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TRANSPORT ACROSS THE
CELL MEMBRANE
CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE
1
DR.HAMISI MKINDI,MD.
TO DOWNLOAD CONTACT: hermyc@live.com
Cell Membrane
• Structure
• Function
Passive Transport
• Simple Diffusion
• Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
• Primary
• Secondary
Endocytosis and
Phagocytosis
2
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
3
When a cell membrane moves
molecules/ions against gradient
•The process is called active transport.
4
Active Transport divided into
•Primary active transport
•Secondary active transport
5
Primary active transport,
directly uses metabolic
energy for transport
6
In primary active transport the
energy is derived
•Directly from breakdown of ATP or
•NADH at mitochondrial level
7
There are a number types of ATPases
used in primary active transport:
•P-Type ATPase,
•F-ATPase, V-ATPase, and ABC
8
Prominent examples of P-type
ATPases
SODIUM
POTASSIUM PUMP
POTASSIUM
HYDROGEN PUMP
CALCIUM PUMP
9
The Na-K pump is the most important
primary active transporter in animal cells
•It is located in the plasma membrane
•Uses energy of ATP to extrude Na+ and take up K+
•Utilizes about a third of ATP consumed by body
10
The Na+-K+ pump mechanism
•Pumps 3Na+ outward of cell membrane
•Pumps 2K+ from outside to the inside
at the same time
11
12
In animal cells, it is the only primary
active transport process for Na+.
• Also the most important primary active K+
transport mechanism
13
In cells throughout the body, is
responsible for maintaining
• A low [Na+]i and a high [K+]i relative to ECF.
•In most epithelial cells, the Na-K pump is
restricted to the basolateral side of the cell.
14
15
Na-K ATPase PUMP
LUMEN
BASAL
LATERAL
A hallmark of the Na-K pump is that
it is blocked by cardiac glycosides,
•Examples of which are ouabain and digoxin;
•Digoxin is widely used cardiac conditions
16
17
K+ competitively antagonizes the
binding of cardiac glycosides.
• A low [K+] in blood potentiates digitalis
toxicity in patients.
18
19
PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
OF CALCIUM IONS
Most if not all cells have a
primary active transporter at
the plasma membrane that
extrudes Ca2+ from the cell.
20
Calcium ions are normally maintained at
extremely low concentration in the ICF
•This is achieved by two active calcium pumps
•At the cell membrane (PMCA), the other
•Ca++ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
21
22
PLASMA MEMBRANE CALCIUM PUMP
23
Plasma Membrane
Calcium Pump (PMCA)
24
SARCOPLAMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM PUMP
The sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic
reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA)
•Transports two H+ and two Ca2+ ions for
each molecule of ATP hydrolyzed.
25
26
PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
OF HYDROGEN IONS
At two places in the body, primary active
transport of hydrogen ions is important:
•In the gastric glands of the stomach and
•In the renal distal tubule and collecting ducts.
•These segments achieve very high [H+] gradients.
27
There are two major types of
hydrogen ion pumps the:
• H+-ATPase pump (V-ATPase proton pump)
• H+/K+ -ATPase pump (P-Type ATPase)
28
In the parietal cells an
H-K pump extrudes H+
at the apical membrane.
29
PARIETAL CELL
An apical H+ pump also
secretes H+ in renal
intercalated cells.
31
Alpha intercalated cells
have the V-type H+ pumps
•These work independent of K+.
32
33
The main
function of the
H+/K+-ATPase is
to reabsorb K+.
The H+-ATPase
helps reabsorb
filtered HCO3
−
SECONDARY ACTIVE
TRANSOPORT
34
In secondary active transport
the energy is derived from
•A concentration gradient created by
•Active transport of another substance
35
When a large [sodium] gradient is
created by primary active Na+ transport
• Na+ increasingly attempts to enter the cell
• Dragging with it other substances (Symport) OR
• Induce another substance move out (Antiport).
37
38
Secondary active transport can
therefore be divided into
•Co-transport (Symporter)
•Counter-Transport (Antiporter)
39
GLU and many AA are transported into
most cells against concentration gradients
• The mechanism of this is entirely by co-transport
• Na+GLU co-transport is good example of symporter.
40
The carrier protein has
two binding sites one
for Na+ and one for
GLU.
When both Na+ and
GLU become attached,
sodium and glucose are
transported to the
inside of the cell at the
same time
HIGH [Na+]
LOW [Na+]
41
Sodium-GLU co-transport occurs
especially through the epithelial cells
•In intestinal tract and
•The renal tubules of the kidneys
•To promote absorption of these substances
42
Other cotransporters of
secondary active transporters
include the following
43
44
NKCC COTRANSPORTER NCC COTRANSPORTER
Na/HCO3 COTRANSPORTER
177
KCC COTRANSPORTER
In an antiporter two solute species
are pumped in opposite directions:
•Sodium-calcium counter-transport,
•Sodium-hydrogen counter-transport.
46
47
Present in nonepithelial
cells and the basolateral
membranes of epithelia
Extracellular Space Cytosol
48
Na-Ca Exchanger (NCX) Cl-HCO3 Exchanger (AE)
Sodium-Calcium counter-transport occurs
through all, or almost all, cell membranes.
• With sodium ions moving to the interior and
• Calcium ions the exterior bound to same protein
• This is in addition to primary active transport
49
Sodium-Hydrogen counter transport
occurs in several tissues especially.
•In the proximal tubules of the kidneys,
•Sodium ions move from the lumen while
hydrogen ions are secreted into the lumen.
50
51
TUBULAR
LUMEN
INTERSTITIAL
SPACE
In both primary and secondary active
transport
•Transport depends on integral (carrier) proteins,
•In active transport, the carrier protein, imparts
energy to move a substance against gradient.
52
ENDOCYTOSIS
53
Endocytosis is a cellular process in which
substances are brought into the cell.
•The material internalised is surrounded by
•An area of plasma membrane,
•Which then buds off inside the cell.
54
55
Extracellular
Fluid
Very large particles enter the cell by a
specialized function of endocytosis.
•The principal forms of endocytosis are
•pinocytosis and
•phagocytosis.
56
PHAGOCYTOSIS ("CELL
EATING")
• Is the process by which
bacteria, dead tissue,
or other bits of
microscopic material
are engulfed by cells
PINOCYTOSIS ("CELL
DRINKING")
• Is a similar process
with the vesicles much
smaller in size and the
substances ingested
are in solution.
57
SUMMARY
58
The cell is the basic unit of life
•It has a cell membrane; which separates it
•From its surrounding environment
•Made up of a bilayer of phospholipids
59
60
Cell membrane allows
lipid soluble substances
to enter or exit the cell
by simple diffusion
It has proteins that
provide mechanisms for
water and water soluble
substances to enter or
exit the cell
There are two major classes of membrane
transport proteins:
• Channel proteins: provide passage of water/ions
• Carrier Protein; that provide
• Active transport mechanisms
• Passive transport mechanisms
61
Passive carrier proteins facilitate the downhill
transport of substances across membranes.
• An example of a carrier protein that carries out passive
transport is the glucose transporter.
• Allows glucose to enter cells
• Allows glucose to exit liver cells
62
Active transport provides for transport of solutes
against electrochemical gradients. These include
• ATP-driven ion pumps
• Coupled Transporters (secondary active transporters).
• Symport
• Antiport
63
Active transport at the cell membrane
provides
•Maintaining composition and the volume of ICF
•Creating and maintaining membrane potentials
critical for excitable tissues
64
THANK YOU
65

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Day 5a-TRANSPORT ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE (5)b.pptx

  • 1. TRANSPORT ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE 1 DR.HAMISI MKINDI,MD. TO DOWNLOAD CONTACT: hermyc@live.com
  • 2. Cell Membrane • Structure • Function Passive Transport • Simple Diffusion • Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport • Primary • Secondary Endocytosis and Phagocytosis 2
  • 4. When a cell membrane moves molecules/ions against gradient •The process is called active transport. 4
  • 5. Active Transport divided into •Primary active transport •Secondary active transport 5
  • 6. Primary active transport, directly uses metabolic energy for transport 6
  • 7. In primary active transport the energy is derived •Directly from breakdown of ATP or •NADH at mitochondrial level 7
  • 8. There are a number types of ATPases used in primary active transport: •P-Type ATPase, •F-ATPase, V-ATPase, and ABC 8
  • 9. Prominent examples of P-type ATPases SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP POTASSIUM HYDROGEN PUMP CALCIUM PUMP 9
  • 10. The Na-K pump is the most important primary active transporter in animal cells •It is located in the plasma membrane •Uses energy of ATP to extrude Na+ and take up K+ •Utilizes about a third of ATP consumed by body 10
  • 11. The Na+-K+ pump mechanism •Pumps 3Na+ outward of cell membrane •Pumps 2K+ from outside to the inside at the same time 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. In animal cells, it is the only primary active transport process for Na+. • Also the most important primary active K+ transport mechanism 13
  • 14. In cells throughout the body, is responsible for maintaining • A low [Na+]i and a high [K+]i relative to ECF. •In most epithelial cells, the Na-K pump is restricted to the basolateral side of the cell. 14
  • 16. A hallmark of the Na-K pump is that it is blocked by cardiac glycosides, •Examples of which are ouabain and digoxin; •Digoxin is widely used cardiac conditions 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. K+ competitively antagonizes the binding of cardiac glycosides. • A low [K+] in blood potentiates digitalis toxicity in patients. 18
  • 20. Most if not all cells have a primary active transporter at the plasma membrane that extrudes Ca2+ from the cell. 20
  • 21. Calcium ions are normally maintained at extremely low concentration in the ICF •This is achieved by two active calcium pumps •At the cell membrane (PMCA), the other •Ca++ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 21
  • 25. The sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) •Transports two H+ and two Ca2+ ions for each molecule of ATP hydrolyzed. 25
  • 27. At two places in the body, primary active transport of hydrogen ions is important: •In the gastric glands of the stomach and •In the renal distal tubule and collecting ducts. •These segments achieve very high [H+] gradients. 27
  • 28. There are two major types of hydrogen ion pumps the: • H+-ATPase pump (V-ATPase proton pump) • H+/K+ -ATPase pump (P-Type ATPase) 28
  • 29. In the parietal cells an H-K pump extrudes H+ at the apical membrane. 29
  • 31. An apical H+ pump also secretes H+ in renal intercalated cells. 31
  • 32. Alpha intercalated cells have the V-type H+ pumps •These work independent of K+. 32
  • 33. 33 The main function of the H+/K+-ATPase is to reabsorb K+. The H+-ATPase helps reabsorb filtered HCO3 −
  • 35. In secondary active transport the energy is derived from •A concentration gradient created by •Active transport of another substance 35
  • 36.
  • 37. When a large [sodium] gradient is created by primary active Na+ transport • Na+ increasingly attempts to enter the cell • Dragging with it other substances (Symport) OR • Induce another substance move out (Antiport). 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. Secondary active transport can therefore be divided into •Co-transport (Symporter) •Counter-Transport (Antiporter) 39
  • 40. GLU and many AA are transported into most cells against concentration gradients • The mechanism of this is entirely by co-transport • Na+GLU co-transport is good example of symporter. 40
  • 41. The carrier protein has two binding sites one for Na+ and one for GLU. When both Na+ and GLU become attached, sodium and glucose are transported to the inside of the cell at the same time HIGH [Na+] LOW [Na+] 41
  • 42. Sodium-GLU co-transport occurs especially through the epithelial cells •In intestinal tract and •The renal tubules of the kidneys •To promote absorption of these substances 42
  • 43. Other cotransporters of secondary active transporters include the following 43
  • 44. 44 NKCC COTRANSPORTER NCC COTRANSPORTER
  • 46. In an antiporter two solute species are pumped in opposite directions: •Sodium-calcium counter-transport, •Sodium-hydrogen counter-transport. 46
  • 47. 47 Present in nonepithelial cells and the basolateral membranes of epithelia Extracellular Space Cytosol
  • 48. 48 Na-Ca Exchanger (NCX) Cl-HCO3 Exchanger (AE)
  • 49. Sodium-Calcium counter-transport occurs through all, or almost all, cell membranes. • With sodium ions moving to the interior and • Calcium ions the exterior bound to same protein • This is in addition to primary active transport 49
  • 50. Sodium-Hydrogen counter transport occurs in several tissues especially. •In the proximal tubules of the kidneys, •Sodium ions move from the lumen while hydrogen ions are secreted into the lumen. 50
  • 52. In both primary and secondary active transport •Transport depends on integral (carrier) proteins, •In active transport, the carrier protein, imparts energy to move a substance against gradient. 52
  • 54. Endocytosis is a cellular process in which substances are brought into the cell. •The material internalised is surrounded by •An area of plasma membrane, •Which then buds off inside the cell. 54
  • 56. Very large particles enter the cell by a specialized function of endocytosis. •The principal forms of endocytosis are •pinocytosis and •phagocytosis. 56
  • 57. PHAGOCYTOSIS ("CELL EATING") • Is the process by which bacteria, dead tissue, or other bits of microscopic material are engulfed by cells PINOCYTOSIS ("CELL DRINKING") • Is a similar process with the vesicles much smaller in size and the substances ingested are in solution. 57
  • 59. The cell is the basic unit of life •It has a cell membrane; which separates it •From its surrounding environment •Made up of a bilayer of phospholipids 59
  • 60. 60 Cell membrane allows lipid soluble substances to enter or exit the cell by simple diffusion It has proteins that provide mechanisms for water and water soluble substances to enter or exit the cell
  • 61. There are two major classes of membrane transport proteins: • Channel proteins: provide passage of water/ions • Carrier Protein; that provide • Active transport mechanisms • Passive transport mechanisms 61
  • 62. Passive carrier proteins facilitate the downhill transport of substances across membranes. • An example of a carrier protein that carries out passive transport is the glucose transporter. • Allows glucose to enter cells • Allows glucose to exit liver cells 62
  • 63. Active transport provides for transport of solutes against electrochemical gradients. These include • ATP-driven ion pumps • Coupled Transporters (secondary active transporters). • Symport • Antiport 63
  • 64. Active transport at the cell membrane provides •Maintaining composition and the volume of ICF •Creating and maintaining membrane potentials critical for excitable tissues 64

Editor's Notes

  1. The figure in this slide shows a calcium pump and calcium exchanger that keep intracellular calcium concentration low. The Calcium pump exchanges one H+ for one Ca2+ for each molecule of ATP that is hydrolyzed.
  2. The figure shows an IP3 sensitive ligand-gated Ca2+ channel located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interaction of IP3 with its receptor results in passive efflux of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum causing a rapid rise in the free cytoplasmic Ca2+ ion concentration. Dephosphorylation of IP3 terminates the release of Ca2+ and triggers an ATP-fueled Ca2+ pump (SERCA) which moves the Ca2+ back into the endoplasmic reticulum. SERCAs appears to transport a H+ in exchange for a Ca2+ ion.
  3. In the parietal cells of the gastric gland, an H-K pump (HKA) extrudes H+ across the apical membrane into the gland lumen. The H-K pump mediates the active extrusion of H+ and the uptake of K+, all fueled by ATP hydrolysis, probably in the ratio of two H+ ions, two K+ ions, and one ATP molecule.
  4. The slide shows in an alpha intercalated cell the two types of proton pumps the H+-ATPase pump and the H+/K+ -ATPase pump both located in the apical (luminal) membrane.
  5. This figure shows a typical secondary active transport mechanism for glucose. It can move glucose against its own concentration. The primary sodium potassium extrudes sodium ions thus reduces the concentration of sodium within the cell. This creates a concentration gradient along which extracellular sodium can get into the cell. When sodium enters the cell it drags with it a glucose molecule using the energy created by the sodium potassium pump making this secondary active transport