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Havsnäs Pilot Project
ALAN DERRICK
SENIOR TECHNICAL MANAGER
Project financed by:
Swedish Energy Agency Pilot Grant
Winterwind, Östersund February 2013




                                      1
Havsnäs Site Location




                        2
The Havsnäs Project

• 110 km North of
  Östersund, Jämtland
  (240km West of Umeå)
• Area of national interest
  for wind power.
• Spread over 3 hills
  occupying 20km x 10km .
• 510 to 650m asl
• Surroundings are lakes,
  marsh and forest.
• 48 x Vestas V90 on 95m
  towers
     – 45 x 2.0 MW + 3 x 1.8
       MW                         NV Nordisk Vindkraft Awarded a Pilot
     – Largest onshore         Project grant by Swedish Energy Agency in
       windfarm in Sweden
                                                  2009.
• Commission Summer 2010.

                                                                           3
Pilot Grant Key Information

• Purpose
     – To help remove barriers to future large scale on shore
       wind farm development in northern Sweden
• Havsnäs Project Non-Technical Research Areas
    – Nature value (impact on forest birds and reindeer)
    – Project finance (not common in Sweden)
    – Foundation (design for cold climate and wet ground)
• Establishment of Havsnäs Grid Company (connection to
  national grid)


• Havsnäs Project Technical Research Areas
     – High Hub Heights (uncertainties of shear
       extrapolation)
     – Cold Climate (instruments, wind flow modelling,
       icing, power curves)
• Timescales
     – 20/04/2009 to 31/12/2011 – extended to March 2013
       due to wind farm operational issues.
                                                                4
Technical Scope – From Resource Assessment to Operational Performance



•   Cold Climate Instrumentation Reliability
•   Lidar Measurements in a Cold Climate
•   Mast Dispersal
•   Mast Height vs High Hub Heights
•   Shear & Vertical Extrapolation of Wind Speed
•   Shear & Energy Content through Rotor
•   Atmospheric Stability – Measurement and Implications
•   Wind Flow Modelling – Linear vs Coupled Mesoscale/CFD
•   Power Performance Measurements – Equivalent Wind Speed Power Curves
•   Predicted vs Actual Wind Farm Performance
•   Energy Lost Due to Icing
•   Ice Throw Simulation – Health & Safety Implications (& Validation)




                                                                          5
Wind Measurements at Havsnäs



• Wind measurements started
  November 2003
     – 4 x 50m masts, 1 x 80m mast
     – 1 x off-site telecoms mast with
       heated reference instruments from
       2003 to present day.
• 10 x 95m masts installed Summer
  2008 for site calibration
     – 5 removed pre-construction
     – 5 remain for power performance
       and R & D
     – 3 of 5 masts fully instrumented for
       research purposes Summer 2010.
• Leosphere Windcube Mark 1 lidar
  deployed for R & D.



                                             6
Measurement Locations




                        7
95m R & D Measurement Mast (3 – off)



• Pairs of heated (WAA252) and
  un-heated (A100) Ano’s at 3
  elevations (with heated booms)
• Pairs of heated (WAV252) and
  un-heated (W200P) wind vanes
  at 3 elevations
• Ultrasonic aneometers at 2
  elevations.
• Mast blockage anemometer
  pairs at one elevation.
• Temperature, pressure,
  humidity, solar radiation and
  rain sensors
• Web cam
• Permanent Mains Power!


                                       8
Mast Instrumentation Key Results



• Heated anemometers are not
  completely immune to icing – ca 1% to
  2% data loss compared to 20% to 30%
  unheated.
• Heated instruments only as good as
  their power supply – 12% to 35% data
  loss due to power supply issues.
• Impact of ice load on instrument and
  boom static and dynamic loading to be
  assessed at design stage.
• Wind vanes are less prone to sticking in
  icing condtions – 8% to 27% lost – little
  difference heated or unheated > care
  needed interpreting data.
• Robust ultrasonic anemometer required
  for severe ice climate.

                                              9
WindCube V1 Lidar Key Results



• Scans per line of sight quadrupled
  due to low aerosol density at this
  northern latitude > fewer
  measurements per 10-minute
  average.
• Extra heating/insulation required.
• Snow protection required.
• Significantly more data passing
  quality filters after modifications.     Before   After



• Mean wind speed well correlated
  with fixed mast.
• Wind speed standard deviation well
  correlated with fixed mast.
• Validation of lidar against fixed mast
  on the site of interest is necessary.


                                                            10
Mast Dispersal and Wind Flow Modelling Uncertainty

• Compare inter-mast wind speed ratios with
  linear flow model speed ratios by direction
  (30 degree sectors).
• 90 mast pair/direction sector cases
  possible from the quality controlled
  Havsnäs met mast data set.
• MS3DJH linear flow model used to derive
  modelled speed ratios.
• Standard deviation of speed ratio error =
  5% (top right)
• Strong correlation of speed up error and
  mast separation.
• Havsnäs findings consistent with wider RES
  study of masts across many RES sites
• Flow modelling introduces significantly
  higher uncertainties if initialisation masts
  separated by more than 1km in complex
  flow environment.
                                                     11
Mast Height compared to Very High Hub Heights



• Performance of common shear profile models evaluated with regard to
  extrapolating wind speed from lower measurement heights compared to
  actual hub height measurements.
• Assess ability of models to
     – Characterise profile; i.e. Goodness of fit to measured profile
     – Represent continued profile above measurement height; i.e quality of
       extrapolation.
• Multi-point shear method (3 or more measurement heights) was best
  overall performer and relatively insensitive to forest canopy height errors
  (i.e. Displacement height effects).
• Two point power law also performs well although sensitive to choice of
  measurement heights.
• Remote sensing campaigns adjacent to long-term masts recommended to
  validate profile behaviour above mast measurement heights.
• More detail in presentation by Iain Campbell later in this Winterwind
  session

                                                                                12
Shear Profile and Energy Content through Rotor Disk

• Remote sensing can provide knowledge of
  profile across entire turbine rotor disk height
  range.
• Energy Content through rotor uses concept of
  rotor “Equivalent Wind Speed” Veq                                             1
• Theoretical and lidar measured profiles                       n
                                                                    Ai  3
                                                                                3
  compared.                                           veq         v     i
                                                            i   1   A
• Shear profile can impact:
     – Energy Available to the turbine
     – Aerodynamic Efficiency of the turbine                        A       P
     – Predicted v Actual energy error dependent on
       both components.
• Sensitivity Analysis of lidar profiles at Havsnäs
  turbine D5 suggests that Available Energy is
  0.8% greater than the theory suggests.
• However, uncertainties in measurements
  large.
                                                                                    13
Atmospheric Stability – Measurement and Analysis Implications

                                                      • Flux methods
• Atmospheric Stability Defines:
                                                            – More costly instrumentation
     –   Mixing of vertical layers in atmosphere              required
     –   Turbulence                                         – Instruments not robust
     –   Shear profile                                      – Ultimately generated little
     –   Temperature Gradient                                 data
• Measurements at two masts evaluated: • Gradient methods
     – Flux methods                                         – Simple instrumentation
     – Gradient methods                                     – Relatively successful data
                                                              capture
                                                            – Higher uncertainty in stability
                                                              results.




                                                                                                14
Implications of Atmospheric Stability Variations



• Sufficient measured evidence to suggest that stability dependent:
     –    Shear models
     –    Turbulence models
     –    Energy Conversion Methods (rotor equivalent wind speed)
     –    Wind Flow Models
are required for sites like Havsnäs

         Available-Energy Deficit Based on Lidar Measured Wind Profiles

                   Winter                                  Summer



          In Stable Winter and night-time Summer conditions more
          energy available through the turbine rotor than hub height
          wind speed suggests.
                                 The problem is present day turbines cannot
                                 capture it all due to sub-optimal aerodynamic
                                 performance in high shear                       15
Wind Flow Modelling – Coupled Mesoscale/CFD



• Stability implications modelled via coupled Mesoscale/CFD VENTOS®/M
     – WRF Mesoscale
     – VENTOS® CFD
• 9 separate days between 17th November 2011 and 30th May 2012
  simulated and compared with on-site measurements
• Range of stability, snow cover, wind speeds and temperatures covered.


                                                     Unstable example
                                                     Stable example
                                                     showing night time
                                                               day time
                                                     thermals rising
                                                     temperature and
                                                     vertical mixing
                                                     inversion and
                                                     suppression of
                                                     vertical mixing




                                                                          16
Coupled Mesoscale/CFD Model Performance



• A larger number of days required to draw strong conclusions but:
     – Shows promise as illustrated here:




Wind Speed                     Wind Direction       Temperature Gradient


                            Measured
                            Coupled Mesoscale/CFD



                                                                           17
Reminder about Linear Flow Model Performance



• Tuned for neutral conditions
• Does not model stability variations (without empirical tweaking)
• But may still be good enough on average



                                                 Pre and Post Construction
                                                 Annual Energy Yield
                                                 Estimates already agreed
                                                 within 1% at Havsnäs.


                                                              Measured
                                                              Linear Flow
                                                              Model


                                                                             18
Power Performance Investigations



• New draft IEC 61400 12-1 Equivalent Wind Speed
  Power Curve procedure tested using lidar data at
  turbine D5.
• Turbulence normalisation procedure tested.
• Veer correction tested.
• Results completely site and turbine specific – not
  generic, but suggested that:
     – Hub height wind speed and equivalent wind speed
       power curves near identical.
     – Turbulence impact on 10-minute averaged power curve
       dominates distortion of measured power curve. Difficult
       to isolate shear and veer profile impact.
     – Significant veer measured across rotor.
     – Lidar is a practical supplement to a power performance
       test set-up, providing insight to the flow impacting the
       whole turbine rotor height.
     – Using lidar with a hub height mast has the potential to
       reduce power curve measurement uncertainty by 2 to
       3%                                                         19
Production Lost Due to Icing

                                                    Icing loss as % of
                                            Month   expected monthly yield
• Evaluation of entire wind farm using      Jan                        11.0%
                                            Feb                        13.3%
  SCADA data (Oct 2010 to Sep 2012).        Mar                         0.1%

• Comparison of nacelle power curves
                                            Apr                         0.4%
                                            May                         0.2%
  with expected nacelle power curve.        Jun
                                            Jul
                                                                        0.0%
                                                                        0.0%
• Most icing loss occurs near 0°C           Aug                         0.0%
                                            Sep                         0.0%
• Strong correlation between icing loss     Oct                         0.5%
                                            Nov                         2.1%
  and turbine elevation.                    Dec                         4.7%

• Strong correlation between reduction in
  icing loss and solar insolation, i.e.
  natural deicing – 0.6% reduction on
  average.
• Measured annual average icing loss
  =4.1%
• Agrees well with pre-construction
  estimate = 4.0%


                                                                               20
Conclusions/Benefits of Havsnäs R&D Project


• With the benefit of a site which:
     –   Is typical of most in northern Sweden – cold climate, forested.
     –   Has multiple dispersed met mast locations typical of RES sites in Sweden
     –   Has comprehensive extra instrumentation and data sets
     –   Has access to wind farm operational data
• We can conclude that:
     – Existing methods used by RES/NV for wind measurement, shear
       extrapolation, wind flow modelling and yield prediction are fundamentally
       right.
     – Evaluation of stability via gradient measurement methods may be the most
       practical method to employ on these harsh, challenging sites.
     – Remote sensing measurements and their detailed evaluation (e.g. Profile
       validation, rotor equivalent wind speeds, wind veer, power performance)
       should become a standard part of the measurement campaign for this
       environment.
     – Further work (more test cases) required to assess benefit of coupled
       mesoscale/CFD models to energy yield prediction process.
     – Pilot Project has been valuable and has improved knowledge of cold climate
       issues considerably.
                                                                                    21
Acknowledgments



• The following RES/NV colleagues have contributed significantly to the
  design, deployment, analysis and reporting:
    – Nicola Atkinson, Iain Campbell, Alex Clerc, Jennifer Cronin, Alice Ely, Simon
      Feeney, Gail Hutton, Marine Lannic, Malcolm MacDonald, Alastair Oram,
      Magnus Andersson, Jeremy Bass , Paul Berrie, Garyth Blair, Richie Cotton,
      Cody Cox, Victor Donnet, Alan Duckworth, Euan George, Magnus Hopstadius,
      Loïs Legendre, Lenton McLendon , Stephen Peters, Peter Stuart, Colin
      Walker, Min Zhu
• The project would not have been possible without the pilot project
  funding from Energimyndigheten and the support of the NV Nordisk
  Vindkraft AB and Havsnäs Vindkraft AB boards.
• The final report will be published on the Energimyndigheten web site in
  the coming months.




                                                                                      22
23

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Derrick alan

  • 1. Havsnäs Pilot Project ALAN DERRICK SENIOR TECHNICAL MANAGER Project financed by: Swedish Energy Agency Pilot Grant Winterwind, Östersund February 2013 1
  • 3. The Havsnäs Project • 110 km North of Östersund, Jämtland (240km West of Umeå) • Area of national interest for wind power. • Spread over 3 hills occupying 20km x 10km . • 510 to 650m asl • Surroundings are lakes, marsh and forest. • 48 x Vestas V90 on 95m towers – 45 x 2.0 MW + 3 x 1.8 MW NV Nordisk Vindkraft Awarded a Pilot – Largest onshore Project grant by Swedish Energy Agency in windfarm in Sweden 2009. • Commission Summer 2010. 3
  • 4. Pilot Grant Key Information • Purpose – To help remove barriers to future large scale on shore wind farm development in northern Sweden • Havsnäs Project Non-Technical Research Areas – Nature value (impact on forest birds and reindeer) – Project finance (not common in Sweden) – Foundation (design for cold climate and wet ground) • Establishment of Havsnäs Grid Company (connection to national grid) • Havsnäs Project Technical Research Areas – High Hub Heights (uncertainties of shear extrapolation) – Cold Climate (instruments, wind flow modelling, icing, power curves) • Timescales – 20/04/2009 to 31/12/2011 – extended to March 2013 due to wind farm operational issues. 4
  • 5. Technical Scope – From Resource Assessment to Operational Performance • Cold Climate Instrumentation Reliability • Lidar Measurements in a Cold Climate • Mast Dispersal • Mast Height vs High Hub Heights • Shear & Vertical Extrapolation of Wind Speed • Shear & Energy Content through Rotor • Atmospheric Stability – Measurement and Implications • Wind Flow Modelling – Linear vs Coupled Mesoscale/CFD • Power Performance Measurements – Equivalent Wind Speed Power Curves • Predicted vs Actual Wind Farm Performance • Energy Lost Due to Icing • Ice Throw Simulation – Health & Safety Implications (& Validation) 5
  • 6. Wind Measurements at Havsnäs • Wind measurements started November 2003 – 4 x 50m masts, 1 x 80m mast – 1 x off-site telecoms mast with heated reference instruments from 2003 to present day. • 10 x 95m masts installed Summer 2008 for site calibration – 5 removed pre-construction – 5 remain for power performance and R & D – 3 of 5 masts fully instrumented for research purposes Summer 2010. • Leosphere Windcube Mark 1 lidar deployed for R & D. 6
  • 8. 95m R & D Measurement Mast (3 – off) • Pairs of heated (WAA252) and un-heated (A100) Ano’s at 3 elevations (with heated booms) • Pairs of heated (WAV252) and un-heated (W200P) wind vanes at 3 elevations • Ultrasonic aneometers at 2 elevations. • Mast blockage anemometer pairs at one elevation. • Temperature, pressure, humidity, solar radiation and rain sensors • Web cam • Permanent Mains Power! 8
  • 9. Mast Instrumentation Key Results • Heated anemometers are not completely immune to icing – ca 1% to 2% data loss compared to 20% to 30% unheated. • Heated instruments only as good as their power supply – 12% to 35% data loss due to power supply issues. • Impact of ice load on instrument and boom static and dynamic loading to be assessed at design stage. • Wind vanes are less prone to sticking in icing condtions – 8% to 27% lost – little difference heated or unheated > care needed interpreting data. • Robust ultrasonic anemometer required for severe ice climate. 9
  • 10. WindCube V1 Lidar Key Results • Scans per line of sight quadrupled due to low aerosol density at this northern latitude > fewer measurements per 10-minute average. • Extra heating/insulation required. • Snow protection required. • Significantly more data passing quality filters after modifications. Before After • Mean wind speed well correlated with fixed mast. • Wind speed standard deviation well correlated with fixed mast. • Validation of lidar against fixed mast on the site of interest is necessary. 10
  • 11. Mast Dispersal and Wind Flow Modelling Uncertainty • Compare inter-mast wind speed ratios with linear flow model speed ratios by direction (30 degree sectors). • 90 mast pair/direction sector cases possible from the quality controlled Havsnäs met mast data set. • MS3DJH linear flow model used to derive modelled speed ratios. • Standard deviation of speed ratio error = 5% (top right) • Strong correlation of speed up error and mast separation. • Havsnäs findings consistent with wider RES study of masts across many RES sites • Flow modelling introduces significantly higher uncertainties if initialisation masts separated by more than 1km in complex flow environment. 11
  • 12. Mast Height compared to Very High Hub Heights • Performance of common shear profile models evaluated with regard to extrapolating wind speed from lower measurement heights compared to actual hub height measurements. • Assess ability of models to – Characterise profile; i.e. Goodness of fit to measured profile – Represent continued profile above measurement height; i.e quality of extrapolation. • Multi-point shear method (3 or more measurement heights) was best overall performer and relatively insensitive to forest canopy height errors (i.e. Displacement height effects). • Two point power law also performs well although sensitive to choice of measurement heights. • Remote sensing campaigns adjacent to long-term masts recommended to validate profile behaviour above mast measurement heights. • More detail in presentation by Iain Campbell later in this Winterwind session 12
  • 13. Shear Profile and Energy Content through Rotor Disk • Remote sensing can provide knowledge of profile across entire turbine rotor disk height range. • Energy Content through rotor uses concept of rotor “Equivalent Wind Speed” Veq 1 • Theoretical and lidar measured profiles n Ai 3 3 compared. veq v i i 1 A • Shear profile can impact: – Energy Available to the turbine – Aerodynamic Efficiency of the turbine A P – Predicted v Actual energy error dependent on both components. • Sensitivity Analysis of lidar profiles at Havsnäs turbine D5 suggests that Available Energy is 0.8% greater than the theory suggests. • However, uncertainties in measurements large. 13
  • 14. Atmospheric Stability – Measurement and Analysis Implications • Flux methods • Atmospheric Stability Defines: – More costly instrumentation – Mixing of vertical layers in atmosphere required – Turbulence – Instruments not robust – Shear profile – Ultimately generated little – Temperature Gradient data • Measurements at two masts evaluated: • Gradient methods – Flux methods – Simple instrumentation – Gradient methods – Relatively successful data capture – Higher uncertainty in stability results. 14
  • 15. Implications of Atmospheric Stability Variations • Sufficient measured evidence to suggest that stability dependent: – Shear models – Turbulence models – Energy Conversion Methods (rotor equivalent wind speed) – Wind Flow Models are required for sites like Havsnäs Available-Energy Deficit Based on Lidar Measured Wind Profiles Winter Summer In Stable Winter and night-time Summer conditions more energy available through the turbine rotor than hub height wind speed suggests. The problem is present day turbines cannot capture it all due to sub-optimal aerodynamic performance in high shear 15
  • 16. Wind Flow Modelling – Coupled Mesoscale/CFD • Stability implications modelled via coupled Mesoscale/CFD VENTOS®/M – WRF Mesoscale – VENTOS® CFD • 9 separate days between 17th November 2011 and 30th May 2012 simulated and compared with on-site measurements • Range of stability, snow cover, wind speeds and temperatures covered. Unstable example Stable example showing night time day time thermals rising temperature and vertical mixing inversion and suppression of vertical mixing 16
  • 17. Coupled Mesoscale/CFD Model Performance • A larger number of days required to draw strong conclusions but: – Shows promise as illustrated here: Wind Speed Wind Direction Temperature Gradient Measured Coupled Mesoscale/CFD 17
  • 18. Reminder about Linear Flow Model Performance • Tuned for neutral conditions • Does not model stability variations (without empirical tweaking) • But may still be good enough on average Pre and Post Construction Annual Energy Yield Estimates already agreed within 1% at Havsnäs. Measured Linear Flow Model 18
  • 19. Power Performance Investigations • New draft IEC 61400 12-1 Equivalent Wind Speed Power Curve procedure tested using lidar data at turbine D5. • Turbulence normalisation procedure tested. • Veer correction tested. • Results completely site and turbine specific – not generic, but suggested that: – Hub height wind speed and equivalent wind speed power curves near identical. – Turbulence impact on 10-minute averaged power curve dominates distortion of measured power curve. Difficult to isolate shear and veer profile impact. – Significant veer measured across rotor. – Lidar is a practical supplement to a power performance test set-up, providing insight to the flow impacting the whole turbine rotor height. – Using lidar with a hub height mast has the potential to reduce power curve measurement uncertainty by 2 to 3% 19
  • 20. Production Lost Due to Icing Icing loss as % of Month expected monthly yield • Evaluation of entire wind farm using Jan 11.0% Feb 13.3% SCADA data (Oct 2010 to Sep 2012). Mar 0.1% • Comparison of nacelle power curves Apr 0.4% May 0.2% with expected nacelle power curve. Jun Jul 0.0% 0.0% • Most icing loss occurs near 0°C Aug 0.0% Sep 0.0% • Strong correlation between icing loss Oct 0.5% Nov 2.1% and turbine elevation. Dec 4.7% • Strong correlation between reduction in icing loss and solar insolation, i.e. natural deicing – 0.6% reduction on average. • Measured annual average icing loss =4.1% • Agrees well with pre-construction estimate = 4.0% 20
  • 21. Conclusions/Benefits of Havsnäs R&D Project • With the benefit of a site which: – Is typical of most in northern Sweden – cold climate, forested. – Has multiple dispersed met mast locations typical of RES sites in Sweden – Has comprehensive extra instrumentation and data sets – Has access to wind farm operational data • We can conclude that: – Existing methods used by RES/NV for wind measurement, shear extrapolation, wind flow modelling and yield prediction are fundamentally right. – Evaluation of stability via gradient measurement methods may be the most practical method to employ on these harsh, challenging sites. – Remote sensing measurements and their detailed evaluation (e.g. Profile validation, rotor equivalent wind speeds, wind veer, power performance) should become a standard part of the measurement campaign for this environment. – Further work (more test cases) required to assess benefit of coupled mesoscale/CFD models to energy yield prediction process. – Pilot Project has been valuable and has improved knowledge of cold climate issues considerably. 21
  • 22. Acknowledgments • The following RES/NV colleagues have contributed significantly to the design, deployment, analysis and reporting: – Nicola Atkinson, Iain Campbell, Alex Clerc, Jennifer Cronin, Alice Ely, Simon Feeney, Gail Hutton, Marine Lannic, Malcolm MacDonald, Alastair Oram, Magnus Andersson, Jeremy Bass , Paul Berrie, Garyth Blair, Richie Cotton, Cody Cox, Victor Donnet, Alan Duckworth, Euan George, Magnus Hopstadius, Loïs Legendre, Lenton McLendon , Stephen Peters, Peter Stuart, Colin Walker, Min Zhu • The project would not have been possible without the pilot project funding from Energimyndigheten and the support of the NV Nordisk Vindkraft AB and Havsnäs Vindkraft AB boards. • The final report will be published on the Energimyndigheten web site in the coming months. 22
  • 23. 23