss meringue and piped with star or plain piping tubes. They can be dried on top of the oven overnight or dried in an oven on a low heat of about 90°C. This could take four to eight hours. Make sure that meringue products are not dried at too hot a temperature as they may discolour and lose their characteristic white colour. Vacherins can either be large or individual round gateau-type meringues filled with fruit and cream and then decorated. Milk puddings Milk puddings were considered an old-fashioned or more traditional pudding. However, they are now becoming more modern by using contemporary methods of cooking and presentation, e.g. with the use of coconut milk, chocolate and various fruits. When cooking milk-based puddings, the mixture should be stirred constantly to avoid burning. The grains used should be cooked through before serving and not have a bite to them. Chef’s tip Vanilla extract or a vanilla pod can be added to improve the flavour. Alternatively, try adding lemon zest. Did you know? Sago and tapioca puddings are made in the same way. Desserts and puddings Preparation 1 Cooking skills 1 Finishing 1 Semolina pudding milk 1 litre semolina 90g sugar 120g butter 30g Serves 8–10 Method 1 Heat the milk in a saucepan. When it has nearly boiled, sprinkle in the semolina, stirring well. 2 Simmer for 15–20 minutes. 3 Add the sugar and butter. Stir to dissolve. 4 Serve immediately or transfer to a serving dish and brown under the grill. Healthy eating Many people suffer from allergies to milk and dairy products. Make sure your customers are aware of any potential allergens in the food you prepare for them (see pages 47, 141 and 142). Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 498 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 17. Types of desserts and puddings 499 Did you know? French rice pudding is enriched with eggs and butter. It is baked in a similar way to a soufflé. Chef’s tip Ensure rice is cooked through and tender, with a good ratio of creamy liquid to rice. Preparation 2 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 2 French rice pudding vanilla pod 1 milk 2 litres pudding rice 180g butter 75g caster sugar 180g eggs 5 medium icing sugar 25g Oven temperature 180°C Cooking time 20 minutes Serves 10 Method 1 Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. 2 Put the milk into a heavy-based pan. Add the vanilla pod and seeds. 3 Bring the milk to the boil. Remove vanilla pod. 4 Reduce the heat. Sprinkle the rice into the pan. Stir to stop the rice sticking together. 5 Simmer until the rice is cooked and the milk is thick and creamy. 6 Butter and sugar the individual serving dishes. 7 Put the remaining butter and sugar in a mixing bowl. Cream together. 8 Separate the eggs. Add the egg yolks to the creamed butter/sugar mixture and mix well. Keep the egg whites. 9 Slowly add the cooked rice to the butter/sugar mixture. Stir to prevent the egg yolks curdling. 10 Whisk together the egg whites until they peak. 11 Carefully fold the egg white into the rice mixture. 12 Put the mixture in the serving dishes. 13 Place the dishes in a bain-marie and bake in the oven. 14 When cooked, dredge the surface with icing sugar and return to the oven for a few minutes to glaze. 15 Serve immediately. See Chapter 13, page 436 for a recipe for Baked rice pudding. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 499 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 18. Batter-based desserts Batter-based desserts can be as simple as a lemon pancake or a more classic dish like crêpes suzette. Batter can also be used as a light crispy coating used to protect fruit during cooking. Pancakes Pancakes should be cooked in crêpe pans, which are small flat pans which make tossing the pancakes easier. They can also be cooked in frying pans but tossing them is a little more difficult. Definition Crêpes: the French term for pancakes. Crêpes need to be as thin as possible. Figure 15.4 Crêpe pan Desserts and puddings 500 Preparation 1 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 1 Basic pancake batter soft flour 240g salt a pinch milk 565ml eggs 2 melted butter 30g Method 1 Sift the flour and salt together into a bowl. 2 Add the milk and eggs and whisk together until smooth. 3 Whisk in the melted butter. 4 Allow to rest for at least 60 minutes or the pancakes will be tough and rubbery. Whisk after resting. 5 Heat the crêpe pan, add a little vegetable oil (butter will burn and make the pancake taste burnt and bitter). 6 Coat the base of the pan with the hot oil and pour off any excess. (Too much oil will not only make the pancake greasy, it will also splash back and cause a serious burn.) 7 Fill a small ladle with pancake batter and pour the batter into the centre of the pan. Lift the pan and coat the base of the pan with the batter ensuring a thin even coat. 8 Put the pan back onto the heat, and cook the batter. When all the liquid has cooked, the pancake is ready to be turned over. Lift one edge of the pancake off the pan to check the colour; it should be a light golden brown. 9 To turn the pancake over, use a palette knife to run around the edge of the pancake to loosen it and make sure it has not stuck to the pan. Slide the palette knife under the pancake and turn it over to cook on the other side. 10 Once cooked, turn onto an overturned plate if the pancake is to be served later, or onto a serving dish if being served straight away. Chef’s tip Crêpes should be thin and have a good even colour on both sides to avoid raw patches. If being used later, layer the crêpes with sheets of silicone paper. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 500 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 19. Types of desserts and puddings 501 Ideas for service: Lemon pancakes: prepare and cook pancakes as described, turn out onto a plate, sprinkle with caster sugar and fold into four. Serve with lemon quarters. Jam pancakes: prepare and cook pancakes as described, turn out onto a plate, spread a spoon of red jam on each and roll up. Sprinkle with caster sugar and serve. Apple pancakes: apple pancakes are the same as jam pancakes, but with apple purée instead of jam. Refer to fruit-based desserts (page 509–510) for making apple purée. American-style pancakes American-style pancakes are made using a slightly thicker batter that has a raising agent added, normally baking powder. Due to their thickness the batter needs sweetening, unlike normal pancakes that have jam, lemon and sugar etc. Try this! Find out what faults there might be in pancake batters and the problems these can cause. Find out some possible recipes for yeast and pancake batters. Worksheet 47 Chef’s tip American-style pancakes should be light and fluffy and cooked through. These are better served immediately. Investigate! What else could be used to make the pancake lighter in texture? Preparation 1 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 1 American-style pancakes soft flour 135g salt 3g milk 140ml egg 1 large baking powder 10g caster sugar 50g Method 1 Follow steps 1–4 for basic pancake batter. 2 Add the baking powder just before cooking the pancakes, otherwise the effectiveness of the baking powder will be destroyed. 3 Cook the pancakes on a griddle. Pour the batter onto the hot surface about the size of a saucer. Cook and turn the pancakes. 4 Serve with maple syrup, fruit, ice cream, whipped cream or any sweet flavourings and accompaniments specified by the establishment. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 501 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 20. Fritters Fritters can be either sweet or savoury. Examples of sweet fritters: Apple fritters: peel and core apples, slice into four rings and keep covered in acidulated water (water with a squeeze of lemon juice). Drain well and dip the apple rings into flour and then into batter (see recipes below). Place into the deep fat fryer and cook on both sides until golden brown. Remove from fryer, drain well and coat in either plain or cinnamon sugar. Banana fritters: do not prepare the bananas until required as they will turn black. Peel and cut the bananas into approximately 5cm pieces, place into the batter and cook as for apple fritters. Can be served with apricot sauce. Pineapple fritters: remove the skin from the pineapple, slice into rings approximately 1cm thick, remove the core, and proceed as for apple fritters. The frying batter is used to protect the items being fried, and gives them a crunchy texture. A raising agent is needed for a frying batter to be light and fluffy. It could be whipped egg white, baking powder or yeast. The type of fritter and the establishment will determine the type of frying batter used. After frying, transfer the cooked product to a colander and allow to drain. Serve as per menu requirements. Fritters are best served straight after cooking. Leaving them to cool will cause the batter to turn soggy. Frying batters Healthy eating To encourage healthy eating, do not coat the fritters in sugar. They could be sweetened with honey as an alternative. 502 Preparation 1 Cooking skills – Finishing – Egg white batter soft flour 240g salt a pinch cold water 300ml egg whites 2 Method 1 Sift the flour and salt together into a bowl. 2 Gradually add the cold water, whisking well to a smooth batter. 3 Allow to rest for a minimum of 20 minutes before using. 4 Whisk the egg whites until they are stiff. 5 Fold the egg whites into the batter. 6 Use straight away. Chef’s tip Batters used for fritters should be light and not made too far in advance. The fritters should be served immediately, or the fruit inside will make the batter become soggy. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 502 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 21. Types of desserts and puddings 503 Did you know? The vinegar in the batter helps to make the batter crispy and reacts with the baking powder to create carbon dioxide. The yellow colouring helps to make the batter turn golden brown during cooking. Remember! Test the temperature of the fat in the deep fat fryer by dropping a small amount of batter into the hot oil; it should rise to the surface and start to cook. Once brown it should be crisp but not greasy. If the test piece is greasy but light in colour, the fat is too cold. If it is golden brown but raw inside, the fat is too hot. Adjust the temperature to suit the product. Preparation 1 Cooking skills – Finishing – Baking powder batter soft flour 240g salt a pinch vinegar 30ml yellow colouring 4 drops water 280ml baking powder 20g Method 1 Sift the flour and salt together in a bowl. Add the vinegar Preparation 1 Cooking skills – Finishing – and colouring. 2 Gradually add the cold water, whisking well to form a smooth batter. 3 Add the baking powder just before cooking and whisk well. Yeast batter strong flour 240g salt a pinch fresh yeast 30g yellow colouring 4 drops water 300ml Method 1 Sift the flour and salt into a bowl. Add the yeast and colouring. 2 Gradually add the cold water, whisking well to form a smooth batter. 3 Prove for 30–40 minutes before using. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 503 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 22. 504 Sponge-based desserts Sponge-based desserts can be a combination of different products or a simple steamed sponge pudding. For more information about making sponges, see Chapter 17. Steamed sponge pudding Steamed sponge pudding is a sponge that is cooked in a steamer; it can be served with a variety of toppings and sauces: Blackcap pudding has currants on the top. Golden sponge pudding has golden syrup on the top. Chocolate sponge pudding has chocolate-flavoured sponge and is normally served with chocolate sauce. To make it, replace 50g flour with 50g cocoa powder. Jam/marmalade sponge pudding has jam or marmalade on the top. Did you know? Apricot glaze is made with apricot jam, sugar and water. It is used to make the surface of sweet products shine. Apricot jam is used because apricots are very low in pectin. The glaze does not stain or change the colour of the final product and does not affect the taste. However, if the apricot glaze burns it will darken and taste bitter. Definition Pectin: a natural setting agent found in fruit. Definition Dariole moulds: cylindrical moulds which are available in different sizes. Preparation 3 Cooking skills 1 Finishing – Basic sponge pudding soft flour 250g baking powder 5g butter 250g caster sugar 250g eggs 4 medium Serves 10 Method 1 Sift the flour and baking powder together into a bowl. 2 Flour and butter ten individual moulds. 3 Cream together the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. 4 Beat in the egg a little at a time. 5 Add the sifted flour and baking powder. Lightly mix until incorporated. Do not over mix. 6 Use as required. All the sponges can be prepared individually or for portioning. Use dariole moulds or pudding bowls. The insides of these must be buttered and floured. Once they are prepared, do not touch the inside as this could cause the cooked pudding to stick to the mould. Put the topping at the bottom of the dish and the sponge mixture on top. Chef’s tip As with all sponges, the mixture should not be overbeaten when adding the flour. This will overwork the gluten, causing shrinkage and not a light, aerated sponge. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 504 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 23. Types of desserts and puddings 505 Do not over-fill the mould as the sponge will expand during cooking. Cover the top of the mould with a piece of greased greaseproof paper to prevent the steam penetrating the sponge. Cooking times will depend on the size of the mould, but individual sponges can take up to 40 minutes, whereas large ones can take up to two hours. Another popular sponge pudding is Sticky toffee pudding, which has soaked dates and is a soft sponge. Some recipes include nuts, so customers need to be informed in case one of them has a nut allergy. Eve’s pudding is a sponge and apple dessert. The apple is placed in a baking dish and covered with a basic sponge. It is then baked and normally served with fresh egg custard. See pages 509–510 for how to prepare the apples. Soufflés Some people will not even attempt to make a soufflé because they are so worried about it rising and then collapsing. A soufflé is an easy dessert to make, as long as you follow these simple rules: Sponge puddings can be served with a variety of sauces and toppings Do not over-mix the egg white when folding into the base mix (panade). Butter and sugar the moulds well. Make sure the oven is set at the right temperature. Serve immediately. There are three ways to make a soufflé: Roux method: the roux and beurre manie methods produce a heavier, more pudding-like texture but this means the soufflé will not collapse so readily. Beurre manie method: here the panade is made differently to the roux method, but otherwise the ingredients and method are the same. Crème patissière method: this is the most popular method used in industry as it allows each order to be freshly cooked, therefore offering greater flexibility during service. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 505 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 24. 506 Roux method 1 Butter and sugar the ramekin dishes. Clean off any sugar from the rim of the dish as this can cause the mixture to stick to the edge which will stop the soufflé rising correctly. 2 Separate the eggs. 3 Put the milk in a pan and heat gently. 4 Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. Add both to the milk to infuse. 5 Add half the sugar to the milk. 6 Melt the butter in another pan. Add the flour and make a roux. 7 Remove the vanilla pod from the milk. Slowly add the hot milk to the roux (as if making a white sauce). This makes the panade. 8 Allow the panade to cool slightly. Add the egg yolks one at a time and beat into the panade until smooth. 9 Whisk the egg whites to a peak. Be careful not to make them too dry or they will not fold into the panade easily. You can incorporate different flavourings into a soufflé to adapt the different product (see page 508) 10 Add a quarter of the egg white to the panade, and mix. This will loosen the panade and make it easier to fold the remaining egg white into the mix. 11 Add the remaining sugar to the remaining egg white and whisk. Gently fold this mixture into the panade. 12 Three-quarters fill the ramekins. 13 Put the dishes into a bain-marie on the stove. 14 Simmer until the mixture reaches the top of the dish then carefully transfer the bain-marie into the oven. 15 Bake in the oven until risen and golden brown on the top. 16 Turn out of the dishes before service. 17 Dust with icing sugar. 18 Serve immediately with Crème anglaise (see page 516). Preparation 3 Cooking skills 2 Finishing 2 Vanilla soufflé butter 60g, plus extra for lining dishes caster sugar 60g, plus extra for lining dishes eggs 5 medium vanilla pod 1 milk 300ml plain flour 60g Oven temperature 205°C Cooking time 7–10 minutes Serves 8 using size 1 ramekin dishes Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 506 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 25. Types of desserts and puddings 507 Preparation X Cooking skills X Finishing X Beurre manie method 1 Follow steps 1 to 5 from roux method. 2 Cream the butter in a mixing bowl. 3 Add the flour. Mix to make the beurre manie. 4 When the milk is simmering remove the vanilla pod. 5 Add small amounts of the beurre manie to the hot milk and stir. Allow each piece of beurre manie to dissolve before adding more. The panade should be smooth and thick. 6 Continue with steps 8–17 from the roux method. Preparation X Cooking skills X Finishing X Crème patissière method For the crème patissière base: milk 300ml vanilla pod 1 egg yolks 2 medium caster sugar 50g plain flour (sifted) 40g Method 1 Put the milk in a pan. Split the vanilla pod and remove seeds. Add both to the milk. Warm gently to infuse the flavour. 2 Put the egg yolks and caster sugar in a mixing bowl. Whisk together until light and fluffy. 3 Sift the flour. Add to the egg/sugar mixture and beat until smooth. 4 Bring the milk to the boil. Remove vanilla pod. 5 Pour the hot milk onto the egg/sugar/flour mixture and mix well. 6 Return the mixture to the pan and cook out until thick and smooth. 7 Transfer to a dish and allow to cool. 8 Cover with a cartouche, to prevent skinning. Chef’s tip Soufflés should have a flat level top and straight sides. This shows good even mixing, well prepared moulds and correct cooking. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 507 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 26. Desserts and puddings 508 Different flavours can be incorporated into the crème patissière base. Try adding 75g of grated chocolate to the milk and allowing it to dissolve. For a fruity flavour add the finely grated zest of 2 lemons, oranges or limes to the milk and warm gently to infuse the flavour (as with vanilla). The milk will separate but this will not affect the base when made into the panade. When completing the soufflé, flavours can be added before the final egg white, i.e. after step 10. For a hazelnut flavour add 120g ground hazelnuts. For a coffee flavour add 60g liquid coffee. For an almond flavour add 120g ground almonds. For a fruit flavour add 20g fruit purée. Cooking times and temperatures Large soufflés should be baked for 20–25 minutes at a temperature of 175°C. Individual soufflés should be baked for 7–10 minutes at a temperature of 205°C. Fruit-based desserts Fruit-based desserts can be as simple as a Fresh fruit salad or a Rhubarb crumble. All fruit-based desserts have flexibility which can be adjusted to suit every establishment. Chef’s tip Check the bottom of the pan before cooking out the crème patissière base. If the milk has caught, use a clean pan. The lactose in the milk can cause the crème patissière to burn. Preparation X Cooking skills X Finishing X To complete the soufflé butter 50g caster sugar 75g crème patissière base 8 tbsp lemon juice 1 egg yolks 2 medium egg whites 8 medium Serves 6 using size 1 ramekin dishes Method 1 Butter and sugar 6 ramekin dishes. 2 Put 8 tbsp of crème patissière base in a mixing bowl. Add the lemon juice and egg yolks. 3 Follow steps 9–17 from roux method. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 508 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 27. Types of desserts and puddings 509 Preparation of fruit All fruit should be washed and dried before preparing or eating. Apples need to be peeled, cored and quartered. Apples tend to turn brown very quickly once peeled. To prevent this, peeled apples should be kept in acidulated water. There are hundreds of varieties of apples, from the common Granny Smith to pink lady. Each apple has its own level of sweetness and crispness. Bramley apples are normally used for cooking but eating apples can also be cooked. They require less cooking time and less sugar. For fruit salad the quarters should be sliced into small pieces. Healthy eating Some people are allergic to certain fruits – most commonly red fruits, pineapple and kiwi – so you should specify exactly which fruits you have used in your recipes. Remember, cooked fruits are generally less likely to cause an allergic reaction. Healthy eating The vitamins and nutrients found in apples are just under the skin, so use a vegetable peeler to remove the peel. To increase roughage in people’s diets leave the peel on. Syrup When making fresh fruit salad, keep the pieces of fruit roughly the same size. Fresh fruit salads normally have a base syrup to stop the fruit discolouring after being prepared. Fruit has a natural sugar called fructose, so the base syrup does not need to be too sweet, however this does depend on the type of fruit being used. Place all the fruit together and add sufficient stock syrup to cover the fruit. Just before service, peel and slice the bananas and add them. Gently stir to mix the fruit and syrup and serve. The syrup could be a simple stock syrup or even an unsweetened fruit juice. Stock syrup is a mixture of sugar and water, dissolved and boiled together. See page 517 for flavours. Definition Acidulated water: water with lemon juice added to it. Preparation 1 Cooking skills 1 Finishing – Stock syrup sugar 720g water 565ml Method 1 Put the sugar and water into a saucepan. 2 Boil them and skim off any impurities. 3 Cool and use as required. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 509 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 28. 510 Cooking apples should be peeled, cored, quartered and kept in acidulated water until ready for cooking. The time of year and the variety of apple used will determine whether the apple needs additional water and sugar added during cooking. As a rough guide only, 1kg of cooking apples needs 125g sugar. After cooking, taste the apples and add extra sugar if required, or if too sweet add some lemon juice. How to cook apples 1 Put sugar into a saucepan, add the drained apple slices and squeeze half a lemon over the top. 2 Put a tight-fitting lid on and place on the heat to cook. The steam created should provide enough liquid to cook the apples. Water can be added if necessary. 3 Test to see if the apple is cooked by tasting a small piece. If using the fruit in pieces, it should be soft but still firm. For purée, cook slightly longer until there is no bite left. 4 Remove the fruit from the pan and allow to cool. 5 To purée the fruit, use a food processor. Purée can also be made using a potato masher, but it will not be so smooth. Oranges should be peeled and segmented, but the most important part is to make sure there is no pith left on the segments. How to peel an orange 1 To peel the orange, top and tail it first, so that you can see how thick the skin is. 2 Run a vegetable knife from the top of the fruit to the bottom, judging the correct thickness to remove all the pith and skin. 3 Once the first slice has been removed it will allow the next piece to be removed more easily, as you can then see how much skin to remove each time to remove all the pith and skin. Continue removing slices round the orange until all the skin and pith has been removed. Try to keep the round shape of the orange. How to segment an orange The orange is then ready to cut into segments which should be free from pith, pips or the membrane which divides up the inside of the orange. There are two different methods to achieve this: Chef’s tip When preparing fruit-based desserts, fruit must be in prime condition with no damage or contamination. Fruit is always at its best in season, when it is more readily available, tastes better and is correctly ripened. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 510 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 29. Types of desserts and puddings 511 1 2 3 Place a container underneath the orange. Hold the peeled fruit in one hand and run a paring knife down towards the centre of the fruit just inside the segment membrane. Once the centre is reached push the segment away from the centre. The segment should come away from the membrane on the other side. Continue until all the segments have been removed. Squeeze the remaining pulp to remove any juice that remains. Method 2 This is similar to method 1, but instead of pushing the segment away from the centre, cut the other side of the segment away from the membrane too. Method 2 is slightly easier but can cause more waste. Bananas should not be prepared until required for service. Bananas turn brown very quickly and in fruit salad they will go black and spoil the presentation of the fruit. Bananas can be coated in lemon juice to slow down but not stop the browning process. Peel the banana and cut slices about 3mm thick. If using bananas for fritters, cut them into three or four depending on the size of the fruit. Grapes should be halved and the seed removed. Kiwi fruit should be topped and tailed and peeled in the same way as oranges. Once peeled, slice and use as required. Pears are either red or green and are also available in many varieties. Some are suitable for cooking. The normal method of cooking pears is poaching. Pears can be peeled with a vegetable peeler and cored, then cut into quarters and then into smaller pieces to go into fruit salad. To poach pears, do not core them until after poaching as this will help stop them falling apart. Pears can be poached in stock syrup, red wine or even sweet dessert wine. It depends on the dessert being produced, but the method of poaching is the same. Investigate! Find the names of four types of pears suitable for cooking and a suitable recipe for each. Worksheet 49 Method 1 Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 511 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 30. 512 How to poach pears 1 Peel the pears and keep them covered in acidulated water. 2 Bring the poaching liquid to the boil and remove from the heat. 3 Put the pears into the liquid and cover with a cartouche. 4 Put back onto the heat and simmer gently for 10–25 minutes depending on the type of pear and the liquid being used. 5 The pears will change colour slightly to a translucent pale colour. Chef’s tip Slightly under ripe pears are better for poaching as they can be cooked for longer and take on more flavour. Cook fruits under a cartouche to keep them submerged to help retain colour. Fruit compote Fruit compote is a mixture of stewed fruit which can be made with soft fruit, hard fruit and dried fruit. Soft fruit should be chosen, washed and covered in hot stock syrup. Cool and serve as required. Dried fruit should be washed and soaked overnight in cold water. Then sugar is added and the fruit is gently cooked in its juice. It is cooled and served as required. Hard fruit should be washed, prepared, put in a shallow dish and covered in stock syrup. Put a cartouche on top and place in the oven to stew until the fruit is tender. Allow to cool in the syrup and serve as required. Fruit crumbles Crumbles are a very popular but simple baked dessert. A crumble has fruit on the bottom and a topping of butter, flour and sugar. Sometimes the fruit is cooked before the crumble topping is placed on top. This depends on the type of fruit used. For example, apples, rhubarb and gooseberries should be cooked, whereas raspberries, blackberries and peaches can be used raw. Chef’s tip Fruit compotes can be served at breakfast or with sweet sauces and ice cream. They can also be flavoured with alcohol. The fruit should retain its original colour, so the correct preparation method is important. Try this! For more general information on fruits, visit www. heinemann.co.uk/hotlinks and enter the express code 3736P. Use a cartouche (a circle of greaseproof paper) to keep the fruit submerged A modern pear belle Helene Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 512 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 31. Types of desserts and puddings 513 Investigate! Find five ingredients that could be used to make the crumble topping healthier to eat. Worksheet 50 Preparation 1 Cooking skills 1 Finishing – Crumble flour 450g butter 200g sugar 200g fruit 1.5kg Serves 8–10 Method 1 Rub all the ingredients together to achieve a sandy texture. 2 Put approx 1.5kg of prepared fruit in an ovenproof dish. 3 Sprinkle the crumble mixture on top of the fruit. Do not press the topping mixture down as this compacts the topping and makes it soggy. 4 Bake in a moderate oven until the fruit is cooked and the crumble topping is golden brown. Fruit flans Apple meringue flan is a simple dessert, but care is still needed to produce it well. An apple meringue is a blind-baked sweet paste flan (see Chapter 16), three-quarters filled with apple purée and with meringue piped on top. To finish the flan, sprinkle caster sugar on top and bake in a moderate oven until the top is golden brown and the apple is hot. When piping the meringue, keep it even and level as any peaks will burn during cooking. Lemon meringue flan is prepared in exactly the same way as apple meringue; just replace the apple with lemon filling. Lemon filling is available pre-made or in powdered form, or it can be made from fresh ingredients. Apple flan is a blind-baked sweet paste flan, three-quarters filled with apple purée, topped off with sliced raw apple. Sprinkle with sugar and cook in a moderate oven until the apple slices are cooked and browned. Coat with apricot glaze. Fruit flans are completed differently from apple flans. First the case is filled with pastry cream and then fruit is overlapped on top to completely cover the pastry cream. It is then coated in apricot glaze to protect the fruit from discoloration. Chef’s tip Fruit crumbles should have a fruit to crumble topping ratio of approximately 3:1. More topping may result in the mixture being undercooked, giving a raw floury topping. The fruit should be cooked through and have a crisp topping. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 513 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 32. Preparation 2 Cooking skills 2 Finishing – Pastry cream milk 850ml vanilla pod 1 (can be replaced with essence or extract) egg yolks 8 sugar 240g plain flour 120g Method 1 Put the milk into a saucepan. Split the vanilla pod and put seeds into the milk, add the pod and infuse over a low heat. 2 Put the egg yolks and sugar into a bowl and whisk together until light. 3 Sift the flour and add to the egg mixture. Mix to a smooth paste. 4 Bring the milk to the boil and remove the pod. 5 Gradually add the milk to the sugar mix and stir well. 6 Put the mixture into a clean pan and bring it back to the boil, stirring continuously. 7 Pour into a clean bowl and cover with a cartouche to prevent skinning. Allow to cool. 514 Video presentation Watch Finish a flan to see this being produced. You may also find Prepare sweet paste (rubbing in method); Line a flan ring; and Bake blind useful. Definition Slake: a mixture of cornflour or custard powder mixed with cold liquid. Desserts and puddings Preparation 2 Cooking skills 2 Finishing – Lemon filling for lemon meringue flan sugar 120g water 150ml lemon juice 60g cornflour 25g butter 30g egg yolks 2 Method 1 Put the sugar and half the water into a pan over a low heat. 2 Dissolve the sugar. Add the lemon juice. Bring to the boil. 3 Dissolve the cornflour in the remaining water to make a slake. Add to the water and lemon juice and cook until the mixture thickens. 4 Add the melted butter. 5 Whisk in the egg yolks. 6 Remove from the heat. Pour into a cooked flan case and allow to cool. Chef’s tip The pastry should be crisp with a good layer of filling and an even coloured meringue. If under baked, the meringue will weep onto the filling underneath. Chef’s tip Pastry cream is more commonly known as Crème Patissiére by pastry chefs Crème patissiére should have a smooth creamy texture and be well flavoured. The following page shows the step-by-step method for making Crème patissiére. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 514 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 33. Types of desserts and puddings 515 1 2 3 4 Combine the dry ingredients and egg yolks to a smooth paste and infuse milk with vanilla. Pour the infused milk slowly onto the paste and whisk thoroughly. Sweet sauces Coulis A fruit coulis is made with soft fruit, e.g. strawberries or raspberries, and sugar. Icing sugar is normally used as it sweetens the fruit and provides a smooth sauce. Did you know? The word coulis means sifted. Preparation 1 Cooking skills – Finishing – Fruit coulis soft fruit 25g icing sugar 50g lemon juice 3–4 drops Serves approx 4–6 Method 1 Wash and dry the fruit. 2 Liquidise the fruit, icing sugar and lemon juice. 3 Pass the mixture through a sieve into a clean bowl. 4 Check the taste. If the coulis is too tart (sour) add icing sugar to taste. 5 Check the consistency. If the coulis is too thick, add a little stock syrup (see page 509). Pass through a chinoise into a clean pan and cook out, beating constantly. Place into a clean bowl, then dust with a little caster sugar to prevent skinning. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 515 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 34. 516 Custard sauce This is sometimes called Crème anglaise. Preparation 1 Cooking skills 2 Finishing – Custard sauce caster sugar 75g milk 300ml double cream 300ml vanilla pod 1 egg yolks 8 medium Makes 750ml Method 1 Put the sugar into a saucepan. 2 Add the milk and cream. 3 Split the vanilla pod and remove the seeds. Add the pod and seeds to the milk/cream mixture. 4 Warm the mixture gently to infuse the flavour. 5 Whisk the egg yolks together until they are light. 6 Bring the milk/cream mixture to the boil. 7 Take off the heat. Remove the vanilla pod. 8 Pour the hot milk/cream mixture onto the eggs yolks. Mix. 9 Return the mixture to the pan and reheat until it thickens. Do not boil the mixture or it will curdle. 10 Test the sauce. It should coat the back of a spoon. 11 Serve immediately. Do not reheat. Chef’s tip Crème anglaise should be smooth and have a pouring consistency. Be careful, as a grainy texture can be caused by overcooking and the egg scrambling. Chef’s tip Any unused sauce can be used as a base for ice cream. See page 485 for more information. Cooked fruit sauce This sauce could be made using apples, pears or apricots. Preparation 1 Cooking skills – Finishing – Cooked fruit sauce fruit 450g caster sugar 100g water 150ml lemons 1 Method 1 Prepare the fruit as required. 2 Put all the ingredients in a saucepan and simmer until the fruit is tender. 3 Liquidise and push through a sieve. 4 Check the taste. If the sauce is tart, add more sugar. 5 Allow to cool. Store in a refrigerator and use as required. Chef’s tip Fruit sauces should be vibrant in colour, smooth and reflect the fruit’s natural taste. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 516 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 35. Types of desserts and puddings 517 Flavoured syrup Flavoured syrup can be made by adding flavouring to simple stock syrup, see page 509. The thickness of the syrup is determined by the sugar content and how much it is reduced. Flavour Method When added Orange and cinnamon Add orange zest and a cinnamon stick At the cooking stage Cinnamon Add a cinnamon stick At the cooking stage Vanilla Infuse a vanilla pod Add once the syrup is the correct consistency and while it is still hot Lemon Add lemon zest At the cooking stage Chocolate Add cocoa powder Add at the cooking stage. After cooking, pass the syrup through muslin to remove the powder Coffee Add strong coffee Once the stock syrup is the right consistency Lime Add lime zest At the cooking stage Rose Add rose water to taste Once the stock syrup is the right consistency Ginger Use the syrup from crystallised ginger Once the stock syrup is the right consistency Lavender Add eight spikes of lavender Add at the cooking stage. Allow the syrup to cool to infuse the flavour, then strain Figure 15.6 Dessert service Lime, lemon grass and ginger Add lemon grass, kaffir lime leaves and chopped ginger root Add at the cooking stage. Allow the syrup to cool to infuse the flavour, then strain Mint Add mint leaves Add once the stock syrup is the right consistency. Allow to cool to infuse the flavour, then strain Figure 15.5 Flavourings for stock syrup These desserts and puddings are only a small sample of the vast selection available, but mastering them is the first step to understanding how to produce fantastic hot and cold desserts and puddings. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 517 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 36. 518 Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries This section covers a range of finishing and decorating techniques that you can use on desserts and puddings. The finish is provided to complement the flavour, texture and colour, and to lift the product visually. This can be achieved by using a variety of products, from simple dustings to nuts, praline, fruit, chocolate and cream. When you finish a product, remember that the decoration should not overpower the main dish. Disposable and Savoy piping bags. Disposable bags should not be washed and reused and are therefore more hygienic A selection of plain and star piping nozzles, plastic, polycarbonate and metal Alternative methods of filling a piping bag Holding a piping bag Piping a rosette. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 518 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 37. Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 519 Finishing techniques using fresh cream Cream should be used to enhance a product and not dominate, as it is very rich. Piped cream – for the best results use an appropriate nozzle, plain or star, in a clean piping bag. Hold the bag in the hand or over a measuring jug and place in the whipped cream. Do not overfill the bag. Squeeze out any air, then twist the bag in between thumb and finger of the piping hand to create a tight bag. Pipe out practice runs onto a clean surface or plate before beginning to decorate the product. Piped rosettes – hold the piping bag approximately 1cm above the product. Using the top hand to squeeze and the bottom hand to guide, apply even pressure to pipe in a circular motion, raising the bag until the required height is reached. Running piping – using the same holding technique, hold the bag at approximately 45 degrees to the product, then pipe in a back and forth motion to create a pearl type effect. Using the same technique again, this time use a spiral motion working towards you in a clockwise direction. This can also be contrasted by working the next row anticlockwise. Quenelle – this is an oval shape achieved by either working the whipped cream in-between two spoons which have been dipped in hot water, or dragging a warmed spoon across the surface of the cream allowing the cream to roll. Dragging a spoon to form a quenelle The finished quenelle Running piping finish Spiral piping finish A selection of cream finishes Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 519 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 38. 520 Finishing and decorating techniques using chocolate Chocolate can be used in many ways to finish off or enhance a dessert. You can use several different techniques, such as piping working on acetate piped motifs transfer sheets run outs cut outs. In order to carry out the above techniques you need to be aware of the following types of and methods of working with chocolate. The two main types of chocolate used are Bakers/compound chocolate. which does not require tempering or, for a better flavour and finish, Couverture chocolate, which needs to be tempered before use. Bakers/compound chocolate is not really a chocolate; it is a combination of cocoa, vegetable fats and sweeteners and is used mainly for coating purposes. Couverture is a combination of cocoa, cocoa butter (minimum 32%), sugar and milk powder (milk chocolate). It is a far superior product but does require more skill to work with. Before these techniques can be carried out, all equipment must be to hand (mise en place), clean and dry. Do not attempt to begin the task before you are ready. Working on a cool, clean, dry surface is important. Tempering is the process which gives chocolate three main characteristics: shine – high gloss mirror-like finish snap – good tempering gives a strength to the chocolate which gives a sharp snap when broken retraction – chocolate comes away from a surface due to shrinkage. Couverture is available in pellet and block form and is already tempered in its delivered state. However, overheating will break the temper and so the chocolate will need to be retempered. To carry out large scale tempering, other methods are implemented (covered at L3). However, for small amounts, the following methods are adequate. Chef’s tip In order to finish desserts with piped cream, the cream must be tightly whipped to give clean defined edges. Always use a good quality nozzle. Piping is a skill that must be practised. Make up some instant potato and practise on an area. Keep scraping up the mixture and reusing. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 520 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 39. Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 521 Microwave In a heatproof bowl place finely chopped couverture or couverture buttons. Place in the microwave on high heat for approx 40 seconds. Remove and stir – the buttons should just be starting to soften. Return to the microwave and repeat but reduce the time to around 10–15 seconds. Remove and stir – look for a mixture where half the buttons have melted and half are still visible. Beat thoroughly until all buttons have melted, using the heat in the couverture to do this. If required, place back into the microwave for short 5 second bursts and keep beating until smooth and glossy – do not be tempted to leave too long as this will break the temper. Test by placing on the back of a pallet knife. Place in a cool area for around 15 minutes. If the chocolate is tempered it will come clean away from the pallet knife. Piping This can be done by using a chocolate ganache, a combination of chocolate and cream, using an appropriate nozzle and bag and piping directly onto a product e.g. an Easter egg, biscuits or gateau, in an attractive decoration. Do not be tempted to pipe too much decoration: the piping should just be used to enhance the product. Piped motifs These are usually done using a paper cone and can be anything from ‘Happy Birthday’ or a logo (maybe a hotel’s name). This technique should be practised beforehand, as the piping is usually done straight onto a product, e.g. a gateau. These decorative pieces have been created using transfer sheets (see pages 522–3) Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 521 13/09/2010 10:29
  • 40. 522 Chef’s tip Do not overfill the paper cone with chocolate. Also, have several cones made in advance. A small amount of stock syrup/alcohol can be added to the chocolate to slightly stiffen the mixture and give a high gloss shine. Run outs Run outs are a more abstract type of decoration used for decorating desserts and gateaux. To ensure even-sized decoration, draw parallel lines onto silicone paper, turn the paper over and, using a paper cone, pipe your decoration using the lines as a guide. Various designs of chocolate run out. Note the guide lines to ensure even sizing. Run outs are often used to decorate gateaux Acetate This is a clear plastic sheet. The chocolate is evenly spread out and allowed to set, then cut out or broken. This gives a high gloss shine to the finish. Transfer sheets These are pre-made sheets of plastic with printed, coloured cocoa butter designs. The sheets are spread evenly with tempered chocolate and allowed to set and can then be broken into abstract shapes or cut out. Tempered chocolate can also be dragged onto a sheet to give a petal effect. Cut outs After coating the transfer sheets, allow the chocolate to set to just touch dry, then the chocolate can be cut freehand into shape, e.g. triangles, wavy lines etc. Alternatively, cutters such as fluted or plain pastry cutters can be used. Chef’s tip Once the chocolate has begun to set on the sheet, cut shapes and turn the sheet over onto a flat surface. This prevents the chocolate curling and keeps the product flat. Always try to work with chocolate in a cool (15– 16°C) draught free room. Chocolate should not be stored in a fridge but in an airtight container in a cool dark place. Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 522 13/09/2010 10:30
  • 41. Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 523 Drag tempered chocolate onto the transfer sheet or acetate on the edge of a table Once set, remove carefully – try to avoid touching with fingers Place an amount of tempered chocolate onto the transfer sheet Place into a curved container or half pipe Spread evening in a single smooth motion, trying to avoid going back and forth A completed decorative piece, using transfer sheets and run outs Using transfer sheets Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 523 13/09/2010 10:30
  • 42. 524 Other techniques Dusting with icing sugar or cocoa powder from a fine sieve or muslin cloth lifts the presentation from the plate. Ground dried fruits can also be used. Dusting with icing sugar through a fine sieve Decorating with cocoa through a muslin bag Praline is a combination of caramel and toasted skinned hazelnuts mixed together, allowed to set and finally ground into a powder. Other nuts can also be used. Nuts can be used in various ways from being skinned and left whole to being finely chopped or powdered. Use a single type, such as pistachio, or a combination. Using praline to add texture, colour and flavour Using nuts as garnish Using chopped pistachios to add texture, colour and flavour Desserts and puddings Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 524 13/09/2010 10:30
  • 43. Finishing and decorating techniques for deserts and pastries 525 Fruits are also used; they should always be used in season for best flavour and price and they should complement the dish they are served with, e.g. sharp fruits, such as raspberries, work well with sweet white chocolate. Tossing the fruit in some coulis or icing sugar will give an extra glaze or shine. Step-by-step creation of a fruit finish. Always try to use fruits that are in season and which complement the dish Decoration of desserts may use fresh fruit, fresh cream, chocolate, sauces, dusting, or any combination of these methods Step-by-step decoration of a gateaux. Remember, the decoration must not overpower the finished product – less is more Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 525 13/09/2010 10:30
  • 44. Desserts and puddings 526 Test yourself! 1 What setting agent is used in mousse? 2 What is a sorbetière? 3 True or false? It is safe to re-freeze melted ice cream. 5 How would you prepare the following for a fruit salad: a bananas b kiwi c grapes d apples. 7 What ingredients do you need to make rhubarb crumble? 9 Name three suitable finishes for a cold dessert dish. Practice assignment tasks 4 Why does milk boil over? 6 How can you reduce the risk of overheating the custard mix when making an egg custard-based dessert? 8 At what temperature should you store ice cream? 10 What is a cartouche and what is it used for? Prepare and cook desserts and puddings Task 1 You have been selected to represent your restaurant at a local competition. You need to produce a trio of desserts (including hot desserts and cold desserts). Design two desserts, one hot and one cold, which could be served in a trio of desserts, e.g. hot dark chocolate mousse, white chocolate ice cream and milk chocolate mousse. Task 2 Complete a report on how eggs are used in the production of cooked desserts and puddings. Task 3 Research how desserts and puddings can be adapted to be healthier options and complete a summary of your findings. Include four examples of adapted recipes. Level 2 Diploma_9780435033736_4th.indb 526 13/09/2010 10:30