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DBMS :
DBMS :
An Introduction
An Introduction
An Introduction
An Introduction
Karan Kumar Garg
Introduction
A Database is a Collection of related
information stored so that it is available information
stored so that it is available to many uses for different
stored so that it is available to many uses for different
purpose. The content of a database is obtained by
combining data from all the different so user in an
organization.
DEFINITIONS
Data
Data can be defined as a representations of
facts, concepts of instruction in a formalized manner
suitable for communication, interpretation or
processing by human or electronic machine. Data is
represented with the help of characters like.
Alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters
Alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters
(+,-,/,*,<,>,=, etc. )
 Data Item (Field)
A set of character which are used together to
represent a specific data element e.g. name of a
student in a class is represented by the data items,
say, name.
 Record
Record is a collection of related records
e.g. a payroll record for an employee
contains such data fields as name, age,
qualification, Basic, pay, DA, HRA, PF etc.
File (Data File)
File (Data File)
File is collection of related records e.g. a
payroll files might consist of the employee
pay records for a company.
Example : Consider the
Example : Consider the
students files.
students files.
Information
Information is organized or classified data so
that it has some surprise value (meaningful
values) to the receiver. OR
Information is the processed data on which
decisions and actions are based.
For the decision to be meaningful, the
processed data must qualify for the
following characteristics −
 Timely − Information should be available
when required.
 Accuracy − Information should be
accurate.
 Completeness − Information should be
complete.
Data Processing Cycle
Data Processing Cycle
Data processing is the re-structuring or
re-ordering of data by people or machine
to increase their usefulness and add
values for a particular purpose. Data
processing consists of the following basic
steps - input, processing, and output.
steps - input, processing, and output.
These three steps constitute the data
processing cycle.
 Input − In this step, the input data is prepared in
some convenient form for processing. The form will
depend on the processing machine. For example,
when electronic computers are used, the input data
can be recorded on any one of the several types of
input medium, such as magnetic disks, tapes, and so
on.
 Processing − In this step, the input data is
changed to produce data in a more useful form. For
example, pay-checks can be calculated from the
example, pay-checks can be calculated from the
time cards, or a summary of sales for the month
can be calculated from the sales orders.
 Output − At this stage, the result of the
proceeding processing step is collected. The
particular form of the output data depends on the
use of the data. For example, output data may be
pay-checks for employees.
The Need of Information
The Need of Information
 Information is useful for making decisions.
 Information helps managers (or users) in
lowering the level of uncertainties where
they have to make a choice among several
available alternatives.
The information helps the users in tacking
available alternatives.
 The information helps the users in tacking
problems relating to their respective
functional areas.
 Information is used by top managements to
plan the objectives of the organizations and
to access whether the objectives are being
met in practice.
Difference between data and
Difference between data and
information
information

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DBMS INTRODUCTION

  • 1. DBMS : DBMS : An Introduction An Introduction An Introduction An Introduction Karan Kumar Garg
  • 2. Introduction A Database is a Collection of related information stored so that it is available information stored so that it is available to many uses for different stored so that it is available to many uses for different purpose. The content of a database is obtained by combining data from all the different so user in an organization.
  • 3. DEFINITIONS Data Data can be defined as a representations of facts, concepts of instruction in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human or electronic machine. Data is represented with the help of characters like. Alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters Alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters (+,-,/,*,<,>,=, etc. )  Data Item (Field) A set of character which are used together to represent a specific data element e.g. name of a student in a class is represented by the data items, say, name.
  • 4.  Record Record is a collection of related records e.g. a payroll record for an employee contains such data fields as name, age, qualification, Basic, pay, DA, HRA, PF etc. File (Data File) File (Data File) File is collection of related records e.g. a payroll files might consist of the employee pay records for a company.
  • 5. Example : Consider the Example : Consider the students files. students files. Information Information is organized or classified data so that it has some surprise value (meaningful values) to the receiver. OR Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based.
  • 6. For the decision to be meaningful, the processed data must qualify for the following characteristics −  Timely − Information should be available when required.  Accuracy − Information should be accurate.  Completeness − Information should be complete.
  • 7. Data Processing Cycle Data Processing Cycle Data processing is the re-structuring or re-ordering of data by people or machine to increase their usefulness and add values for a particular purpose. Data processing consists of the following basic steps - input, processing, and output. steps - input, processing, and output. These three steps constitute the data processing cycle.
  • 8.  Input − In this step, the input data is prepared in some convenient form for processing. The form will depend on the processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data can be recorded on any one of the several types of input medium, such as magnetic disks, tapes, and so on.  Processing − In this step, the input data is changed to produce data in a more useful form. For example, pay-checks can be calculated from the example, pay-checks can be calculated from the time cards, or a summary of sales for the month can be calculated from the sales orders.  Output − At this stage, the result of the proceeding processing step is collected. The particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data. For example, output data may be pay-checks for employees.
  • 9. The Need of Information The Need of Information  Information is useful for making decisions.  Information helps managers (or users) in lowering the level of uncertainties where they have to make a choice among several available alternatives. The information helps the users in tacking available alternatives.  The information helps the users in tacking problems relating to their respective functional areas.  Information is used by top managements to plan the objectives of the organizations and to access whether the objectives are being met in practice.
  • 10. Difference between data and Difference between data and information information