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15/11/16	
   1	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
SEEDS	
  TOOLKIT	
  
MODULE	
  1:	
  
Development	
  of	
  Small-­‐Scale	
  Seed	
  
Enterprises	
  
15/11/16	
   2	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Making	
  your	
  business	
  plan	
  
•  Business	
  plan	
  is	
  a	
  must	
  for	
  any	
  
enterprise	
  
•  An	
  entrepreneur	
  is	
  a	
  person	
  who	
  sets	
  
up,	
  owns	
  and	
  invests	
  in	
  an	
  enterprise	
  
•  A	
  business	
  plan	
  is	
  the	
  primary	
  tool	
  of	
  an	
  
entrepreneur	
  intending	
  to	
  start	
  a	
  small	
  
seed	
  enterprise	
  
15/11/16	
   3	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
What	
  is	
  a	
  business	
  plan?	
  
A	
  document	
  that	
  describes	
  the	
  commercial	
  
objec4ves	
  of	
  the	
  enterprise	
  and	
  answers	
  the	
  
following	
  ques4ons	
  
•  What	
  resources	
  (human,	
  financial	
  etc.)	
  are	
  
needed	
  to	
  achieve	
  the	
  commercial	
  goals	
  of	
  
the	
  business?	
  
•  Where	
  will	
  these	
  resources	
  come	
  from?	
  
•  How	
  will	
  these	
  resources	
  be	
  u4lized?	
  
15/11/16	
   4	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
The	
  business	
  plan	
  is	
  a	
  road	
  map	
  to	
  success	
  
•  It	
  indicates	
  the	
  direc4on	
  to	
  follow	
  –	
  not	
  
necessarily	
  a	
  straight	
  road	
  
•  Check	
  periodically	
  whether	
  you	
  are	
  s4ll	
  
going	
  in	
  the	
  right	
  direc4on:	
  don’t	
  wait	
  
un4l	
  you	
  get	
  lost	
  
•  If	
  you	
  are	
  heading	
  in	
  the	
  wrong	
  direc4on,	
  
take	
  correc4ve	
  ac4on	
  quickly	
  to	
  get	
  back	
  
on	
  track	
  
15/11/16	
   5	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Road	
  map	
  
15/11/16	
   6	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Why	
  do	
  you	
  need	
  a	
  business	
  plan?	
  
•  To	
  show	
  the	
  difference	
  between	
  cash	
  flow	
  and	
  income	
  over	
  
a	
  given	
  period	
  	
  
•  To	
  present	
  the	
  planned	
  opera4ons	
  and	
  their	
  rela4ve	
  costs	
  
•  To	
  show	
  borrowers	
  the	
  worth	
  of	
  your	
  enterprise	
  now	
  and	
  in	
  
the	
  future	
  
•  To	
  assess	
  the	
  business	
  prospects	
  and	
  make	
  any	
  necessary	
  
modifica4ons	
  
•  To	
  provide	
  con4nuous	
  reference	
  and	
  guidance	
  
•  To	
  promote	
  and	
  market	
  your	
  enterprise	
  and	
  its	
  products	
  
•  To	
  demonstrate	
  how	
  you	
  will	
  achieve	
  your	
  business	
  goals	
  
and	
  objec4ves	
  
15/11/16	
   7	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
What	
  should	
  your	
  business	
  plan	
  contain?	
  
Cover	
  page	
  
•  Introduc4on	
  
•  Opera4ng	
  plan	
  
•  Financial	
  plan	
  
•  Marke4ng	
  plan	
  
•  Management	
  plan	
  
•  Conclusion	
  
15/11/16	
   8	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Cover	
  page	
  
Your	
  cover	
  page	
  provides	
  essenJal	
  informaJon:	
  
	
  
•  Name	
  of	
  your	
  enterprise	
  
•  Contact	
  address	
  
•  Telephone	
  number	
  and	
  e-­‐mail	
  address	
  
•  Web	
  site	
  (where	
  applicable)	
  
•  Logo	
  of	
  the	
  enterprise	
  (Make	
  it	
  simple)	
  
•  Business	
  slogan	
  (Keep	
  it	
  short,	
  abrac4ve	
  and	
  
to	
  the	
  point)	
  
•  When	
  was	
  the	
  business	
  plan	
  prepared?	
  (month	
  
and	
  year)	
  
15/11/16	
   9	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Cover	
  page	
  
15/11/16	
   10	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Sample	
  secJons	
  of	
  business	
  plan	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
See	
  toolkit	
  module	
  for	
  details	
  
15/11/16	
   11	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
EXERCISES	
  AND	
  DISCUSSION	
  
15/11/16	
   12	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Planning	
  your	
  seed	
  producJon	
  
•  You	
  have	
  made	
  your	
  business	
  plan	
  
•  You	
  have	
  obtained	
  the	
  necessary	
  funds	
  
•  Next	
  step	
  is	
  deciding	
  your	
  seed	
  
produc4on	
  strategy	
  –	
  e.g.,	
  producing	
  
seed	
  yourself	
  or	
  using	
  contract	
  farmers?	
  	
  
15/11/16	
   13	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Which	
  crops	
  and	
  varieJes	
  	
  
should	
  you	
  produce?	
  
•  Plan	
  produc4on	
  carefully	
  to	
  meet	
  the	
  
needs	
  of	
  farmers	
  
•  Meet	
  with	
  farmers	
  and	
  local	
  traders	
  to	
  
assess	
  the	
  market	
  and	
  determine	
  what	
  
seeds	
  farmers	
  need,	
  can	
  afford	
  and	
  are	
  
willing	
  to	
  pay	
  for	
  
•  Explore	
  other	
  sources	
  of	
  market	
  
informa4on:	
  consult	
  relevant	
  publica4ons	
  
or	
  interview	
  staff	
  of	
  market	
  research	
  
ins4tu4ons	
  
15/11/16	
   14	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
MeeJng	
  with	
  farmers	
  and	
  traders	
  
15/11/16	
   15	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Who	
  should	
  produce	
  the	
  seed?	
  
•  Yourself	
  using	
  hired	
  labour	
  and	
  other	
  
services	
  
•  Group	
  members	
  
•  Contract	
  farmers	
  	
  
	
  
Note	
  that	
  costs	
  are	
  ohen	
  much	
  higher	
  when	
  
you	
  produce	
  your	
  own	
  seed.	
  
	
  
15/11/16	
   16	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Using	
  contract	
  growers	
  
•  Select	
  contract	
  farmers	
  with	
  great	
  care	
  
•  Organize	
  mee4ngs	
  to	
  select	
  the	
  best	
  
farmers	
  	
  
•  Look	
  for	
  trustworthiness,	
  honesty,	
  
experience,	
  knowledge,	
  and	
  willingness	
  
to	
  follow	
  advice	
  
15/11/16	
   17	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
SelecJng	
  a	
  good	
  contract	
  farmer	
  
15/11/16	
   18	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Advantages	
  in	
  using	
  contract	
  farmers	
  
•  An	
  opportunity	
  to	
  increase	
  seed	
  
produc4on	
  if	
  individual	
  landholdings	
  are	
  
small	
  
•  Means	
  of	
  involving	
  other	
  farmers	
  in	
  the	
  
enterprise	
  
•  Permits	
  you	
  to	
  focus	
  on	
  the	
  big	
  picture	
  
such	
  as	
  quality	
  assurance	
  while	
  
contractors	
  deal	
  with	
  day-­‐to-­‐day	
  crop	
  
mabers	
  
15/11/16	
   19	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Risks	
  in	
  dealing	
  with	
  contract	
  farmers	
  
If	
  farmers	
  do	
  not	
  adhere	
  to	
  the	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
  
contract,	
  the	
  enterprise	
  could	
  suffer	
  significant	
  
financial	
  loss.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
15/11/16	
   20	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
Seed	
  produc4on	
  requires	
  addi4onal	
  
specialized	
  ac4vi4es	
  than	
  grain	
  
produc4on	
  
	
  
•  Cropping	
  history:	
  select	
  sites	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  under	
  fallow	
  or	
  under	
  rota4on	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  with	
  other	
  crops.	
  	
  
	
  
15/11/16	
   21	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
•  IsolaJon	
  requirements:	
  especially	
  for	
  
cross-­‐pollinated	
  crops	
  
•  Monitor	
  contract	
  growers	
  to	
  follow	
  best	
  
prac4ces	
  
•  Apply	
  correct	
  seed	
  rate,	
  right	
  levels	
  of	
  
fer4lizer	
  or	
  pes4cide,	
  effec4ve	
  weeding	
  
and	
  irriga4on	
  	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
15/11/16	
   22	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
•  Carry	
  out	
  proper	
  rogueing	
  to	
  remove	
  off-­‐types	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
15/11/16	
   23	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
•  Do	
  proper	
  crop	
  inspec4on	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
15/11/16	
   24	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
•  Harvest	
  the	
  crop	
  at	
  the	
  right	
  4me,	
  taking	
  
care	
  to	
  iden4fy	
  the	
  variety	
  and	
  class	
  of	
  seed	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
15/11/16	
   25	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
•  Choose	
  a	
  clean	
  area	
  for	
  
threshing	
  and	
  use	
  clean	
  
machines	
  or	
  tools	
  in	
  
good	
  working	
  order	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
15/11/16	
   26	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
•  Put	
  the	
  threshed	
  seed	
  in	
  clean	
  unused	
  bags.	
  
Include	
  full	
  details	
  of	
  the	
  seed	
  on	
  the	
  label	
  
•  Maintain	
  the	
  iden4ty	
  of	
  your	
  seed	
  during	
  
transporta4on	
  to	
  the	
  seed-­‐cleaning	
  centre	
  
Ensuring	
  good	
  agricultural	
  pracJces	
  
15/11/16	
   27	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
EXERCISES	
  AND	
  DISCUSSION	
  
15/11/16	
   28	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Cleaning,	
  treaJng,	
  packaging	
  	
  
and	
  storing	
  your	
  seed	
  
•  Cleaning	
  upgrades	
  the	
  	
  physical	
  quality	
  of	
  
your	
  seed	
  
•  Pre-­‐clean	
  your	
  seed	
  on	
  the	
  farm	
  to	
  
remove	
  straw	
  and	
  large	
  stones	
  
•  Put	
  the	
  cleaned	
  raw	
  seed	
  into	
  new	
  bags	
  
bearing	
  details	
  of	
  the	
  crop	
  and	
  variety	
  
15/11/16	
   29	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Labelled	
  raw	
  seed	
  
15/11/16	
   30	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Cleaning	
  and	
  packaging	
  your	
  seed	
  
•  Transport	
  the	
  raw	
  seed	
  to	
  the	
  seed-­‐cleaning	
  centre	
  for	
  
final	
  cleaning	
  
•  Use	
  the	
  processing	
  machine	
  to	
  clean	
  your	
  seed	
  and	
  
make	
  it	
  physically	
  pure	
  by	
  removing	
  all	
  unwanted	
  
materials:	
  seed	
  of	
  other	
  crops,	
  weed	
  seeds,	
  chaff,	
  
stones,	
  broken	
  seeds	
  and	
  shrivelled	
  grains	
  etc	
  
•  Where	
  necessary,	
  use	
  suitable	
  chemical	
  treatment	
  
against	
  seed-­‐borne	
  diseases	
  and	
  pests	
  
•  Place	
  the	
  processed	
  seed	
  in	
  bags,	
  seal	
  them	
  and	
  label	
  
them	
  with	
  full	
  details	
  of	
  the	
  seed.	
  Include	
  the	
  same	
  
informa4on	
  inside	
  each	
  bag	
  for	
  a	
  par4cular	
  seed	
  lot	
  
15/11/16	
   31	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Seed	
  processing	
  
15/11/16	
   32	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
TesJng	
  your	
  seed	
  
Ensure	
  your	
  seed	
  is	
  tested	
  and	
  do	
  not	
  distribute	
  
un4l	
  the	
  test	
  results	
  are	
  made	
  available	
  
15/11/16	
   33	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Storing	
  your	
  seed	
  
Store	
  your	
  seed	
  properly	
  and	
  under	
  good	
  
condi4ons	
  un4l	
  it	
  reaches	
  the	
  farmer	
  for	
  sowing	
  
15/11/16	
   34	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
InspecJng	
  your	
  seed	
  
Inspect	
  seed	
  lots	
  periodically	
  and	
  fumigate	
  
against	
  storage	
  pests	
  when	
  necessary	
  
15/11/16	
   35	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
EXERCISES	
  AND	
  DISCUSSION	
  
15/11/16	
   36	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
TesJng	
  the	
  quality	
  of	
  your	
  seed	
  
•  Collect	
  primary	
  sample	
  in	
  the	
  warehouse	
  
and	
  divided	
  randomly	
  using	
  a	
  sample	
  
divider	
  to	
  obtain	
  a	
  working	
  sample	
  
representa4ve	
  of	
  the	
  seed	
  lot	
  
•  Use	
  the	
  working	
  sample	
  to	
  carry	
  out	
  the	
  
various	
  quality	
  tests	
  in	
  the	
  seed-­‐tes4ng	
  
laboratory	
  
•  Tests	
  normally	
  last	
  up	
  to	
  ten	
  days	
  before	
  
the	
  results	
  are	
  made	
  available	
  
15/11/16	
   37	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Seed	
  laboratory	
  tests	
  
•  Moisture	
  content	
  
•  Physical	
  purity	
  
•  Germina4on	
  
•  Seed	
  health	
  
15/11/16	
   38	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
TesJng	
  for	
  moisture	
  content	
  
Test	
  the	
  seed	
  to	
  
ensure	
  it	
  has	
  the	
  right	
  
moisture	
  content	
  for	
  
good	
  storability	
  
15/11/16	
   39	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
TesJng	
  for	
  physical	
  purity	
  
The	
  seed	
  must	
  be	
  well	
  
cleaned	
  and	
  tested	
  to	
  
ensure	
  it	
  is	
  true-­‐to-­‐type	
  or	
  is	
  
pure	
  seed	
  of	
  the	
  same	
  crop	
  
and	
  variety	
  
15/11/16	
   40	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
TesJng	
  for	
  germinaJon	
  
Check	
  that	
  the	
  seed	
  will	
  germinate	
  and	
  grow	
  
well	
  in	
  the	
  field	
  
15/11/16	
   41	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
TesJng	
  for	
  seed	
  health	
  
Ascertain	
  that	
  the	
  seed	
  you	
  sell	
  is	
  free	
  	
  
from	
  seed-­‐borne	
  diseases	
  
15/11/16	
   42	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Release	
  of	
  test	
  results	
  
•  Normally,	
  seed	
  tes4ng	
  is	
  done	
  by	
  an	
  
external/official	
  laboratory	
  
•  A	
  quality	
  cer4ficate	
  is	
  issued	
  upon	
  
successful	
  comple4on	
  of	
  the	
  tests	
  
15/11/16	
   43	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
Seed	
  cerJficaJon	
  cerJficate	
  
•  The	
  cer4ficate	
  indicates	
  for	
  each	
  lot:	
  
moisture	
  content,	
  physical	
  purity,	
  varietal	
  
purity	
  and	
  health	
  status.	
  
15/11/16	
   44	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
CerJficaJon	
  tags	
  and	
  dispatch	
  
•  The	
  laboratory	
  or	
  agency	
  issues	
  a	
  cer4fica4on	
  tag	
  
to	
  be	
  abached	
  to	
  all	
  seed	
  lots	
  that	
  have	
  passed	
  
the	
  quality	
  tests	
  
•  Once	
  you	
  receive	
  the	
  test	
  results,	
  dispatch	
  for	
  sale	
  
only	
  those	
  lots	
  that	
  have	
  passed	
  the	
  laboratory	
  
tests	
  and	
  have	
  cer4fica4on	
  tags	
  
15/11/16	
   45	
  
FAO/AfricaSeeds	
  Valida4on	
  Workshop	
  
Seeds	
  Toolkit	
  
Abidjan,	
  Côte	
  d’Ivoire	
  
14-­‐18	
  November,	
  2016	
  
EXERCISES	
  AND	
  DISCUSSION	
  

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Day 1 - Module1 - Small scale seed enterprises - Session 2

  • 1. 15/11/16   1   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   SEEDS  TOOLKIT   MODULE  1:   Development  of  Small-­‐Scale  Seed   Enterprises  
  • 2. 15/11/16   2   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Making  your  business  plan   •  Business  plan  is  a  must  for  any   enterprise   •  An  entrepreneur  is  a  person  who  sets   up,  owns  and  invests  in  an  enterprise   •  A  business  plan  is  the  primary  tool  of  an   entrepreneur  intending  to  start  a  small   seed  enterprise  
  • 3. 15/11/16   3   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   What  is  a  business  plan?   A  document  that  describes  the  commercial   objec4ves  of  the  enterprise  and  answers  the   following  ques4ons   •  What  resources  (human,  financial  etc.)  are   needed  to  achieve  the  commercial  goals  of   the  business?   •  Where  will  these  resources  come  from?   •  How  will  these  resources  be  u4lized?  
  • 4. 15/11/16   4   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   The  business  plan  is  a  road  map  to  success   •  It  indicates  the  direc4on  to  follow  –  not   necessarily  a  straight  road   •  Check  periodically  whether  you  are  s4ll   going  in  the  right  direc4on:  don’t  wait   un4l  you  get  lost   •  If  you  are  heading  in  the  wrong  direc4on,   take  correc4ve  ac4on  quickly  to  get  back   on  track  
  • 5. 15/11/16   5   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Road  map  
  • 6. 15/11/16   6   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Why  do  you  need  a  business  plan?   •  To  show  the  difference  between  cash  flow  and  income  over   a  given  period     •  To  present  the  planned  opera4ons  and  their  rela4ve  costs   •  To  show  borrowers  the  worth  of  your  enterprise  now  and  in   the  future   •  To  assess  the  business  prospects  and  make  any  necessary   modifica4ons   •  To  provide  con4nuous  reference  and  guidance   •  To  promote  and  market  your  enterprise  and  its  products   •  To  demonstrate  how  you  will  achieve  your  business  goals   and  objec4ves  
  • 7. 15/11/16   7   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   What  should  your  business  plan  contain?   Cover  page   •  Introduc4on   •  Opera4ng  plan   •  Financial  plan   •  Marke4ng  plan   •  Management  plan   •  Conclusion  
  • 8. 15/11/16   8   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Cover  page   Your  cover  page  provides  essenJal  informaJon:     •  Name  of  your  enterprise   •  Contact  address   •  Telephone  number  and  e-­‐mail  address   •  Web  site  (where  applicable)   •  Logo  of  the  enterprise  (Make  it  simple)   •  Business  slogan  (Keep  it  short,  abrac4ve  and   to  the  point)   •  When  was  the  business  plan  prepared?  (month   and  year)  
  • 9. 15/11/16   9   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Cover  page  
  • 10. 15/11/16   10   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Sample  secJons  of  business  plan         See  toolkit  module  for  details  
  • 11. 15/11/16   11   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   EXERCISES  AND  DISCUSSION  
  • 12. 15/11/16   12   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Planning  your  seed  producJon   •  You  have  made  your  business  plan   •  You  have  obtained  the  necessary  funds   •  Next  step  is  deciding  your  seed   produc4on  strategy  –  e.g.,  producing   seed  yourself  or  using  contract  farmers?    
  • 13. 15/11/16   13   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Which  crops  and  varieJes     should  you  produce?   •  Plan  produc4on  carefully  to  meet  the   needs  of  farmers   •  Meet  with  farmers  and  local  traders  to   assess  the  market  and  determine  what   seeds  farmers  need,  can  afford  and  are   willing  to  pay  for   •  Explore  other  sources  of  market   informa4on:  consult  relevant  publica4ons   or  interview  staff  of  market  research   ins4tu4ons  
  • 14. 15/11/16   14   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   MeeJng  with  farmers  and  traders  
  • 15. 15/11/16   15   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Who  should  produce  the  seed?   •  Yourself  using  hired  labour  and  other   services   •  Group  members   •  Contract  farmers       Note  that  costs  are  ohen  much  higher  when   you  produce  your  own  seed.    
  • 16. 15/11/16   16   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Using  contract  growers   •  Select  contract  farmers  with  great  care   •  Organize  mee4ngs  to  select  the  best   farmers     •  Look  for  trustworthiness,  honesty,   experience,  knowledge,  and  willingness   to  follow  advice  
  • 17. 15/11/16   17   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   SelecJng  a  good  contract  farmer  
  • 18. 15/11/16   18   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Advantages  in  using  contract  farmers   •  An  opportunity  to  increase  seed   produc4on  if  individual  landholdings  are   small   •  Means  of  involving  other  farmers  in  the   enterprise   •  Permits  you  to  focus  on  the  big  picture   such  as  quality  assurance  while   contractors  deal  with  day-­‐to-­‐day  crop   mabers  
  • 19. 15/11/16   19   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Risks  in  dealing  with  contract  farmers   If  farmers  do  not  adhere  to  the  terms  of  the   contract,  the  enterprise  could  suffer  significant   financial  loss.        
  • 20. 15/11/16   20   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces   Seed  produc4on  requires  addi4onal   specialized  ac4vi4es  than  grain   produc4on     •  Cropping  history:  select  sites            under  fallow  or  under  rota4on            with  other  crops.      
  • 21. 15/11/16   21   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   •  IsolaJon  requirements:  especially  for   cross-­‐pollinated  crops   •  Monitor  contract  growers  to  follow  best   prac4ces   •  Apply  correct  seed  rate,  right  levels  of   fer4lizer  or  pes4cide,  effec4ve  weeding   and  irriga4on     Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces  
  • 22. 15/11/16   22   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   •  Carry  out  proper  rogueing  to  remove  off-­‐types   Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces  
  • 23. 15/11/16   23   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   •  Do  proper  crop  inspec4on   Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces  
  • 24. 15/11/16   24   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   •  Harvest  the  crop  at  the  right  4me,  taking   care  to  iden4fy  the  variety  and  class  of  seed   Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces  
  • 25. 15/11/16   25   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   •  Choose  a  clean  area  for   threshing  and  use  clean   machines  or  tools  in   good  working  order   Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces  
  • 26. 15/11/16   26   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   •  Put  the  threshed  seed  in  clean  unused  bags.   Include  full  details  of  the  seed  on  the  label   •  Maintain  the  iden4ty  of  your  seed  during   transporta4on  to  the  seed-­‐cleaning  centre   Ensuring  good  agricultural  pracJces  
  • 27. 15/11/16   27   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   EXERCISES  AND  DISCUSSION  
  • 28. 15/11/16   28   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Cleaning,  treaJng,  packaging     and  storing  your  seed   •  Cleaning  upgrades  the    physical  quality  of   your  seed   •  Pre-­‐clean  your  seed  on  the  farm  to   remove  straw  and  large  stones   •  Put  the  cleaned  raw  seed  into  new  bags   bearing  details  of  the  crop  and  variety  
  • 29. 15/11/16   29   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Labelled  raw  seed  
  • 30. 15/11/16   30   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Cleaning  and  packaging  your  seed   •  Transport  the  raw  seed  to  the  seed-­‐cleaning  centre  for   final  cleaning   •  Use  the  processing  machine  to  clean  your  seed  and   make  it  physically  pure  by  removing  all  unwanted   materials:  seed  of  other  crops,  weed  seeds,  chaff,   stones,  broken  seeds  and  shrivelled  grains  etc   •  Where  necessary,  use  suitable  chemical  treatment   against  seed-­‐borne  diseases  and  pests   •  Place  the  processed  seed  in  bags,  seal  them  and  label   them  with  full  details  of  the  seed.  Include  the  same   informa4on  inside  each  bag  for  a  par4cular  seed  lot  
  • 31. 15/11/16   31   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Seed  processing  
  • 32. 15/11/16   32   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   TesJng  your  seed   Ensure  your  seed  is  tested  and  do  not  distribute   un4l  the  test  results  are  made  available  
  • 33. 15/11/16   33   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Storing  your  seed   Store  your  seed  properly  and  under  good   condi4ons  un4l  it  reaches  the  farmer  for  sowing  
  • 34. 15/11/16   34   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   InspecJng  your  seed   Inspect  seed  lots  periodically  and  fumigate   against  storage  pests  when  necessary  
  • 35. 15/11/16   35   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   EXERCISES  AND  DISCUSSION  
  • 36. 15/11/16   36   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   TesJng  the  quality  of  your  seed   •  Collect  primary  sample  in  the  warehouse   and  divided  randomly  using  a  sample   divider  to  obtain  a  working  sample   representa4ve  of  the  seed  lot   •  Use  the  working  sample  to  carry  out  the   various  quality  tests  in  the  seed-­‐tes4ng   laboratory   •  Tests  normally  last  up  to  ten  days  before   the  results  are  made  available  
  • 37. 15/11/16   37   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Seed  laboratory  tests   •  Moisture  content   •  Physical  purity   •  Germina4on   •  Seed  health  
  • 38. 15/11/16   38   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   TesJng  for  moisture  content   Test  the  seed  to   ensure  it  has  the  right   moisture  content  for   good  storability  
  • 39. 15/11/16   39   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   TesJng  for  physical  purity   The  seed  must  be  well   cleaned  and  tested  to   ensure  it  is  true-­‐to-­‐type  or  is   pure  seed  of  the  same  crop   and  variety  
  • 40. 15/11/16   40   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   TesJng  for  germinaJon   Check  that  the  seed  will  germinate  and  grow   well  in  the  field  
  • 41. 15/11/16   41   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   TesJng  for  seed  health   Ascertain  that  the  seed  you  sell  is  free     from  seed-­‐borne  diseases  
  • 42. 15/11/16   42   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Release  of  test  results   •  Normally,  seed  tes4ng  is  done  by  an   external/official  laboratory   •  A  quality  cer4ficate  is  issued  upon   successful  comple4on  of  the  tests  
  • 43. 15/11/16   43   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   Seed  cerJficaJon  cerJficate   •  The  cer4ficate  indicates  for  each  lot:   moisture  content,  physical  purity,  varietal   purity  and  health  status.  
  • 44. 15/11/16   44   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   CerJficaJon  tags  and  dispatch   •  The  laboratory  or  agency  issues  a  cer4fica4on  tag   to  be  abached  to  all  seed  lots  that  have  passed   the  quality  tests   •  Once  you  receive  the  test  results,  dispatch  for  sale   only  those  lots  that  have  passed  the  laboratory   tests  and  have  cer4fica4on  tags  
  • 45. 15/11/16   45   FAO/AfricaSeeds  Valida4on  Workshop   Seeds  Toolkit   Abidjan,  Côte  d’Ivoire   14-­‐18  November,  2016   EXERCISES  AND  DISCUSSION