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By
Venice Ibrahim
Index
- Introduction
-Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization
-Egyptian language and its interpretation
-Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
-Ancient Egyptians dentists
- Ancient Egyptians medical tools
-Ancient Egyptians dental diseases
-The Egyptian medical papyri
-Egyptians medical recipes& interventions
-The use of Modern science and Technology
-Conclusion
2
Introduction
- Ancient Egyptians were skilled in medicine in different fields known today
- The profession of dental physician existed since the early third millennium
- Physicians were specialized for specific diseases or organs, some dealt with
eye, head and some with teeth or belly etc.
-Lioness Sekhmet was believed to bring epidemics and disease. She was also the
patroness deity of doctors, other Gods and Goddesses for the diseases, ex., Gods
Amun and Horus were responsible for treatment of eye diseases etc.,
-Imhotep was chief vizier to Zozer, high priest, astrologist, pyramid designer, a
physician, the founder of medicine, Egyptianssw believed that he had great
healing powers, and considered him as a God of medicine.
-Since the 1st dynasty (3150 – 2925 BC), medical institutes called “peri-ankh”
or “houses of life” existed as teaching centers, and in those houses medical
books and papyri were written and preserved.
-A code of ethics was followed, with an oath was made by physicians. In the
tomb of Nenkh-Sekhmet, Chief of Physicians in the 5th dynasty, the following
sentense is written: “Never did I do anything evil towards any person”.
3
Born : c. 484 BC Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor
Died : c.425 BC (aged approximately 60)
Thurii, Calabria or Pella, Macedon
an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum,
Turkey) He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to
collect his materials systematically, and test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange
them
Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization
4
HERODOTUS, mentioned that 'The practice of
medicine in Egypt is so divided among them, that
each physician is a healer of one disease and no
more. All the country is full of physicians, some
of the eye, some of the teeth, some of what
pertains to the belly, and some of the hidden
diseases
Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization
5
In the fifth century B.C. Herodotus
remarked on the degree of specialisation he
found in Egypt.
Most of the known specialist medical titles
were carried by a certain Ir-en-akhty
except for dentists who carried the separate
title ibeh
False door of the multi-specialist
Ir-en-akhy (10th Dynasty)
Egyptian language and its interpretation
6
-Athanasius Kircher German polyhistorian (1602 - 1680) proposed
nonsensical allegorical translations (Lingua Aegyptical restituta, 1643).
Athanasius KircherDr. Thomas Young
-Thomas Young (1773 -1829), the author of the undulatory theory of light,
assigned correct phonetical values to five hieroglyphic signs .
Egyptian language and its interpretation
7
Jean-Francois
Champollion
Rosetta Stone
-Finding the Rosetta stone was the final decipherment, starting in 1822, by
the work of the Frenchman Jean-François Champollion, 1790 - 1832, cf.
Précis du système hiéroglyphique des anciens égyptiens par M.Champollion
le jeune, 1824.
Samples of three different scripts on the Rosetta Stone
Top: Heiroglyphs; Middle: Demotic; Bottom: Greek.
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
8
Egyptian dentists̕ tomb,
at Saqqara, near the
step pyramid-oldest in
Egypt
Hieroglyphic details, including eye and tusk symbols representing dentistry
profession chiseled on the entrance of the tomb honoring 3 dentists served the
nobility in ancient Egypt-Iy Mry -the chief dentist is pictured on the wall ,thus the
swallow, tusk and arrow, meant 'chief dentist and doctor
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
9
Modern investigations employ
virtually nondestructive techniques
to study disease in mummies,
members of the Manchester Mummy
Project used endoscope to take tissue
samples from the mouth of a
mummy. Manchester Museum,
University of Manchester)
Rosalie David unwrapping the
female mummy 1770 in 1975
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
10
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
11
The earliest evidence of ancient dentistry we have is an amazingly
detailed dental work on a mummy from ancient Egypt that
archaeologists have dated to 2000 BCE.
The work shows intricate gold work around the teeth. The two
donor teeth had holes drilled into them, wires were strung through
the holes and then around the neighboring teeth.
‘El-Quatta Bridge'
The World first Dental Bridges
mandible of a 4th dynasty
mummy (2625 - 2510 BC). with a
gold wire bridge
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
12
- Examining skeletal and mummified remains from ancient Egypt can provide
evidence for the dental health of the ancient Egyptian civilisation where tooth
ailments was frequent as some mummies show evidences of severe infections and
loose teeth, as people believed that the cause of the decays were ‘worms’.
- Egyptian pharaohs were known to have suffered from periodontal (gum) disease,
Radiographs of mummies confirm this fact.
- The skulls and jaws found in burial shafts and tombs almost all show attrition.
Dental Surgery, Jaw of ancient Egyptian
showing drill holes used in dental repair.
Courtesy of the Gordon Museum
Upper jaw of Tao II Seqenenre.
The teeth are heavily worn,
healthy and tartar free
Worn ancient Egyptian teeth
showing an abscess drainage hole
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
13
Ancient Egyptian mandible c. 1,500
BC. Courtesy of Duckworth
Collection, Cambridge University
The dental drill dates back
9,000 years ago
Attrition
Information & data concerning ancient dentistry
14
study of more than 3,000
mummies has revealed a
nightmare array of dental
diseases.
Head of the mummy of
Amenhotep III. He had lost
some of his front teeth due
to alveolar abscesses
Ancient Egyptians dentistsAncient Egyptians dentists
15
-The earliest ever record of a physician was Hesy-Ra, 2700
BC, who was "Chief of Dentists and Doctors" to King
Djoser.
-Merit Ptah (2700 BCE)was an early physician in ancient
Egypt. She is most notable for being the first woman
known by name in the history of the field of medicine, and
possibly the first named woman in all of science as well.
Her picture can be seen on a tomb in the necropolis near
the step pyramid of Saqqara. Her son, who was a High
Priest, described her as "the Chief Physician".
-Also Peseshet (2400 BC, 4th dynasty, old kingdom) was
known as the supervisor of all female doctors her own stela
in the tomb of Akhet-hotep, probably her son, in Giza
Hesy-Re, head of dentists
Ancient Egyptians dentistsAncient Egyptians dentists
16
Hesy-re, Head of
Dentists Old Kingdom,
3rd Dynasty
Peseshet Imhotep
Merit Ptah
Ancient Egyptians medical tools
17
Com Ombo temple
Wall of twin temple of Com Ombo temple with
surgical instruments carvings and queen in
labor on an obstetric chair
Ancient Egyptians medical tools
(1) knives; (2) drill; (3) saw;
(4) forceps or pincers; (5) censer; (6)
hooks;
(7) bags tied with string; (8, 10) beaked
vessel; (11) vase with burning incense;
(12) Horus eyes; (13) scales;
(14) pot with flowers of Upper and
Lower Egypt;
(15) pot on pedestal;
(16) graduated cubit or papyrus scroll
without side knot (or a case holding reed
scalpels);
(17) shears; (18) spoons.
18
Com Ombo
inscription detailing
ancient Egyptian
medical tools
Ancient Egyptians medical tools
19
Wooden tools Bronze tools
has basically three functions for which it is
Stone tools Copper tools
Iron tools
Ancient Egyptians dental diseases
20
-Attrition was the most common affection in ancient
Egypt, Caused by the coarse diet (which may have
lacked minerals and vitamins) and the presence of
sand, husks, and sometimes straw in their bread.
-Abscesses, inflammation of the gums and jawbone,
and tooth loss was also detected.
-As well caries ,calculus formation and others
root caries on the
mandibular right
third molar [left]
and left first molar
[right
abscess on
mandibular right
Molars
suffering from
attrition
Ancient Egyptians dental diseases
21
mandibular M2
displays large caries
maxillary M3 with
a large cavity
apical abscess on
right maxillary PM2
and antemortem
tooth loss
Extensive dental wear
Ancient Egyptians dental diseases
22
Lower jaw with traces of a periodontal
abscess ( the small hole in the bone)
Dental wear and impacted
.
A skull showing severe
periodontal disease,
antemortem tooth loss,
Calculus formation and
apical abscesses
The medical papyri
23
The first medical texts, date from late 12th Dynasty to 20th Dynasty (2000-
1090B.C), and there are Several Egyptian medical papyri and the most
important of all are as follows:
-The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus (1820B.C) gynecology
The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus
The medical papyri
24
-The Ebers Papyrus (1534 B.C) where tooth extraction, treatment of mouth
ulcers and treatment of jaw dislocation were dealt with.
-Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1600 B.C) wounds and fractures it also
contains a list of instruments, including lint, swabs, bandage, adhesive plaster
(x-formed), support, surgical stitches and cauterization
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
Part of the The Ebers papyrus
The medical papyri
25
-The Hearst Papyrus (14 50B.C)
-The Erman Papyrus (1550 B.C)
-The London Papyrus (1350B.C)
-The Berlin Papyrus (1350B.C)
-The Chester Papyrus (12000B.C)
Hearst Papyrus London Papyrus Berlin Papyrus
Chester Papyrus
Egyptians medical recipes& interventions
26
1. Eb. 89. 2-3. For fixing a loose tooth. A mixture of crushed seeds, ochre, and honey made
into a paste and applied to the tooth.
2. Eb. 89. 4-6. For toothache. A paste of ground-up vegetable and mineral substances
with honey.
3. Eb. 89. 6-7. For a septic tooth (lit. 'a tooth that gnaws into an opening in the flesh'),the
ingredients are of an astringent nature: cumin, colocynth, and frankincense.
4. Eb. 89. 8-9. For treating the teeth by rinsing in the mouth. In this case two plants are to
be chewed and spat out. The vehicle is sweet ale.
5. Eb. 89. I O - I I . For inflammation of the gums, perhaps stomatitis. The drugs are the
homely date and beans, which are to be exposed to the dew, mixed with milk, and chewed
and spat out, for nine days.
Honey Frankincense
Ochre clays(limonite)
hydrated iron (III) oxideHerbs
Egyptians medical recipes& interventions
27
6. Eb. 89. 11-12. Another for the same. In this case the vehicle is oil and water.
7. Eb. 89. 12-13. A paste for 'making healthy' the teeth. Two vegetable drugs, mandrake
and species of Potentilla, chewed and spat out. The vehicle is sweet ale.
8.Eb. 89. 14-15. For 'eating blood' in a tooth. This idiomatic expression is understood by
Dr. Ebbell to mean 'scurvy'.
Potentilla
Mandragoe
(Mandrake)
colocynth
Dates
Egyptians medical recipes& interventions
28
1. Fixing a loose tooth – mixture of crushed seeds, ochre, and
honey made into a paste and applied to the tooth.
2. Toothache – paste of ground up veggies and minerals with
honey.
3. Septic tooth – cumin, colocynth, and frankincense.
4. Treating the teeth by rinsing the mouth – two plants are
chewed and spat out.
Inflammation of gums – dates and beans, which are exposed to
dew, mixed with milk, and chewed and spat out, for nine days.
5. Making teeth “healthy” – two vegetable drugs, mandrake
and species of Potentilla, chewed and spat out
Beans
Spices
Milk
Egyptians medical recipes& interventions
29
The gold wire is 0.35 m in
diameter, its tubular
construction is demonstrated
by the seam along its length.
Magnification x8 of some of
the fractured ends revealed its
central bore.
Pharaonic dentists were experts with reconstruction
works as there have been three instances of a dental
bridges where one or more lost teeth were
reattached by the use of a gold or silver wire to the
surrounding teeth
Modern science and technology used
30
CT scan of the skull at the level of
the posterior fossa in an excellent
condition of maxillary teeth with no
discernible enamel wear. The right
third molar is partially erupted
indicating that the individual was
young at death
Tooth spaces show open
Magnetic resonance–
based 3-dimensional
reconstruction
The use of Modern science and Technology
31
frontal reconstruction of
dentition damaged mesial
neck of teeth 15 and
27 due to caries (arrows)
Coronal caries on the first
molar is shown (arrow)
The use of Modern science and Technology
32
British Museum
mummies being
scanned
Conclusion
33
Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in various field of
science and knowledge and most probably what we
know about them is just a little of what they had and
more will be known and discovered through
excavations, discoveries, use of technology, etc.,
Great appreciation to our ancestors, makers of
civilization hoping to follow their lead enlighting and
enriching life with useful science.
34

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Dentistry v

  • 2. Index - Introduction -Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization -Egyptian language and its interpretation -Information & data concerning ancient dentistry -Ancient Egyptians dentists - Ancient Egyptians medical tools -Ancient Egyptians dental diseases -The Egyptian medical papyri -Egyptians medical recipes& interventions -The use of Modern science and Technology -Conclusion 2
  • 3. Introduction - Ancient Egyptians were skilled in medicine in different fields known today - The profession of dental physician existed since the early third millennium - Physicians were specialized for specific diseases or organs, some dealt with eye, head and some with teeth or belly etc. -Lioness Sekhmet was believed to bring epidemics and disease. She was also the patroness deity of doctors, other Gods and Goddesses for the diseases, ex., Gods Amun and Horus were responsible for treatment of eye diseases etc., -Imhotep was chief vizier to Zozer, high priest, astrologist, pyramid designer, a physician, the founder of medicine, Egyptianssw believed that he had great healing powers, and considered him as a God of medicine. -Since the 1st dynasty (3150 – 2925 BC), medical institutes called “peri-ankh” or “houses of life” existed as teaching centers, and in those houses medical books and papyri were written and preserved. -A code of ethics was followed, with an oath was made by physicians. In the tomb of Nenkh-Sekhmet, Chief of Physicians in the 5th dynasty, the following sentense is written: “Never did I do anything evil towards any person”. 3
  • 4. Born : c. 484 BC Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor Died : c.425 BC (aged approximately 60) Thurii, Calabria or Pella, Macedon an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum, Turkey) He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, and test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization 4 HERODOTUS, mentioned that 'The practice of medicine in Egypt is so divided among them, that each physician is a healer of one disease and no more. All the country is full of physicians, some of the eye, some of the teeth, some of what pertains to the belly, and some of the hidden diseases
  • 5. Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization 5 In the fifth century B.C. Herodotus remarked on the degree of specialisation he found in Egypt. Most of the known specialist medical titles were carried by a certain Ir-en-akhty except for dentists who carried the separate title ibeh False door of the multi-specialist Ir-en-akhy (10th Dynasty)
  • 6. Egyptian language and its interpretation 6 -Athanasius Kircher German polyhistorian (1602 - 1680) proposed nonsensical allegorical translations (Lingua Aegyptical restituta, 1643). Athanasius KircherDr. Thomas Young -Thomas Young (1773 -1829), the author of the undulatory theory of light, assigned correct phonetical values to five hieroglyphic signs .
  • 7. Egyptian language and its interpretation 7 Jean-Francois Champollion Rosetta Stone -Finding the Rosetta stone was the final decipherment, starting in 1822, by the work of the Frenchman Jean-François Champollion, 1790 - 1832, cf. Précis du système hiéroglyphique des anciens égyptiens par M.Champollion le jeune, 1824. Samples of three different scripts on the Rosetta Stone Top: Heiroglyphs; Middle: Demotic; Bottom: Greek.
  • 8. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 8 Egyptian dentists̕ tomb, at Saqqara, near the step pyramid-oldest in Egypt Hieroglyphic details, including eye and tusk symbols representing dentistry profession chiseled on the entrance of the tomb honoring 3 dentists served the nobility in ancient Egypt-Iy Mry -the chief dentist is pictured on the wall ,thus the swallow, tusk and arrow, meant 'chief dentist and doctor
  • 9. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 9 Modern investigations employ virtually nondestructive techniques to study disease in mummies, members of the Manchester Mummy Project used endoscope to take tissue samples from the mouth of a mummy. Manchester Museum, University of Manchester) Rosalie David unwrapping the female mummy 1770 in 1975
  • 10. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 10
  • 11. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 11 The earliest evidence of ancient dentistry we have is an amazingly detailed dental work on a mummy from ancient Egypt that archaeologists have dated to 2000 BCE. The work shows intricate gold work around the teeth. The two donor teeth had holes drilled into them, wires were strung through the holes and then around the neighboring teeth. ‘El-Quatta Bridge' The World first Dental Bridges mandible of a 4th dynasty mummy (2625 - 2510 BC). with a gold wire bridge
  • 12. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 12 - Examining skeletal and mummified remains from ancient Egypt can provide evidence for the dental health of the ancient Egyptian civilisation where tooth ailments was frequent as some mummies show evidences of severe infections and loose teeth, as people believed that the cause of the decays were ‘worms’. - Egyptian pharaohs were known to have suffered from periodontal (gum) disease, Radiographs of mummies confirm this fact. - The skulls and jaws found in burial shafts and tombs almost all show attrition. Dental Surgery, Jaw of ancient Egyptian showing drill holes used in dental repair. Courtesy of the Gordon Museum Upper jaw of Tao II Seqenenre. The teeth are heavily worn, healthy and tartar free Worn ancient Egyptian teeth showing an abscess drainage hole
  • 13. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 13 Ancient Egyptian mandible c. 1,500 BC. Courtesy of Duckworth Collection, Cambridge University The dental drill dates back 9,000 years ago Attrition
  • 14. Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 14 study of more than 3,000 mummies has revealed a nightmare array of dental diseases. Head of the mummy of Amenhotep III. He had lost some of his front teeth due to alveolar abscesses
  • 15. Ancient Egyptians dentistsAncient Egyptians dentists 15 -The earliest ever record of a physician was Hesy-Ra, 2700 BC, who was "Chief of Dentists and Doctors" to King Djoser. -Merit Ptah (2700 BCE)was an early physician in ancient Egypt. She is most notable for being the first woman known by name in the history of the field of medicine, and possibly the first named woman in all of science as well. Her picture can be seen on a tomb in the necropolis near the step pyramid of Saqqara. Her son, who was a High Priest, described her as "the Chief Physician". -Also Peseshet (2400 BC, 4th dynasty, old kingdom) was known as the supervisor of all female doctors her own stela in the tomb of Akhet-hotep, probably her son, in Giza Hesy-Re, head of dentists
  • 16. Ancient Egyptians dentistsAncient Egyptians dentists 16 Hesy-re, Head of Dentists Old Kingdom, 3rd Dynasty Peseshet Imhotep Merit Ptah
  • 17. Ancient Egyptians medical tools 17 Com Ombo temple Wall of twin temple of Com Ombo temple with surgical instruments carvings and queen in labor on an obstetric chair
  • 18. Ancient Egyptians medical tools (1) knives; (2) drill; (3) saw; (4) forceps or pincers; (5) censer; (6) hooks; (7) bags tied with string; (8, 10) beaked vessel; (11) vase with burning incense; (12) Horus eyes; (13) scales; (14) pot with flowers of Upper and Lower Egypt; (15) pot on pedestal; (16) graduated cubit or papyrus scroll without side knot (or a case holding reed scalpels); (17) shears; (18) spoons. 18 Com Ombo inscription detailing ancient Egyptian medical tools
  • 19. Ancient Egyptians medical tools 19 Wooden tools Bronze tools has basically three functions for which it is Stone tools Copper tools Iron tools
  • 20. Ancient Egyptians dental diseases 20 -Attrition was the most common affection in ancient Egypt, Caused by the coarse diet (which may have lacked minerals and vitamins) and the presence of sand, husks, and sometimes straw in their bread. -Abscesses, inflammation of the gums and jawbone, and tooth loss was also detected. -As well caries ,calculus formation and others root caries on the mandibular right third molar [left] and left first molar [right abscess on mandibular right Molars suffering from attrition
  • 21. Ancient Egyptians dental diseases 21 mandibular M2 displays large caries maxillary M3 with a large cavity apical abscess on right maxillary PM2 and antemortem tooth loss Extensive dental wear
  • 22. Ancient Egyptians dental diseases 22 Lower jaw with traces of a periodontal abscess ( the small hole in the bone) Dental wear and impacted . A skull showing severe periodontal disease, antemortem tooth loss, Calculus formation and apical abscesses
  • 23. The medical papyri 23 The first medical texts, date from late 12th Dynasty to 20th Dynasty (2000- 1090B.C), and there are Several Egyptian medical papyri and the most important of all are as follows: -The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus (1820B.C) gynecology The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus
  • 24. The medical papyri 24 -The Ebers Papyrus (1534 B.C) where tooth extraction, treatment of mouth ulcers and treatment of jaw dislocation were dealt with. -Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1600 B.C) wounds and fractures it also contains a list of instruments, including lint, swabs, bandage, adhesive plaster (x-formed), support, surgical stitches and cauterization Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus Part of the The Ebers papyrus
  • 25. The medical papyri 25 -The Hearst Papyrus (14 50B.C) -The Erman Papyrus (1550 B.C) -The London Papyrus (1350B.C) -The Berlin Papyrus (1350B.C) -The Chester Papyrus (12000B.C) Hearst Papyrus London Papyrus Berlin Papyrus Chester Papyrus
  • 26. Egyptians medical recipes& interventions 26 1. Eb. 89. 2-3. For fixing a loose tooth. A mixture of crushed seeds, ochre, and honey made into a paste and applied to the tooth. 2. Eb. 89. 4-6. For toothache. A paste of ground-up vegetable and mineral substances with honey. 3. Eb. 89. 6-7. For a septic tooth (lit. 'a tooth that gnaws into an opening in the flesh'),the ingredients are of an astringent nature: cumin, colocynth, and frankincense. 4. Eb. 89. 8-9. For treating the teeth by rinsing in the mouth. In this case two plants are to be chewed and spat out. The vehicle is sweet ale. 5. Eb. 89. I O - I I . For inflammation of the gums, perhaps stomatitis. The drugs are the homely date and beans, which are to be exposed to the dew, mixed with milk, and chewed and spat out, for nine days. Honey Frankincense Ochre clays(limonite) hydrated iron (III) oxideHerbs
  • 27. Egyptians medical recipes& interventions 27 6. Eb. 89. 11-12. Another for the same. In this case the vehicle is oil and water. 7. Eb. 89. 12-13. A paste for 'making healthy' the teeth. Two vegetable drugs, mandrake and species of Potentilla, chewed and spat out. The vehicle is sweet ale. 8.Eb. 89. 14-15. For 'eating blood' in a tooth. This idiomatic expression is understood by Dr. Ebbell to mean 'scurvy'. Potentilla Mandragoe (Mandrake) colocynth Dates
  • 28. Egyptians medical recipes& interventions 28 1. Fixing a loose tooth – mixture of crushed seeds, ochre, and honey made into a paste and applied to the tooth. 2. Toothache – paste of ground up veggies and minerals with honey. 3. Septic tooth – cumin, colocynth, and frankincense. 4. Treating the teeth by rinsing the mouth – two plants are chewed and spat out. Inflammation of gums – dates and beans, which are exposed to dew, mixed with milk, and chewed and spat out, for nine days. 5. Making teeth “healthy” – two vegetable drugs, mandrake and species of Potentilla, chewed and spat out Beans Spices Milk
  • 29. Egyptians medical recipes& interventions 29 The gold wire is 0.35 m in diameter, its tubular construction is demonstrated by the seam along its length. Magnification x8 of some of the fractured ends revealed its central bore. Pharaonic dentists were experts with reconstruction works as there have been three instances of a dental bridges where one or more lost teeth were reattached by the use of a gold or silver wire to the surrounding teeth
  • 30. Modern science and technology used 30 CT scan of the skull at the level of the posterior fossa in an excellent condition of maxillary teeth with no discernible enamel wear. The right third molar is partially erupted indicating that the individual was young at death Tooth spaces show open Magnetic resonance– based 3-dimensional reconstruction
  • 31. The use of Modern science and Technology 31 frontal reconstruction of dentition damaged mesial neck of teeth 15 and 27 due to caries (arrows) Coronal caries on the first molar is shown (arrow)
  • 32. The use of Modern science and Technology 32 British Museum mummies being scanned
  • 33. Conclusion 33 Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in various field of science and knowledge and most probably what we know about them is just a little of what they had and more will be known and discovered through excavations, discoveries, use of technology, etc., Great appreciation to our ancestors, makers of civilization hoping to follow their lead enlighting and enriching life with useful science.
  • 34. 34