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Day 1
Contact info:
Cell #: 09328798303
Email: ejvcreyes@gmail.com
Please introduce yourself first before you
contact me.
 Attendance is a must.
 You may talk to anyone as long as you do
not disturb the discussion or anyone willing
to listen.
 Recit = merits
 Questions asked to me that are considered
to be helpful in discussion may be given
merits.
 10 demerits for insolence & non-submission
 Kupal rule: always be ready for quizzes
every meeting
 Quizzes
 HW & SW
 Final exam
 Class participation
30%
25%
35%
10%
100%
Bio
›Life
Logy
›Gr.
›“Logos”
= study of
Day 1
Characteristics of Life
Themes in the study of
Biology
Levels of Organization
Emergent properties
Ecology
Ecological Succession
Ecological Niche
Types of biomes
Flow of energy
Human Impact
Population Dynamics
Characteristics
Factors that limit a
population
Human populations
Evolution
Early Theories of Evolution
Early and Moderns
Evidences of Evolution
Mutation
Day 1
 Made up of cells
 The ability to perpetuate
DNA(
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine
RNA:
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Uracil
Day 1
 DNA – carrier
 RNA – messenger
 DNA is self-replicating which is efficient
for survival
 5C simple sugar
 N-bases
 Phosphate -> PO4
 DNA and RNA
Day 1
Day 1
 Grow – increase size and/or number of
cells
 Develop –changes from early stages to
the mature stages
5. Metabolism – sum total of all chemical
reactions
6. Exhibit to Irritability – respond to
environment
7. Undergo homeostasis – can maintain
internal balance
8. Adapt and evolve – suited to live in its
particular environment
Day 1
 Every organism’s basic units of structure
and function
 Two main types:
› Prokaryotic ( bacteria, archea)
› Eukaryotic ( Protists, plants, fungi, animals)
 The continuity of life depends on the
inheritance of biological information in
the form of DNA molecules
 Genetic information is encoded in the
nucleotide sequences of DNA
 The world has a hierarchical organization
 Emergent properties – the result of
interactions among components at the
lower level.
 Feed back mechanisms regulate
biological systems.
 Organisms are open systems that
exchange materials and energy with
their surroundings.
 Biologists divided life into 3 domains:
› Bactertia , Archea , Eukarya
 Unity  universal genetic code
› The more related, the more characteristics
they share
 Energy flows from sunlight to producers
 Darwinian theory of natural selection
› Adaptation of populations are through
differential reproductive success of varying
individuals
 Form and function are correlated at all
levels of biological organization
 The process of science includes
observation-based discovery and the
testing of explanations through
hypothesis based inquiry.
 Technology is goal-oriented to the
applications of science.
Day 1
1. Atom
2. Molecule
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ system
6. Organism
7. Population
8. Community
9. Ecosystems
10. Biome
11. Biosphere
Day 1
Day 1
 Biotic – biotic
 Abiotic – abiotic
 Abiotic - biotic
 Portions of the planet in which life exists
› Atmosphere
› Hydrosphere
› Lithosphere
 Self-contained
 Patchy
 Group of ecosystems that have te same
climate and similar dominant
communities
 Not self-contained
 Abiotic  biotic
 Habitat – area where organisms live
 Niche – role in the area
 Each organism has a specific role that
contributes to the ecosystem
 the observed process of change in the
species structure of an ecological
community over time.
 The most efficient and most adapted
organisms become the most adundant
species
 Occurs when there are drastic and
sudden changes in the environment
Day 1
 Pioneer community- the organisms
present that are most suited for this
environment
› Pioneer species
 Climax community – organisms that are
most suited for the present environment
after the change
› Dominant species
 Fundamental rule in ecology stating that
no two organisms can occupy the exact
niche for an indefinite time
 Perinial – long life
 Annual – yearly
 Biannual – every two years
 This the factor that controls what kind of
organisms live in an ecosystem
 Determines the max number of
organisms in an ecosystem
 Take note of the ff terms:
Producer, Primary consumer, secondary
consumer, tertiary consumer,
decomposer
Day 1
 Producers – produces energy storing
molecules
 Consumers – consumes plants and
obtains their energy
 Decomposers – returns organic
molecules to the ground
 Scavengers – consumes carcasses
 Photosynthetic organisms:
plants, algae, bacteria
 Primary productivity – rate at which
organic material is produced.
 Primary productivity determines the
amount of energy available in the
ecosystem
 Feeding positions in a food chain
 These are represented in: food chains,
food webs, and ecological pyramids.
 Food chains – sequence o food and
energy transfer.
› Producer consumer  decomposer
 Food webs – food chains that intersect
and link to each other
 Number pyramid
 Biomass pyramid
 Energy pyramid
Day 1
Day 1
Day 1
 Refered to as how a number of individuals
change over time
 Important for the conservation of
endangered species and management of
life
 Exponential growth is unrealistic
Everything has a limit
Carrying capacity- population size that the
environment can sustain for a long period of
time.
1. Geographic distribution / range
2. Population density
3. Population dispersion
4. Uniformity
5. Random clustering
1. Natality
2. Mortality
3. Number of individuals entering or
leaving an ecosystem
Day 1
 Density-dependent
› Competition
› Predation
› Parasitism
› Disease
 Density-
independent
› Unusual weather
› Natural disasters
› Season cycles
› Human activities
 Water chemistry
 Temperature
 Depth of water
› Light penetration
› Turbidity
› O2 content
 Wind action, water current, microbial action
› Water pressure
 Salinity of aquatic biomes
 Biological Oxygen Demand
 Eutrophication
 Turn over / upwelling
Day 1
Day 1
 Carolus Linnaeus – Nested Hierarchies,
Order of Nature. Classified humans among
primates
 Plato – idealism / essentialism. Its attributes
are essentially determined and made.
 Aristotle – Scala Naturae: Organisms
arrange in increasing complexity
 Judeo Christian culture – Creationism
“ad majorem dei gloriam”natural theology
 Systema Naturae
› KPCOFGS
› Binomial system of Nomenclature
 Genus species
 Thomas Malthus – ecology of human
popuations
 Jean Baptiste Lamarck – Naturalist:
Philosophie Zoologique
› Desire to change, use and disuse, passing of
acquired traits
 Georges Cuvier – catastrophism,
extinctions
 Charles Lyell – uniformitarianism
 James hutton – Graudualism
› Profound change is the cumulative product
of slow but continuous process
 George Mendell – father of modern
genetics
› discrete genes are inherited
 Charles Darwin – naturalist
› Theory of natural selection
 Alfred Russel Wallace
 Francis Crick & James Watson – DNA
› Understood mutations arrive to evolution
 Rosalind Frank – x-ray crytallography
› Structure is correlated with function
Day 1
 “use it or lose it” idea
› reshape their bodies in response to a desire
to change
 Traits were passed onto an offspring
 Contributing idea: populations change
over time in response to their
surroundings
 James Hutton proposed mountains and
other surfaces were gradually changing
 proposed that the earth itself had
internal movements
 Opportunities for change.
 Contribution: Past events must be
explained in terms of today's events.
The earth's history provides ample
geologic time for slow change.
 Farmers believed that they could choose
the plant or animal that had developed
the most number of seeds to become
the most abundant
 May allow rapid changes to species
 Thomas Malthus believed that the human
population would eventually grow larger than the
ability of the environment to sustain it.
 Natural – longer and random
 Artificial – faster and has goals
 Lamarck
› Desire to change
› Use and disuse
› Inheritance of acquired traits
 Darwinian
› Overproduction
› Variation
› Competition
› Survival to reproduce
 Nature selects the characteristics.
 Mutation is random
 Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Nucleic acids
 Lipids (fats, oils, steroids, waxes)
1. List 10 branches of biology. Cite your
sources
2. Cite 5 human impacts on the
environment.
3. Choose a biome you want to live in and
briefly explain why.
4. Give a joke about the previously
discussed topics

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Day 1

  • 2. Contact info: Cell #: 09328798303 Email: ejvcreyes@gmail.com Please introduce yourself first before you contact me.
  • 3.  Attendance is a must.  You may talk to anyone as long as you do not disturb the discussion or anyone willing to listen.  Recit = merits  Questions asked to me that are considered to be helpful in discussion may be given merits.  10 demerits for insolence & non-submission  Kupal rule: always be ready for quizzes every meeting
  • 4.  Quizzes  HW & SW  Final exam  Class participation 30% 25% 35% 10% 100%
  • 7. Characteristics of Life Themes in the study of Biology Levels of Organization Emergent properties Ecology Ecological Succession Ecological Niche Types of biomes Flow of energy Human Impact Population Dynamics Characteristics Factors that limit a population Human populations Evolution Early Theories of Evolution Early and Moderns Evidences of Evolution Mutation
  • 9.  Made up of cells
  • 10.  The ability to perpetuate
  • 13.  DNA – carrier  RNA – messenger  DNA is self-replicating which is efficient for survival
  • 14.  5C simple sugar  N-bases  Phosphate -> PO4  DNA and RNA
  • 17.  Grow – increase size and/or number of cells  Develop –changes from early stages to the mature stages
  • 18. 5. Metabolism – sum total of all chemical reactions 6. Exhibit to Irritability – respond to environment 7. Undergo homeostasis – can maintain internal balance 8. Adapt and evolve – suited to live in its particular environment
  • 20.  Every organism’s basic units of structure and function  Two main types: › Prokaryotic ( bacteria, archea) › Eukaryotic ( Protists, plants, fungi, animals)
  • 21.  The continuity of life depends on the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA molecules  Genetic information is encoded in the nucleotide sequences of DNA
  • 22.  The world has a hierarchical organization  Emergent properties – the result of interactions among components at the lower level.
  • 23.  Feed back mechanisms regulate biological systems.  Organisms are open systems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings.
  • 24.  Biologists divided life into 3 domains: › Bactertia , Archea , Eukarya  Unity  universal genetic code › The more related, the more characteristics they share  Energy flows from sunlight to producers
  • 25.  Darwinian theory of natural selection › Adaptation of populations are through differential reproductive success of varying individuals  Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
  • 26.  The process of science includes observation-based discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis based inquiry.  Technology is goal-oriented to the applications of science.
  • 28. 1. Atom 2. Molecule 3. Tissue 4. Organ 5. Organ system 6. Organism 7. Population 8. Community 9. Ecosystems 10. Biome 11. Biosphere
  • 31.  Biotic – biotic  Abiotic – abiotic  Abiotic - biotic
  • 32.  Portions of the planet in which life exists › Atmosphere › Hydrosphere › Lithosphere  Self-contained  Patchy
  • 33.  Group of ecosystems that have te same climate and similar dominant communities  Not self-contained  Abiotic  biotic
  • 34.  Habitat – area where organisms live  Niche – role in the area
  • 35.  Each organism has a specific role that contributes to the ecosystem
  • 36.  the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.  The most efficient and most adapted organisms become the most adundant species  Occurs when there are drastic and sudden changes in the environment
  • 38.  Pioneer community- the organisms present that are most suited for this environment › Pioneer species  Climax community – organisms that are most suited for the present environment after the change › Dominant species
  • 39.  Fundamental rule in ecology stating that no two organisms can occupy the exact niche for an indefinite time  Perinial – long life  Annual – yearly  Biannual – every two years
  • 40.  This the factor that controls what kind of organisms live in an ecosystem  Determines the max number of organisms in an ecosystem  Take note of the ff terms: Producer, Primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, decomposer
  • 42.  Producers – produces energy storing molecules  Consumers – consumes plants and obtains their energy  Decomposers – returns organic molecules to the ground  Scavengers – consumes carcasses
  • 43.  Photosynthetic organisms: plants, algae, bacteria  Primary productivity – rate at which organic material is produced.  Primary productivity determines the amount of energy available in the ecosystem
  • 44.  Feeding positions in a food chain  These are represented in: food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids.
  • 45.  Food chains – sequence o food and energy transfer. › Producer consumer  decomposer  Food webs – food chains that intersect and link to each other
  • 46.  Number pyramid  Biomass pyramid  Energy pyramid
  • 50.  Refered to as how a number of individuals change over time  Important for the conservation of endangered species and management of life  Exponential growth is unrealistic Everything has a limit Carrying capacity- population size that the environment can sustain for a long period of time.
  • 51. 1. Geographic distribution / range 2. Population density 3. Population dispersion 4. Uniformity 5. Random clustering
  • 52. 1. Natality 2. Mortality 3. Number of individuals entering or leaving an ecosystem
  • 54.  Density-dependent › Competition › Predation › Parasitism › Disease  Density- independent › Unusual weather › Natural disasters › Season cycles › Human activities
  • 55.  Water chemistry  Temperature  Depth of water › Light penetration › Turbidity › O2 content  Wind action, water current, microbial action › Water pressure  Salinity of aquatic biomes  Biological Oxygen Demand  Eutrophication  Turn over / upwelling
  • 58.  Carolus Linnaeus – Nested Hierarchies, Order of Nature. Classified humans among primates  Plato – idealism / essentialism. Its attributes are essentially determined and made.  Aristotle – Scala Naturae: Organisms arrange in increasing complexity  Judeo Christian culture – Creationism “ad majorem dei gloriam”natural theology
  • 59.  Systema Naturae › KPCOFGS › Binomial system of Nomenclature  Genus species  Thomas Malthus – ecology of human popuations  Jean Baptiste Lamarck – Naturalist: Philosophie Zoologique › Desire to change, use and disuse, passing of acquired traits
  • 60.  Georges Cuvier – catastrophism, extinctions  Charles Lyell – uniformitarianism  James hutton – Graudualism › Profound change is the cumulative product of slow but continuous process  George Mendell – father of modern genetics › discrete genes are inherited  Charles Darwin – naturalist › Theory of natural selection  Alfred Russel Wallace
  • 61.  Francis Crick & James Watson – DNA › Understood mutations arrive to evolution  Rosalind Frank – x-ray crytallography › Structure is correlated with function
  • 63.  “use it or lose it” idea › reshape their bodies in response to a desire to change  Traits were passed onto an offspring  Contributing idea: populations change over time in response to their surroundings
  • 64.  James Hutton proposed mountains and other surfaces were gradually changing  proposed that the earth itself had internal movements  Opportunities for change.  Contribution: Past events must be explained in terms of today's events. The earth's history provides ample geologic time for slow change.
  • 65.  Farmers believed that they could choose the plant or animal that had developed the most number of seeds to become the most abundant  May allow rapid changes to species
  • 66.  Thomas Malthus believed that the human population would eventually grow larger than the ability of the environment to sustain it.
  • 67.  Natural – longer and random  Artificial – faster and has goals
  • 68.  Lamarck › Desire to change › Use and disuse › Inheritance of acquired traits  Darwinian › Overproduction › Variation › Competition › Survival to reproduce
  • 69.  Nature selects the characteristics.  Mutation is random
  • 70.  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Nucleic acids  Lipids (fats, oils, steroids, waxes)
  • 71. 1. List 10 branches of biology. Cite your sources 2. Cite 5 human impacts on the environment. 3. Choose a biome you want to live in and briefly explain why. 4. Give a joke about the previously discussed topics